Loewen E.G. Diffraction gratings and applications
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Loewen E.G. Diffraction gratings and applications / Loewen E.G., Popov E. - New York: Dekker, 1997. - 601 p. - (Optical engineering; vol.58). - ISBN 0-8247-9923-2.
 
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From the Series Editor Brian J.Thompson ..................................... v

Preface ................................................................... vii

Chapter 1: A Brief History of Spectral Analysis ............................. 1
   1.1  Work Before the Year 1800 ........................................... 1
   1.2  The Early Work in Gratings .......................................... 2
   1.3  The Beginnings of Spectral Analysis ................................. 3
   1.4  Nobert .............................................................. 5
   1.5  Kirchhoff and Bunsen ................................................ 6
   1.6  Georg Quincke ....................................................... 7
   1.7  Progress in Solar Spectroscopy ...................................... 8
   1.8  The Era of Rowland .................................................. 9
   1.9  Origin of Spectral Lines ........................................... 10
   1.10 The Vacuum UV ...................................................... 10
   1.11 Some Special Effects ............................................... 11
   1.12 Some Historical Aspects of Ruled Gratings .......................... 12
        1.12.1 Blazing and Efficiency ...................................... 12
        1.12.2 Defects of Grating Ruling ................................... 13
   1.13 Spectrographs and Spectrophotometers ............................... 13
        1.13.1 Infrared Spectrometry ....................................... 14
        1.13.2 Raman Spectrometry .......................................... 15
        1.13.3 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry .............................. 16
        1.13.4 Fluorescence Spectrometry ................................... 17
        1.13.5 Colorimetry ................................................. 18
   1.14 Transformation of the Field to the Present Day ..................... 19
   References .............................................................. 19

Chapter 2: Fundamental Properties of Gratings .............................. 25
   2.1  The Grating Equation ............................................... 25
   2.2  Propagating and Evanescent Orders .................................. 28
   2.3  Dispersion ......................................................... 30
   2.4  Free Spectral Range ................................................ 33
   2.5  Passing-Off of Orders .............................................. 33
   2.6  Guided Waves ....................................................... 34
   2.7  Diffraction Efficiency ............................................. 35
        2.7.1 Definition ................................................... 35
        2.7.2 Classical Model of Grating Efficiency ........................ 36
        2.7.3 Reciprocity Theorem and Symmetry with Respect
              to Littrow Mount ............................................. 38
        2.7.4 Perfect Blazing - Does It Really Exist? ...................... 39
   2.8  Resolution ......................................................... 42
   2.9  Mountings .......................................................... 44
   2.10 Some Electromagnetic Characteristics ............................... 47
        2.10.1 Energy Flow (Poynting) Vector ............................... 47
        2.10.2 Electromagnetic Energy Density .............................. 48
   2.11 Two Simple Methods of Determining the Grating Frequency ............ 48
   2.12 Pulse Compression by Diffraction Gratings .......................... 49
   References .............................................................. 53
   Additional Reading ...................................................... 53

Chapter 3: The Types of Diffraction Gratings ............................... 57
   3.1  Introduction ....................................................... 57
   3.2  Amplitude and Phase Gratings ....................................... 58
   3.3  Phase and Relief Gratings .......................................... 59
   3.4  Reflection and Transmission Gratings ............................... 59
   3.5  Symmetrical and Blazed Gratings .................................... 60
   3.6  Ruled, Holographic and Lithographic Gratings ....................... 61
   3.7  Plane and Concave Gratings ......................................... 62
   3.8  Bragg Type and Raman-Nath Type Gratings ............................ 62
   3.9  Waveguide Gratings ................................................. 63
   3.10 Fiber Gratings ..................................................... 64
   3.11 Binary Gratings .................................................... 66
   3.12 Photonic Crystals .................................................. 66
   3.13 Gratings for Special Purposes ...................................... 67
        3.13.1 Filter Gratings ............................................. 67
        3.13.2 Gratings for Electron Microscope and Scanning Microscope
               Calibration ................................................. 67
        3.13.3 Electron Interaction Gratings ............................... 67
        3.13.4 Rocket and Satellite Spectroscopy ........................... 68
        3.13.5 Metrology ................................................... 68
        3.13.6 Synchrotron Monochromators .................................. 68
        3.13.7 X-Ray Gratings .............................................. 68
        3.13.8 Chemical/Biological Monitoring .............................. 68
   3.14 "Good" and "Bad" Gratings .......................................... 69
   References .............................................................. 69

