Morgan P. Carbon fibers and their composites
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Morgan P. Carbon fibers and their composites / Morgan P. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2005. - 1153 p. - (Materials engineering; vol.27). - ISBN 0-8247-0983-7.
 
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Chapter 1 Structure of the Carbon Atom ........................................ 1
1.1. Introduction to the Element Carbon, its Isotopes and Allotropes .......... 1
1.2. Structure of Carbon ...................................................... 2
     1.2.1. Structure of the Atom ............................................. 2
     1.2.2. Atomic Spectra and Quantum Theory ................................. 2
     1.2.3. Directional Characteristics of Atomic Orbitals .................... 6
     1.2.4. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals .................................. 7
     1.2.5. Covalence and Molecular Orbitals .................................. 9
References ................................................................... 13

Chapter 2 The Forms of Carbon ................................................ 15
2.1.  The Allotropes of Carbon ............................................... 15
2.2.  The Carbon Phase Diagram ............................................... 16
2.3.  Diamond ................................................................ 17
      2.3.1. Occurrence, Production and Uses of Diamond ...................... 17
             2.3.1.1. Natural diamonds ....................................... 17
             2.3.1.2. High pressure synthetic diamonds ....................... 17
             2.3.1.3. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) .......................... 18
             2.3.1.4. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond ................ 18
             2.3.1.5. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) .............................. 18
      2.3.2. Classification of Diamonds ...................................... 19
      2.3.3. Identification of Diamond ....................................... 19
      2.3.4. The Crystal Structure of Diamond ................................ 19
      2.3.5. The Properties of Diamond ....................................... 20
             2.3.5.1. Density ................................................ 20
             2.3.5.2. Mechanical properties .................................. 22
                      2.3.5.2.1. Hardness .................................... 22
                      2.3.5.2.2. Friction .................................... 22
                      2.3.5.2.3. Elastic properties .......................... 22
                      2.3.5.2.4. Strength .................................... 23
             2.3.5.3. Thermal properties ..................................... 23
             2.3.5.4. Optical properties ..................................... 23
             2.3.5.5. Electrical properties .................................. 23
             2.3.5.6. Graphitization ......................................... 23
             2.3.5.7. Chemical resistance .................................... 23
2.4.  Graphite ............................................................... 24
      2.4.1. Introduction .................................................... 24
      2.4.2. Occurrence, Production and Uses of Graphite ..................... 24
             2.4.2.1. Natural graphite ....................................... 24
             2.4.2.2. Kish graphite .......................................... 24
             2.4.2.3. Synthetic graphite ..................................... 25
      2.4.3. Structure of Graphite ........................................... 27
      2.4.4. The Properties of Graphite ...................................... 31
              2.4.4.1. Density ............................................... 31
              2.4.4.2. Mechanical properties ................................. 32
                       2.4.4.2.1. Elastic properties ......................... 33
              2.4.4.3. Thermal properties .................................... 35
              2.4.4.4. Electrical properties ................................. 35
              2.4.4.5. Chemical resistance ................................... 36
2.5.  Pyrolytic Carbon and Pyrolytic Graphite ................................ 38
2.6.  Glass-like Carbon ...................................................... 41
2.7.  Carbon Fibers .......................................................... 42
2.8.  Graphite Whiskers ...................................................... 42
2.9.  Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF) and Catalytic
      Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CCVD) Filaments .............................. 43
2.10. Other Forms of Carbon .................................................. 44
      2.10.1. Carbon Black ................................................... 44
      2.10.2. Charcoal ....................................................... 45
      2.10.3. Coal ........................................................... 45
      2.10.4. Coke ........................................................... 46
      2.10.5. Soot ........................................................... 46
2.11. New Forms of Carbon .................................................... 46
      2.11.1. Fullerenes ..................................................... 46
              2.11.1.1. Discovery and production of fullerenes ............... 46
              2.11.1.2. Properties and uses of fullerenes .................... 53
      2.11.2. Carbon. Nanotubes .............................................. 56
              2.11.2.1. Discovery and production of carbon nanotubes ......... 56
      2.11.3. Hyperfullerenes ................................................ 59
2.12. Summary of Allotropic Forms of Carbon .................................. 60
References ................................................................... 60

