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Eisler R. Biogeochemical, health, and ecotoxicological repspectives on gold and gold mining / Eisler R. - Boca Raton: CRC, 2004. - 376 p. - ISBN 0-8493-2898-5.
 
ОглавлениеСноска

  Part 1 Gold and Gold Compounds ...................... 1

  Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................... 3
  Literature Cited ........................................................... 5

  Chapter 2 Geology, Sources, and Production ................................. 7
  2.1 Geology ................................................................ 8
  2.2 Sources and Production ................................................ 10
      2.2.1 Asia and Environs ............................................... 12
      2.2.2 Canada .......................................................... 12
      2.2.3 Europe .......................................................... 13
      2.2.4 Republic of South Africa (RSA) .................................. 14
      2.2.5 South America ................................................... 14
      2.2.6 United States ................................................... 14
  2.3 Summary ............................................................... 19
  Literature Cited .......................................................... 19

  Chapter 3 Uses ............................................................ 23
  3.1  Jewelry .............................................................. 23
  3.2  Coinage .............................................................. 24
  3.3  Electronics .......................................................... 26
  3.4  Radiogold ............................................................ 26
  3.5  Medicine ............................................................. 28
  3.6  Dentistry ............................................................ 31
  3.7  Delivery Vehicle ..................................................... 32
  3.8  Electron Microscopy .................................................. 32
  3.9  Other ................................................................ 33
  3.10 Summary .............................................................. 33
  Literature Cited .......................................................... 33

  Chapter 4 Properties ...................................................... 39
  4.1 Physical Properties ................................................... 39
  4.2 Chemical Properties ................................................... 41
  4.3 Biochemical Properties ................................................ 43
  4.4 Summary ............................................................... 47
  Literature Cited .......................................................... 48

  Chapter 5 Gold Concentrations in Field Collections ........................ 51
  5.1 Abiotic Materials ..................................................... 51
  5.2 Plants ................................................................ 56
  5.3 Animals ............................................................... 59
  5.4 Summary ............................................................... 60
  Literature Cited .......................................................... 61

  Chapter 6 The Effects of Gold on Plants and Animals ....................... 65
  6.1 Aquatic Organisms ..................................................... 65
      6.1.1 Monovalent Gold ................................................. 65
      6.1.2 Trivalent Gold .................................................. 66
  6.2 Accumulation .......................................................... 67
      6.2.1 Microorganisms, Fungi, and Higher Plants ........................ 68
      6.2.2 Aquatic Macrofauna .............................................. 72
      6.2.3 Animal Fibrous Proteins ......................................... 73
  6.3 Laboratory Mammals .................................................... 73
      6.3.1 Metallic Gold ................................................... 73
      6.3.2 Monovalent Gold: Obese Mouse Model .............................. 74
      6.3.3 Monovalent Gold: Other .......................................... 75
      6.3.4 Trivalent Gold .................................................. 80
  6.4 Summary ............................................................... 81
  Literature Cited .......................................................... 82

  Part 2 Human Health Impacts ........................ 89

  Chapter 7 Health Risks of Gold Miners ..................................... 91
  7.1 Historical Background ................................................. 91
  7.2 Health Risks: Underground Miners ...................................... 93
      7.2.1 Australia ....................................................... 93
      7.2.2 North America ................................................... 94
      7.2.3 South America ................................................... 95
      7.2.4 Europe .......................................................... 96
      7.2.5 Africa .......................................................... 96
  7.3 Health Risks: Surface Miners Who Use Mercury ......................... 100
      7.3.1 Case Histories ................................................. 101
      7.3.2 Mercury in Tissues ............................................. 102
      7.3.3 Mercury in Air and in Fish Diet ................................ 104
  7.4 Summary .............................................................. 105
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 106

  Chapter 8 Human Sensitivity to Gold ...................................... 113
  8.1 History .............................................................. 113
  8.2 Adverse Reactions .................................................... 115
      8.2.1 Suicide Attempt ................................................ 115
      8.2.2 Teratogenicity and Carcinogenicity ............................. 115
      8.2.3 Hypersensitivity ............................................... 115
  8.3 Case Histories ....................................................... 118
      8.3.1 Hypersensitivity ............................................... 118
      8.3.2 Goldschlager Syndrome .......................................... 121
      8.3.3 Prostheses ..................................................... 122
      8.3.4 Protective Effect of Gold Rings ................................ 123
  8.4 Dental Aspects ....................................................... 123
      8.4.1 Allergic Reactions and Sensitization ........................... 123
      8.4.2 Case Histories ................................................. 125
  8.5 Summary .............................................................. 126
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 126