Chapter 4: Efficiency Behavior of Plane Reflection Gratings ................ 71
   4.1  Introduction ....................................................... 71
   4.2  General Rules ...................................................... 74
        4.2.1 Reflection Coatings .......................................... 74
        4.2.2 Scalar Behavior of Reflection Gratings ....................... 75
        4.2.3 Gratings Supporting Only Two Diffraction Orders:
              The Equivalence Rule ......................................... 80
   4.3  Absolute Efficiencies of 1200 gr/mm Aluminum Echelettes ............ 81
        4.3.1 Discussion of Efficiency Behavior of 1200 gr/mm Echelettes ... 81
        4.3.2 Reflection Efficiencies of 1200 gr/mm Echelettes in
              Orders 2, 3 and 4 ............................................ 88
        4.3.3 Effect of A.D. on Peak Efficiency Values and Location
              in Orders Two to Four of 1200 gr/mm Echelettes ............... 88
   4.4  Reflection Efficiencies of Echelettes at High Groove Frequencies
        and the Roles of Aluminum vs. Gold and Silver Coatings ............. 94
   4.5  Effect of Groove Apex Angle on Echelette Efficiency ............... 106
   4.6  Plane Sinusoidal Reflection Grating Behavior ...................... 106
        4.6.1 Absolute Efficiency of Plane 1200 gr/mm Aluminum
              Sinusoidal Gratings ......................................... 108
        4.6.2 Absolute Efficiency of 1200 gr/mm Sinusoidal Reflection
              Gratings in Orders 2 to 4 ................................... 118
        4.6.3 Absolute Efficiency of Aluminum Sinusoidal Gratings at
              Higher Groove Frequencies (1800, 2400, 3600 gr/mm) .......... 118
        4.6.4 Absolute Efficiency of Higher Groove Frequency
              Sinusoidal Gratings with Silver Overcoating ................. 125
        4.6.5 Absolute Efficiency of Higher Groove Frequency
              Sinusoidal Gratings with Gold Overcoating ................... 125
   4.7  The Efficiency Surface ............................................ 125
   4.8  Efficiency Behavior of Very Deep Gratings ......................... 132
   4.9  Efficiency Behavior in Grazing Incidence .......................... 136
   4.10 X-Ray Gratings .................................................... 139
   4.11 Single Wavelength Efficiency Peak in Unpolarized Light ............ 141
   4.12 Conclusions ....................................................... 142
   References ............................................................. 143
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 145
        X-Ray Gratings .................................................... 146

Chapter 5: Transmission Gratings .......................................... 149
   5.1  Introduction ...................................................... 149
   5.2  Transmission Grating Physics ...................................... 150
   5.3  Scalar Transmission Efficiency Behavior ........................... 153
   5.4  Efficiency Behavior of Blazed Transmission Gratings ............... 154
   5.5  Transmission Grating Prisms ....................................... 156
   5.6  Fresnel Lenses and Zone Plates .................................... 158
        5.6.1 Geometrical Properties of Plane Lenses ...................... 159
        5.6.2 Imaging Properties .......................................... 161
        5.6.3 Diffraction Efficiency ...................................... 162
   5.7  Blazed Transmission Gratings as Beam Dividers ..................... 167
   5.8  Trapezoidal Gratings as Beam Splitters ............................ 168
   5.9  Multiple Order Transmission Gratings (Fan-Out Gratings) ........... 172
   5.10 Bragg Transmission Gratings ....................................... 179
   5.11 Transmission Gratings Under Total Internal Reflection ............. 182
   5.12 Zero Order Diffraction (ZOD) Microimages .......................... 184
   5.13 Ronchi Rulings .................................................... 186
   References ............................................................. 188
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 189

