Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices
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Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices / Takatoh K., Hasegawa M., Koden M., Itoh N., Hasegawa R., Sakamoto M. - London: Taylor & Francis, 2005. - 263 p. - (Liquid crystals book series; vol.5). - ISBN 0-7484-0902-5.
 
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  Preface ................................................................. ix
  Acknowledgements ........................................................ xi
  Notations .............................................................. xvi

1 Overview ................................................................. 1
  KOHKI TAKATOH

  1.1 Development of the LCD Market ........................................ 1
  1.2 Improvement of Viewing Angle Dependence of the Contrast Ratio ........ 2
  1.3 Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals .................. 2
  1.4 Development of Novel Alignment Method ................................ 3
  1.5 The Characteristics of this Book ..................................... 4

2 Rubbing Technologies: Mechanisms and Applications ........................ 7
  MASAKI HASEGAWA

  2.1 Introduction ......................................................... 7
  2.2 Rubbing Mechanisms ................................................... 8
      2.2.1 Observations of rubbed surfaces ................................ 8
      2.2.2 Definition of rubbing strength ................................ 23
      2.2.3 Alignment mechanisms .......................................... 30
      2.2.4 Pretilt mechanisms ............................................ 32
  2.3 Applications ........................................................ 36
      2.3.1 Alignment defects of actual devices ........................... 36
      2.3.2 Characteristics of the rubbing process ........................ 43
      2.3.3 Alignment material ............................................ 47

3 Non-rubbing Methods ..................................................... 55
  3.1 Introduction ........................................................ 55
      MASAKI HASEGAWA

  3.2 Photoalignment ...................................................... 57
      MASAKI HASEGAWA

      3.2.1 Introduction .................................................. 57
      3.2.2 Overview ...................................................... 59
      3.2.3 Photoalignment using polyimide ................................ 65
      3.2.4 Influence of UV light on display device characteristics ....... 70
      3.2.5 Light source .................................................. 72
      3.2.6 Comparison of photoalignment and rubbing ...................... 73
      3.2.7 Current status of photoalignment .............................. 75

  3.3 Oblique Evaporation Method .......................................... 76
      MASANORI SAKAMOTO

      3.3.1 Alignment mechanism ........................................... 76
      3.3.2 Evaporation apparatus ......................................... 78
      3.3.3 Material scientific view point ................................ 78

  3.4 Liquid Crystal Alignment on Microgroove Surfaces .................... 79
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      3.4.1 Liquid crystal alignment on microgroove surfaces .............. 79
      3.4.2 Control of the pretilt direction by a "hybrid cell" ........... 79
      3.4.3 Microgroove surface control of pretilt angle direction ........ 83

  3.5 LB Membranes for the Alignment Layer ................................ 84
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      3.5.1 LB membranes for the alignment layer .......................... 84
      3.5.2 Polyimide LB alignment film ................................... 85
      3.5.3 Structure of polyimide LB films and liquid crystalline
            alignment on the film ......................................... 85

  3.6 PTFE Drawn Films for Alignment Layers ............................... 87
      KOHKI TAKATOH

  3.7 Liquid Crystalline Alignment on Chemically Treated Surfaces ......... 89
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      3.7.1 Addition of surface active agents into liquid crystalline 
            materials ..................................................... 90
      3.7.2 Treatment of the substrate surface by active surface agents ... 90

4 Applications of Nematic Liquid Crystals ................................. 99
  4.1 Summary of Molecular Alignment and Device Applications .............. 99
      RAY HASEGAWA

      4.1.1 Molecular alignment in nematic phases ......................... 99
      4.1.2 Device applications .......................................... 102

  4.2 Twisted Nematic (TN) ............................................... 102
      RAY HASEGAWA

      4.2.1 Basic operation .............................................. 103
      4.2.2 OFF state .................................................... 104
      4.2.3 ON state ..................................................... 105
      4.2.4 Dynamic response ............................................. 105
      4.2.5 Reverse domains .............................................. 106

