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Environmental modelling with GIS and remote sensing / ed. by Skidmore A. - London: Taylor & Francis, 2002. - 268 p. - ISBN 0-415-24170-7.
 
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Preface ................................................................... xi
List of figures ......................................................... xiii
List of tables and boxes ................................................ xvii

 1. Introduction ........................................................... 1
    1.1 The challenge ...................................................... 1
    1.2 Motivation to write this book ...................................... 2
    1.3 What is environmental modelling and how can GIS and remote
        sensing help in environmental modelling ............................ 3
    1.4 Contents of the book ............................................... 6
    1.5 References ......................................................... 7

 2. Taxonomy of environmental models in the spatial sciences ............... 8
    2.1 Introduction ....................................................... 8
    2.2 Taxonomy of models ................................................. 9
    2.3 Models of logic ................................................... 10
        2.3.1 Deductive models ............................................ 10
        2.3.2 Inductive models ............................................ 11
        2.3.3 Discussion .................................................. 14
    2.4 Deterministic models .............................................. 15
        2.4.1 Empirical models ............................................ 15
        2.4.2 Knowledge driven models ..................................... 18
        2.4.3 Process driven models ....................................... 20
    2.5 Stochastic models ................................................. 21
    2.6 Conclusion ........................................................ 23
    2.7 References ........................................................ 23

 3. New environmental remote sensing systems .............................. 26
    3.1 Introduction ...................................................... 26
    3.2 High spatial resolution sensors ................................... 27
        3.2.1 Historical overview ......................................... 27
        3.2.2 Overview sensors ............................................ 28
        3.2.3 IRS-lC and IRS-1D ........................................... 28
        3.2.4 KVR-1000 .................................................... 29
        3.2.5 OrbView-3 ................................................... 29
        3.2.6 Ikonos ...................................................... 29
        3.2.7 QuickBird ................................................... 30
        3.2.8 Eros ........................................................ 30
        3.2.9 Applications and perspectives ............................... 31
    3.3 High spectral resolution satellites ............................... 31
        3.3.1 Historical overview ......................................... 31
        3.3.2 Overview hyperspectral imaging sensors ...................... 33
        3.3.3 Applications and perspectives ............................... 35
    3.4 High temporal resolution satellites ............................... 36
        3.4.1 Low spatial resolution satellite system with high
              revisiting time ............................................. 36
        3.4.2 Medium spatial resolution satellite systems with
              high revisiting time ........................................ 38
    3.5 Radar ............................................................. 41
        3.5.1 Historical overview ......................................... 41
        3.5.2 Overview of sensors ......................................... 43
        3.5.3 Applications and perspectives ............................... 46
    3.6 Other systems ..................................................... 47
        3.6.1 Altimetry ................................................... 47
        3.6.2 Scatterometers/Spectrometers ................................ 47
        3.6.3 Lidar ....................................................... 47
    3.7 Internet sources .................................................. 48
        3.7.1 High spatial resolution satellite systems ................... 48
        3.7.2 High spectral resolution satellite systems .................. 48
        3.7.3 High temporal resolution satellite systems .................. 48
        3.7.4 RADAR satellite systems ..................................... 48
        3.7.5 General sources of information .............................. 49
    3.8 References ........................................................ 49

 4. Geographic data for environmental modelling and assessment ............ 52
    4.1  Introduction ..................................................... 52
    4.2  Land-atmosphere interaction modelling ............................ 54
    4.3  Ecosystems process modelling ..................................... 54
    4.4  Hydrologic modelling ............................................. 55
    4.5  Dynamic biosphere modelling ...................................... 55
    4.6  Data access ...................................................... 56
    4.7  Global databases ................................................. 57
         4.7.1 Multiple-theme global databases ............................ 57
         4.7.2 Heritage global land cover databases ....................... 58
         4.7.3 Global land cover from satellite data ...................... 59
         4.7.4 Topographic data ........................................... 60
         4.7.5 Soils data ................................................. 61
         4.7.6 Global population .......................................... 61
         4.7.7 Satellite data ............................................. 61
    4.8  Sub-global scale databases ....................................... 62
         4.8.1 Regional land cover mapping ................................ 62
         4.8.2 Topographic databases ...................................... 63
         4.8.3 Administrative and census data ............................. 63
         4.8.4 Data clearinghouses ........................................ 64
    4.9  The role of the end-user in the USGS global land cover
         characterization project ......................................... 65
    4.10 Summary .......................................................... 66
    4.11 References ....................................................... 67