Chapter 6: Echelle Gratings ............................................... 191
   6.1 Introduction ....................................................... 191
       6.1.1 History ...................................................... 192
   6.2 Production of Echelles ............................................. 193
   6.3 Physics of Echelles ................................................ 194
       6.3.1 The Grating Equation ......................................... 194
       6.3.2 Angular Dispersion ........................................... 195
       6.3.3 Free Spectral Range .......................................... 196
       6.3.4 Resolution ................................................... 198
       6.3.5 Immersion of Echelles ........................................ 198
             Anamorphic Immersion System .................................. 199
   6.4 Efficiency Behavior of Echelles .................................... 200
       6.4.1 Scalar Model for Efficiency .................................. 202
       6.4.2 Rigorous Electromagetic Efficiency Theory .................... 204
       6.4.3 Efficiency Behavior in High Orders ........................... 205
       6.4.4 Efficiency Behavior in Medium Orders ......................... 211
       6.4.5 Efficiency Behavior in Low Orders ............................ 217
       6.4.6 Confirmation of Theory ....................................... 222
       6.4.7 Efficiency Behavior in Spectrometer Modes .................... 226
       6.4.8 Effects of Severe Groove Shape Disturbance ................... 231
       6.4.9 A Useful Role for Anomalies .................................. 231
   6.5 The Role of Overcoatings ........................................... 232
   6.6 Instrument Design Concepts ......................................... 233
       6.6.1 Choice of Echelle ............................................ 233
       6.6.2 Cross Dispersion: Prisms vs. Gratings ........................ 234
       6.6.3 Examples of Echelle Instruments .............................. 235
             UV Rocket Spectrograph ....................................... 237
             HIRES: High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer .................. 238
             Compact High Resolution Spectrograph ......................... 238
             Ultra-Short Wavelength Satellite Spectrograph ................ 241
   6.7 Maximum Resolution Systems ......................................... 242
       6.7.1 The MEGA Spectrometer ........................................ 243
   6.8 Transmission Echelles .............................................. 245
   6.9 Comparing Echelles with Holographic Gratings ....................... 246
   References ............................................................. 247
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 249

Chapter 7: Concave Gratings ............................................... 253
   7.1 Introduction ....................................................... 253
   7.2 Aberrations in Concave Gratings .................................... 255
       7.2.1 Aberration Function of Concave Gratings ...................... 255
       7.2.2 Aberrations of Concave Diffraction Gratings .................. 259
             Astigmatism .................................................. 261
             Coma ......................................................... 262
             Spherical Aberration ......................................... 263
   7.3 Focal Curves ....................................................... 264
       7.3.1 Definition and Properties .................................... 264
       7.3.2 Types of Focal Curves ........................................ 266
   7.4 Grating Image Deformation Estimation and Optimization:
       Flat-Field Spectrograph and Monochromator .......................... 269
   7.5 Types of Concave Gratings .......................................... 272
       7.5.1 Schemes for Holographic Recording of Concave Gratings ........ 272
       7.5.2 Commercial Types of Concave Gratings and Their Design ........ 276
   7.6 Efficiency Behavior of Concave Gratings ............................ 277
       7.6.1 Efficiency of Holographic Concave Gratings ................... 279
       7.6.2 Blazed Concave Gratings ...................................... 280
   References ............................................................. 280
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 282