Chapter 3 History and Early Development of Carbon Fibers ..................... 65
3.1. The Early Inventors ..................................................... 65
3.2. Work in the USA ......................................................... 66
     3.2.1. Black "Orion" .................................................... 66
     3.2.2. Some Early US Carbon Fibers ...................................... 67
     3.2.3. More Reent US Carbon Fibers ...................................... 71
3.3. Work in Japan ........................................................... 71
     3.3.1. Early Work in Japan with PAN Precursor ........................... 71
     3.3.2. Work in Japan with Pitch Precursors .............................. 72
3.4. Work in the UK with PAN Precursors ...................................... 72
     3.4.1. Work at RAE, Farnborough ......................................... 72
            3.4.1.1. The RAE work with carbon fiber and cross-licencing
                     of their patent ......................................... 72
            3.4.1.2. Surface treatment ....................................... 78
            3.4.1.3. Testing and properties of single filaments
                     and composites .......................................... 78
            3.4.1.4. Composite fabrication ................................... 79
            3.4.1.5. Friction and wear ....................................... 79
     3.4.2. Work at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell ........ 79
            3.4.2.1. Fiber production ........................................ 79
            3.4.2.2. Surface treatment ....................................... 84
            3.4.2.3. Testing and properties of single filaments
                     and composites .......................................... 84
            3.4.2.4. Carbon fiber reinforced ceramics, glass and cement ...... 86
            3.4.2.5. Carbon fiber reinforced metal composites ................ 87
            3.4.2.6. Composite fabrication and design ........................ 89
     3.4.3. Work at Rolls Royce, Derby ....................................... 89
            3.4.3.1. Fiber production ........................................ 89
            3.4.3.2. Factors affecting tensile strength of carbon fibers ..... 91
            3.4.3.3. Resin formulation and composite fabrication ............. 92
            3.4.3.4. Carbon fiber reinforced metal composites ................ 97
     3.4.4. Work at Morganite Modmor, London ................................. 97
     3.4.5. Work at Courtaulds, Coventry ..................................... 98
            3.4.5.1. Carbon fiber production ................................. 98
            3.4.5.2. Early work with X-ray diffraction to establish
                     structure .............................................. 100
            3.4.5.3. Precursor technology ................................... 101
            3.4.5.4. Oxidation stage ........................................ 103
            3.4.5.5. Surface treatment ...................................... 111
            3.4.5.6. Testing and properties of virgin carbon fiber     
                     and composites ......................................... 112
            3.4.5.7. Production procedures using carbon fiber ............... 112
            3.4.5.8. Use and design of carbon fiber in composite
                     materials .............................................. 113
3.5. Early UK Prepreggers ................................................... 114
     3.5.1. Ciba (ARL) Ltd., Duxford ........................................ 114
     3.5.2. Gourtaulds Ltd., Coventry ....................................... 114
     3.5.3. Fothergill and Harvey Ltd. (F&H), Littleborough ................. 115
     3.5.4. Rotorway Components Ltd., Clevedon .............................. 115
References .................................................................. 115

Chapter 4 Precursors for Carbon Fiber Manufacture ........................... 121
4.1. Introduction ........................................................... 121
4.2. PAN Precursors ......................................................... 121
     4.2.1. History ......................................................... 122
            4.2.1.1. Commercially available PAN fiber ....................... 122
     4.2.2. Requirements for a PAN Precursor ................................ 123
     4.2.3. Homopolymer PAN ................................................. 125
     4.2.4. Comonomers ...................................................... 125
     4.2.5. Methods of Polymerization ....................................... 130
            4.2.5.1. Solution polymerization ................................ 130
            4.2.5.2. Aqueous dispersion polymerization ...................... 134
     4.2.6. Methods of Spinning ............................................. 136
            4.2.6.1. Wet spinning ........................................... 136
            4.2.6.2. Dry spinning ........................................... 136
            4.2.6.3. Air gap spinning ....................................... 136
            4.2.6.4. Melt spinning .......................................... 139
     4.2.7. Processing Stages ............................................... 141
     4.2.8. Modification of Spun Fiber ...................................... 145
            4.2.8.1. Stretching ............................................. 145
            4.2.8.2. Chemical treatment ..................................... 145
     4.2.9. Structure of PAN Fibers ......................................... 146
4.3. Cellulosic Precursors .................................................. 148
     4.3.1. Historical Introduction ......................................... 148
     4.3.2. Viscose Rayon Process ........................................... 150
            4.3.2.1. Introduction ........................................... 150
            4.3.2.2. Steeping stage ......................................... 150
            4.3.2.3. Shredding and ageing stages ............................ 151
            4.3.2.4. Xanthation stage ....................................... 152
            4.3.2.5. Mixing and ripening stages ............................. 152
            4.3.2.6. Spinning stage ......................................... 152
            4.3.2.7. Final treatment stage .................................. 153
     4.3.3. Structure of Rayon Fibers ....................................... 154
4.4. Pitch Precursors ....................................................... 156
     4.4.1. Introduction .................................................... 156
            4.4.1.1. Petroleum pitch ........................................ 157
            4.4.1.2. Coal tar pitch ......................................... 158
     4.4.2. Characterization of the Pitch ................................... 158
     4.4.3. Isotropic Pitches ............................................... 160
     4.4.4. Preparation of Mesophase Pitches ................................ 161
            4.4.4.1. Introduction ........................................... 161
            4.4.4.2. Production of mesophase by pyrolysis ................... 162
            4.4.4.3. Production of mesophase by solvent extraction .......... 164
            4.4.4.4. Production of mesophase by hydrogenation ............... 164
            4.4.4.5. Production of mesophase by catalytic modification ...... 165
     4.4.5. Melt Spinning Mesophase Precursor Fibers ........................ 166
     4.4.6. Structure of Pitch Precursor .................................... 171
4.5. Other Precursors ....................................................... 171
References .................................................................. 175