  Chapter 9 Chrysotherapy .................................................. 131
  9.1 History .............................................................. 131
  9.2 Proposed Modes of Action ............................................. 134
      9.2.1  Au+ and Au+ Metabolites ........................................ 135
      9.2.2  Immunomodulatory Activity ..................................... 139
      9.2.3  Tumor Necrosis Factor ......................................... 141
      9.2.4  Bone Resorption ............................................... 142
      9.2.5  Leukocyte Infiltration ........................................ 142
      9.2.6  Lysosomal Enzymes ............................................. 142
      9.2.7  Macrophages ................................................... 143
      9.2.8  Polymorphic Neutrophils ....................................... 143
      9.2.9  Sulfhydryl Binding Sites ...................................... 143
      9.2.10 Superoxide Ion ................................................ 144
      9.2.11 Thioredoxin Reductase ......................................... 144
  9.3 Treatment Regimes, Case Histories, and Adverse Effects ............... 144
      9.3.1  Treatment Regimes ............................................. 145
      9.3.2  Case Histories ................................................ 146
      9.3.3  Adverse Effects ............................................... 148
  9.4 Summary .............................................................. 154
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 155

  Part 3 Effects of Gold Extraction on Ecosystems ... 161

  Chapter 10 Gold Mine Wastes: History, Acid Mine Drainage, and
             Tailings Disposal ............................................. 163
  10.1 Overview ............................................................ 163
       10.1.1 Lode Mining .................................................. 165
       10.1.2 Placer Mining ................................................ 166
  10.2 Acid Mine Drainage .................................................. 168
       10.2.1 Effects ...................................................... 169
       10.2.2 Mitigation ................................................... 170
  10.3 Tailings ............................................................ 172
       10.3.1 Freshwater Disposal .......................................... 172
       10.3.2 Marine Disposal .............................................. 178
       10.3.3 Terrestrial Storage .......................................... 183
  10.4 Waste Rock .......................................................... 183
  10.5 Summary ............................................................. 183
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 184

  Chapter 11 Cyanide Hazards to Plants and Animals from Gold
             Mining and Related Water Issues ............................... 189
  11.1 History of Cyanide Use in Gold Mining ............................... 189
  11.2 Cyanide Hazards ..................................................... 195
       11.2.1 Aquatic Ecosystems ........................................... 195
       11.2.2 Birds ........................................................ 199
       11.2.3 Mammals ...................................................... 201
       11.2.4 Terrestrial Flora ............................................ 203
  11.3 Cyanide Mitigation and Research Needs ............................... 203
  11.4 Water Management Issues ............................................. 206
       11.4.1 Affected Resources ........................................... 207
       11.4.2 Pit Lakes .................................................... 211
  11.5 Water Quality and Management Research Needs ......................... 213
  11.6 Summary ............................................................. 214
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 215

  Chapter 12 Arsenic Hazards from Gold Mining for Humans, Plants,
             and Animals ................................................... 221
  12.1 Arsenic Sources to the Biosphere from Gold Mining ................... 221
  12.2 Arsenic Risks to Human Health ....................................... 223
  12.3 Arsenic Concentrations in Abiotic Materials and Biota near
       Gold Extraction Facilities .......................................... 225
  12.4 Arsenic Effects on Sensitive Species ................................ 230
  12.5 Proposed Arsenic Criteria ........................................... 241
  12.6 Summary ............................................................. 244
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 245

  Chapter 13 Mercury Hazards from Gold Mining for Humans, Plants,
             and Animals ................................................... 251
  13.1 History of Mercury in Gold Mining ................................... 251
  13.2 Ecotoxicological Aspects of Amalgamation ............................ 255
       13.2.1 Brazil ....................................................... 255
       13.2.2 South America Other than Brazil .............................. 265
       13.2.3 Africa ....................................................... 267
       13.2.4 People's Republic of China ................................... 268
       13.2.5 The Philippines .............................................. 268
       13.2.6 Siberia ...................................................... 269
       13.2.7 Canada ....................................................... 269
       13.2.8 The United States ............................................ 270
  13.3 Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mercury ............................. 276
       13.3.1 Aquatic Organisms ............................................ 277
       13.3.2 Birds ........................................................ 281
       13.3.3 Mammals ...................................................... 284
       13.3.4 Other Groups ................................................. 286
  13.4 Proposed Mercury Criteria ........................................... 286
  13.5 Summary ............................................................. 292
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 293

  Chapter 14 Abandoned Underground Gold Mines .............................. 307
  14.1 Habitat for Biota ................................................... 307
  14.2 Land Development .................................................... 309
  14.3 Effects on Water Quality ............................................ 310
  14.4 Science Site Potential .............................................. 312
  14.5 Summary ............................................................. 312
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 312

  Part 4 Mining Legislation, Concluding Remarks,
        and Indices ................................ 315

  Chapter 15 Selected Mining Legislation ................................... 317
  15.1 United States ....................................................... 317
       15.1.1 Federal Laws ................................................. 317
       15.1.2 Mining Public Lands in the Western United States ............. 323
       15.1.3 State Laws ................................................... 327
       15.1.4 Mining Law Reform ............................................ 328
  15.2 Foreign ............................................................. 328
  15.3 Summary ............................................................. 330
  Literature Cited ......................................................... 331

  Chapter 16 Concluding Remarks ............................................ 333

  General Index ............................................................ 337

  Species Index ............................................................ 351


Вверх Eisler R. Biogeochemical, health, and ecotoxicological repspectives on gold and gold mining / Eisler R. - Boca Raton: CRC, 2004. - 376 p. - ISBN 0-8493-2898-5.

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