Chapter 8: Surface Waves and Grating Anomalies ............................ 285
   8.1 Grating Anomalies .................................................. 285
   8.2 Phenomenological Approach .......................................... 288
       8.2.1 Guided Wave and a Pole of the Scattering Matrix .............. 291
       8.2.2 Pole of the Scattering Matrix and Diffraction Efficiencies ... 292
   8.3 Types of Surface Waves ............................................. 296
   8.4 Influence of Surface Waves on Metallic Grating Properties .......... 297
       8.4.1 Total Absorption of Light by Metallic Gratings ............... 298
       8.4.2 Gratings Supporting Several Orders ........................... 305
   8.5 Resonance Anomalies in Dielectric Overcoated Metallic Grating ...... 306
   8.6 Resonance Anomalies in Corrugated Dielectric Waveguides ............ 310
   8.7 Multilayered Dielectric Gratings ................................... 310
   References ............................................................. 317
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 319

Chapter 9: Waveguide, Fiber, and Acousto-Optic Gratings ................... 323
   9.1  Introduction ...................................................... 323
   9.2  Mode Coupling by Gratings ......................................... 325
        9.2.1 Couple-Mode Approach ........................................ 326
        9.2.2 Types of Mode Coupling ...................................... 328
        9.2.3 Contra-Directional Coupling ................................. 331
   9.3  Distributed Planar Waveguide Grating Laser Mirrors ................ 334
   9.4  Wavelength Demultiplexing in Planar Waveguides .................... 336
   9.5  Input/ Output Waveguide Grating Couplers .......................... 340
   9.6  Photonic Band-Gap in Waveguide Gratings ........................... 345
   9.7  Fiber Grating Physics ............................................. 346
   9.8  Fiber Grating Lasers .............................................. 350
   9.9  Fiber Grating Filters ............................................. 351
   9.10 Fiber Grating Sensors ............................................. 355
   9.11 Mode Conversion by Fiber Gratings ................................. 356
   9.12 Acousto-Optic and Electro-Optic Gratings .......................... 356
   References ............................................................. 360
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 365

Chapter 10: Review of Electromagnetic Theories of Grating Efficiencies .... 367
   10.1  Introduction ..................................................... 367
   10.2  The Physical Problem ............................................. 367
   10.3  The Rayleigh Hypothesis .......................................... 373
   10.4  Scalar Theory .................................................... 375
   10.5  Classical Differential Method .................................... 376
   10.6  Modal Methods .................................................... 379
         10.6.1 The Method of Moharam and Gaylord ......................... 379
         10.6.2 The Classical Modal Method ................................ 380
   10.7  The Integral Method .............................................. 381
   10.8  The Finite-Element Method ........................................ 383
   10.9  The Method of Fictitious Sources ................................. 384
   10.10 The Method of Coordinate Transformation .......................... 387
   10.11 Theory of Waveguide Gratings ..................................... 388
   10.12 Conclusions ...................................................... 391
   References ............................................................. 394
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 395
         Reviews on Theoretical Methods ................................... 395
         General Theoretical Problems ..................................... 396
         Differential Methods ............................................. 396
         Modal Methods .................................................... 396
         Conformal Mapping Methods ........................................ 397
         Transformation of Coordinate System .............................. 327
         Integral Methods ................................................. 397
         Fictitious Sources Methods ....................................... 398
         Rayleigh Methods ................................................. 398
         Yasuura Method ................................................... 399
         Approximate Methods .............................................. 399