  4.3 Super Twisted Nematic (STN) ........................................ 106
      NOBUYUKI ITOH

  4.4 The IPS (In-Plane Switching) Mode .................................. 110
      MITSUHIRO KODEN                          

  4.5 Vertical Alignment (VA) Mode and Multi-domain Vertical
      Alignment (MVA) Mode ............................................... 111
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      4.5.1 Vertical alignment (VA) mode ................................. 111
      4.5.2 MVA method (Multi-domain vertical alignment method) .......... 112

  4.6 Pi Cell ............................................................ 117
      MASAKI HASEGAWA

      4.6.1 LC configuration ............................................. 118
      4.6.2 Dynamics ..................................................... 120

  4.7 Multi-domain Mode .................................................. 121
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      4.7.1 Improvement of the viewing angle dependence of TN-LCDs ....... 121
      4.7.2 Mechanism of viewing angle dependence of TN-LCDs ............. 122
      4.7.3 Reduction of the viewing angle dependence by the
            multi-domain mode ............................................ 123
      4.7.4 Formation of two kinds of regions possessing different
            alignment directions in one pixel ............................ 125
      4.7.5 Formation of two kinds of region with different pretilt
            angles in one pixel .......................................... 127

  4.8 Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC) ........................... 132
      RAY HASEGAWA

5 Alignment Phenomena of Smectic Liquid Crystals ......................... 139
  5.1 Layer Structure and Molecular Orientation of Ferroelectric
      Liquid Crystals .................................................... 139
      NOBUYUKI ITOH	

      5.1.1 Introduction ................................................. 139
      5.1.2 Ferroelectric SmC* liquid crystals ........................... 139
      5.1.3 Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (SSFLCs) .... 141
      5.1.4 Smectic layer structure study ................................ 142
      5.1.5 Molecular orientational states and optical properties ........ 149
      5.1.6 Summary ...................................................... 162

  5.2 Alignment and Bistability of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals ......... 163
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      5.2.1 Introduction ................................................. 163
      5.2.2 Driving scheme of SSFLCs ..................................... 163
      5.2.3 FLC materials for excellent alignment and bistability ........ 165
      5.2.4 Polymer crystallinity, linearity and molecular structures .... 166
      5.2.5 Polarity on polymer surfaces ................................. 172
      5.2.6 Rubbing and annealing process ................................ 177
      5.2.7 Electric double layer influence .............................. 179

6 Applications of Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric
  Liquid Crystals ........................................................ 187
  6.1 Molecular Orientations and Display Performance in
      FLC Displays ....................................................... 187
      MITSUHIRO KODEN

      6.1.1 Introduction ................................................. 187
      6.1.2 The DHF mode ................................................. 188
      6.1.3 The bookshelf orientation .................................... 189
      6.1.4 C1-uniform (C1U) orientation ................................. 195
      6.1.5 C2-uniform (C2U) orientation ................................. 197
      6.1.6 Shock stability of FLC displays .............................. 202
      6.1.7 The layer-rotation phenomenon ................................ 206
      6.1.8 Summary ...................................................... 208

  6.2 Alignment and Performance of AFLCD ................................. 209
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      6.2.1 AFLC materials and Devices ................................... 209
      6.2.2 Alignment of AFLC ............................................ 212
      6.2.3 Driving margin hysteresis and threshold properties ........... 216

  6.3 Application of FLC/AFLC Materials to Active matrix Devices ......... 219
      KOHKI TAKATOH

      6.3.1 Introduction ................................................. 219
      6.3.2 Specifications of liquid crystalline materials with 
            spontaneous polarization for TFT driving ..................... 220
      6.3.3 Active matrix driving for FLC or AFLC materials .............. 225

Index .................................................................... 257


Вверх Alignment technologies and applications of liquid crystal devices / Takatoh K., Hasegawa M., Koden M., Itoh N., Hasegawa R., Sakamoto M. - London: Taylor & Francis, 2005. - 263 p. - (Liquid crystals book series; vol.5). - ISBN 0-7484-0902-5.

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