 5. The biosphere: a global perspective ................................... 70
    5.1 Introduction ...................................................... 70
    5.2 Historic overview ................................................. 71
    5.3 Landsat based regional studies .................................... 73
        5.3.1 The Large Area Crop Inventory Program ....................... 74
        5.3.2 Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation ............ 75
    5.4 AVHRR based regional and global studies ........................... 76
        5.4.1 Sources of interference ..................................... 76
        5.4.2 Desert margin studies ....................................... 80
        5.4.3 Monitoring Desert Locust habitats ........................... 82
        5.4.4 Land cover classification ................................... 84
        5.4.5 ENSO ........................................................ 86
    5.5 Wild fire detection ............................................... 88
    5.6 Discussion ........................................................ 89
    5.7 References ........................................................ 89

 6. Vegetation mapping and monitoring ..................................... 97
    6.1 Introduction ...................................................... 97
    6.2 Vegetation mapping ................................................ 98
        6.2.1 Historical overview ......................................... 98
        6.2.2 Multispectral data and image classification ................. 99
        6.2.3 Vegetation mapping, ancillary data and GIS ................. 100
        6.2.4 Use of spatial and temporal patterns ....................... 107
        6.2.5 New kinds of imagery ....................................... 109
        6.2.6 Accuracy assessment ........................................ 111
    6.3 Monitoring vegetation change ..................................... 113
        6.3.1 Monitoring vegetation condition and health ................. 113
        6.3.2 Vegetation conversion and change ........................... 115
    6.4 Concluding comments .............................................. 116
    6.5 References ....................................................... 116

 7. Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems
    in wildlife mapping and modelling .................................... 121
    7.1 Introduction ..................................................... 121
    7.2 Wildlife conservation and reserve management ..................... 122
    7.3 Mapping wildlife distribution .................................... 123
    7.4 Mapping wildlife resource requirements ........................... 125
    7.5 Mapping and modelling habitat suitability for wildlife ........... 126
        7.5.1 Habitats and habitat maps .................................. 126
        7.5.2 Mapping suitability for wildlife ........................... 127
        7.5.3 Accuracy of suitability maps ............................... 128
        7.5.4 Factors influencing wildlife distribution .................. 130
    7.6 Modelling species-environment relationships ...................... 131
        7.6.1 Static versus dynamic models ............................... 133
        7.6.2 Transferability of species - environment models ............ 135
    7.7 Innovative mapping of wildlife and its physical environment ...... 135
    7.8 Conclusions ...................................................... 136
    7.9 References ....................................................... 137

 8. Biodiversity mapping and modelling ................................... 145
    8.1 Context .......................................................... 145
    8.2 Definitions ...................................................... 145
    8.3 Key issues ....................................................... 146
    8.4 Mobilizing the data .............................................. 147
        8.4.1 Attribute selection ........................................ 147
        8.4.2 Sampling design ............................................ 148
        8.4.3 Data capture ............................................... 148
        8.4.4 Standards and quality assurance ............................ 149
        8.4.5 Data custodianship and access .............................. 151
        8.4.6 Data mining and harmonization .............................. 152
    8.5 Tools and techniques ............................................. 152
        8.5.1 Database management ........................................ 154
        8.5.2 Geographic information systems ............................. 154
        8.5.3 Distribution mapping tools ................................. 155
        8.5.4 Environmental domain analysis .............................. 157
        8.5.5 Environmental assessment and decision support .............. 158
    8.6 Display and communication ........................................ 159
    8.7 Future developments .............................................. 160
    8.8 References and information resources ............................. 160
    8.9 Tools and technologies ........................................... 163