Chapter 11: Testing of Gratings ........................................... 401
   11.1 Introduction ...................................................... 401
   11.2 Spectral Purity ................................................... 402
        11.2.1 Effects of Grating Deficiencies on Spectral Purity ......... 402
        11.2.2 Non-Periodic Groove Position Errors ........................ 406
               Random Errors .............................................. 406
               Satellites ................................................. 407
               Roughness Induced Scattering ............................... 409
               Effect of Variations in Groove Depth ....................... 409
        11.2.3 The Measurement of Grating Stray Light ..................... 410
        11.2.4 Locating Stray Light Sources on a Grating Surface .......... 413
   11.3 The Measurement of Efficiency ..................................... 413
        11.3.1 Efficiency Measurement Systems - Plane Gratings ............ 414
        11.3.2 Efficiency Measurement Systems - Concave Gratings .......... 417
        11.3.3 Efficiency Measurement Systems - Echelle Gratings .......... 418
        11.3.4 Checking Blaze Specifications .............................. 420
   11.4 The Measurement of Resolution ..................................... 423
        11.4.1 Testing with the Mercury Spectrum .......................... 425
        11.4.2 The Foucault Knife Edge Test ............................... 426
        11.4.3 Resolution Testing by Wavefront Interferometry ............. 428
   11.5 Testing of Concave Interference Gratings .......................... 432
        11.5.1 Measurement of Imaging Properties .......................... 432
   11.6 Role of Replication ............................................... 434
   11.7 Cosmetics ......................................................... 434
   References ............................................................. 434
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 435

Chapter 12: Instrumental Systems .......................................... 437
   12.1  Introduction ..................................................... 437
   12.2  Terminology ...................................................... 439
   12.3  Classification of Instruments .................................... 439
   12.4  How to Choose a Design ........................................... 441
   12.5  Plane Grating Mounts ............................................. 443
         12.5.1 The Czerny - Turner Mount ................................. 445
         12.5.2 The Ebert - Fastie Mount .................................. 449
         12.5.3 The Monk - Gillison Mount ................................. 451
         12.5.4 Grating Drives ............................................ 452
   12.6  Concave Grating Mounts ........................................... 453
         12.6.1 The Rowland Mounting ...................................... 455
         12.6.2 The Abney Mount ........................................... 455
         12.6.3 The Paschen - Runge Mount ................................. 456
         12.6.4 The Eagle Mount ........................................... 457
         12.6.5 The Wadsworth Mount ....................................... 458
         12.6.6 The Seya - Namioka Mount .................................. 461
         12.6.7 Flat Field Concave Grating Spectrographs .................. 462
         12.6.8 Grazing Incidence Mounts .................................. 463
   12.7  Tandem Monochromators ............................................ 464
   12.8  Imaging Spectrometers ............................................ 466
   12.9  Multiplexing Spectrographs ....................................... 468
   12.10 The Role of Fiber Optics in Spectrographs ........................ 471
   12.11 Laser Tuning ..................................................... 472
   12.12 On Absolute Groove Spacing ....................................... 475
   12.13 Multiple Entrance Apertures ...................................... 476
   References ............................................................. 476
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 480

Chapter 13: Grating Damage and Control .................................... 481
   13.1 Introduction ...................................................... 481
   13.2 Reflection Gratings ............................................... 482
        13.2.1 The Fingerprint Problem .................................... 482
        13.2.2 Vacuum System Residues ..................................... 483
        13.2.3 Laser Beam Damage - CW ..................................... 484
        13.2.4 Laser Damage with Pulsed Lasers ............................ 485
        13.2.5 Dielectric Reflection Gratings ............................. 487
        13.2.6 Synchrotron Grating Applications ........................... 489
   13.3 Transmission Gratings ............................................. 490
        13.3.1 Photoresist Gratings ....................................... 490
        13.3.2 Monolithic Dielectric Gratings ............................. 491
   13.4 Overcoatings ...................................................... 491
   References ............................................................. 492
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 493

Chapter 14: Mechanical Ruling of Gratings ................................. 495
   14.1 Introduction ...................................................... 495
   14.2 History ........................................................... 496
   14.3 Generating Grooves ................................................ 500
        14.3.1 Metallic Ruling Coatings ................................... 505
        14.3.2 Master Blanks for Gratings Ruling .......................... 506
   14.4 Accuracy Requirements ............................................. 507
        14.4.1 Constancy of Spacing ....................................... 507
        14.4.2 Groove Straightness ........................................ 509
        14.4.3 Random Spacing Errors ...................................... 509
        14.4.4 Periodic Errors ............................................ 509
   14.5 Ruling Engine Design Concepts ..................................... 510
        14.5.1 The Mechanical Motions ..................................... 510
        14.5.2 Grating Carriage Drives .................................... 513
        14.5.3 Concepts for Error Reduction ............................... 514
        14.5.4 Interferometer Feedback Control ............................ 515
               Optical Systems ............................................ 516
        14.5.5 Examples of Ruling Engines ................................. 518
               The Michelson Engine ....................................... 518
               The B-Engine ............................................... 521
               The Bartlett - Wildy Engine ................................ 525
               The Hitachi Ruling Engine .................................. 525
        14.5.6 Environmental Factors ...................................... 527
               Temperature Control ........................................ 527
               Vibration Isolation ........................................ 528
   References ............................................................. 528
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 530

Chapter 15: Holographic Gratings Recording ................................ 531
   15.1 Introduction ...................................................... 531
   15.2 Photoresist Layer and Groove Formation ............................ 534
   15.3 Two-Beam Symmetrical Recording .................................... 538
   15.4 Blazing of Holographic Gratings ................................... 542
        15.4.1 Asymmetrical 2-Beam Recording .............................. 542
        15.4.2 Fourier Synthesis (Multiple-Beam Recording) ................ 544
        15.4.3 Blazing Through Ion Etching ................................ 548
        15.4.4 The Practical Result of Blazing ............................ 548
   References ............................................................. 552
   Additional Readings .................................................... 553

Chapter 16: Alternative Methods of Gratings Manufacture ................... 555
   16.1 Introduction ...................................................... 555
   16.2 Tools of Alternative Methods for Generating Gratings .............. 556
   16.3 The Problem of Blazing ............................................ 556
        16.3.1 Blazing With Multiple Mask Lithography ..................... 557
        16.3.2 Blazing by Direct Methods .................................. 559
               The Use of Charged Beams ................................... 559
               The Use of Light Beams ..................................... 562
   16.4 Pattern-Generating Equipment ...................................... 563
   16.5 Single Beam Writing with Surface Waves ............................ 566
   16.6 Photomask Interference Method ..................................... 567
   16.7 Single Beam Writing of Fiber Gratings ............................. 571
   16.8 Grating Etched Inside Planar Waveguide ............................ 572
   16.9 Conclusions ....................................................... 573
   References ............................................................. 573
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 574

Chapter 17: Replication of Gratings ....................................... 577
   17.1 Introduction ...................................................... 577
   17.2 The Basic Grating Replication Process ............................. 577
        17.2.1 The Substrate .............................................. 579
               Choice of Materials ........................................ 579
               Surface Properties ......................................... 580
               Aspheric Replication ....................................... 580
        17.2.2 Replication Resins ......................................... 581
               Thickness of Replica Films ................................. 582
        17.2.3 High Temperature Resistance ................................ 582
        17.2.4 Environmental Resistance ................................... 582
        17.2.5 Transmission Grating Replication ........................... 583
        17.2.6 Overcoatings ............................................... 583
   17.3 Separation of Master and Replica .................................. 584
   17.4 Replication Testing ............................................... 585
   17.5 Multiple Replication .............................................. 585
   17.6 Alternative Replication Methods ................................... 586
        17.6.1 Injection Molding .......................................... 586
        17.6.2 Embossing .................................................. 586
        17.6.3 Soft Replication ........................................... 586
   References ............................................................. 587
   Additional Reading ..................................................... 587

Index ..................................................................... 589


Вверх Loewen E.G. Diffraction gratings and applications / Loewen E.G., Popov E. - New York: Dekker, 1997. - 601 p. - (Optical engineering; vol.58). - ISBN 0-8247-9923-2.

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