 9. Approaches to spatially distributed hydrological modelling in a
    GIS environment ...................................................... 166
    9.1 Basic hydrological processes and modelling approaches ............ 166
        9.1.1 The hydrological cycle ..................................... 167
        9.1.2 Modelling approaches ....................................... 172
    9.2 Data for spatially distributed hydrological modelling ............ 173
        9.2.1 Vegetation ................................................. 174
        9.2.2 Modelling vegetation growth ................................ 178
        9.2.3 Topography ................................................. 179
        9.2.4 Soil ....................................................... 181
        9.2.5 Climate .................................................... 182
    9.3 The land surface - atmosphere interface .......................... 184
        9.3.1 Estimation of potential evaporation ........................ 184
        9.3.2 Estimation of actual evaporation and evapotranspiration .... 187
    9.4 The distribution of surface flow in digital elevation models ..... 189
        9.4.1 Estimation of topographic form for ‘undisturbed’ surface
              facets ..................................................... 192
    9.5 Estimation of subsurface flow .................................... 193
        9.5.1 Estimation of subsurface unsaturated flow .................. 194
        9.5.2 Estimation of subsurface saturated flow .................... 195
    9.6 Summary .......................................................... 195
    9.7 References ....................................................... 196

10. Remote sensing and geographic information systems for natural
    disaster management .................................................. 200
    10.1 Introduction .................................................... 200
    10.2 Disaster management ............................................. 206
    10.3 Remote sensing and GIS: tools in disaster management ............ 207
         10.3.1 Introduction ............................................. 207
         10.3.2 Application levels at different scales ................... 208
    10.4 Examples of the use of GIS and remote sensing in hazard
         assessment ...................................................... 210
         10.4.1 Floods ................................................... 210
         10.4.2 Earthquakes .............................................. 212
         10.4.3 Volcanic eruptions ....................................... 215
         10.4.4 Landslides ............................................... 217
         10.4.5 Fires .................................................... 218
         10.4.6 Cyclones ................................................. 219
         10.4.7 Environmental hazards .................................... 220
    10.5 Conclusions ..................................................... 221
    10.6 References ...................................................... 222

11. Land use planning and environmental impact assessment using
    geographic information systems ....................................... 227
    11.1 Introduction .................................................... 227
    11.2 GIS in land use planning activities ............................. 229
    11.3 Sources and types of spatial data sets .......................... 230
         11.3.1 Land topography .......................................... 230
         11.3.2 Soils .................................................... 231
         11.3.3 Land use/cover ........................................... 232
    11.4 Land evaluation methods ......................................... 234
         11.4.1 Conventional approaches .................................. 234
         11.4.2 Quantitative approaches .................................. 236
         11.4.3 Site suitability analysis ................................ 238
         11.4.4 Standard land evaluation systems ......................... 238
    11.5 Land use planning activities at regional and global scales ...... 239
    11.6 Availability and distribution of spatial data sets .............. 242
    11.7 Reliability of GIS-based land use planning results .............. 243
    11.8 Summary and conclusions ......................................... 244
    11.9 References ...................................................... 245

12. Environmental modelling: issues and discussion ....................... 252
    12.1 Introduction .................................................... 252
    12.2 Geo-information related questions in environmental management ... 252
    12.3 Problems raised by the participants ............................. 254
         12.3.1 Data problems ............................................ 254
         12.3.2 Modelling problems ....................................... 255
         12.3.3 GIS and remote sensing technology problems ............... 255
         12.3.4 Expertise problems ....................................... 256
    12.4 Proposed solutions for problems by participants ................. 256
         12.4.1 Data solutions ........................................... 256
         12.4.2 Modelling solutions ...................................... 257
         12.4.3 GIS and RS technology solutions .......................... 257
         12.4.4 Expertise solutions ...................................... 258
         12.4.5 General solutions ........................................ 258
    12.5 Reflection ...................................................... 258
    12.6 References ...................................................... 259

Index .................................................................... 260


Вверх Environmental modelling with GIS and remote sensing / ed. by Skidmore A. - London: Taylor & Francis, 2002. - 268 p. - ISBN 0-415-24170-7.

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