Chapter 5 Carbon Fiber Production using a PAN Precursor ..................... 185
5.1.  Introduction .......................................................... 185
5.2.  Carbon Fiber Manufacturers ............................................ 185
5.3.  World Supply of PAN based Carbon Fiber ................................ 186
5.4.  Manufacturing Costs of PAN based Carbon Fiber ......................... 187
5.5.  Choice of Precursor ................................................... 191
5.6.  Desirable Attributes of a PAN based Precursor Polymer and
      its Subsequent Production ............................................. 192
5.7.  Types of PAN based Carbon Fiber ....................................... 194
5.8.  A Carbon Fiber Production Line ........................................ 194
      5.8.1.  Precursor Station ............................................. 194
      5.8.2.  Oxidation ..................................................... 195
      5.8.3.  Oxidation Plant ............................................... 196
      5.8.4.  Removal of Effluent Gases Evolved in the Oxidation Process .... 200
      5.8.5.  Oxidized PAN Fiber ............................................ 200
      5.8.6.  Low Temperature Carbonization ................................. 200
      5.8.7.  High Temperature Carbonization ................................ 200
      5.8.8.  High Modulus Fiber Production ................................. 202
      5.8.9.  Shrinkage during the Carbon Fiber Process ..................... 203
      5.8.10. Surface Treatment ............................................. 203
      5.8.11. Sizing ........................................................ 203
      5.8.12. Collection .................................................... 203
5.9.  Fine Structure and Texture of PAN based Carbon Fibers ................. 203
5.10. Aspects of Stabilization .............................................. 215
      5.10.1. Structure of PAN Fibers Thermally Stabilized at 350° C ........ 218
5.11. Aspects of Carbonization .............................................. 221
      5.11.1. Methods of Increasing Fiber Modulus and Effect on Strength .... 225
              5.11.1.1. Hot stretching ...................................... 225
              5.11.1.2. Effects of neutron irradiation ...................... 228
              5.11.1.3. Annealing in the presence of boron .................. 229
      5.11.2. Carbon Fiber Yield ............................................ 230
5.12. Relation of Carbon Fiber Tensile Properties to Process Conditions ..... 230
5.13. Developments .......................................................... 232
      5.13.1. Improvements in Carbon Fiber Properties ....................... 232
      5.13.2. Alternative Polymer Formulations .............................. 232
      5.13.3. A Family of Controlled Resistance Carbon Fibers ............... 233
5.14. A Review of the Stabilization of PAN Precursors ....................... 234
      5.14.1. Stabilization Schemes of PAN and Associated Observations ...... 235
5.15. Mechanisms for the Carbonization Stages of PAN Carbon Fibers .......... 254
References .................................................................. 259

Chapter 6 Carbon Fiber Production using a Cellulosic based Precursor ........ 269
6.1. Introduction ........................................................... 269
6.2. Current Production ..................................................... 272
     6.2.1. Choice of a Suitable Precursor .................................. 272
     6.2.2. Pyrolysis ....................................................... 274
     6.2.3. Carbonization ................................................... 279
     6.2.4. Hot Stretching during Processing of Carbon Fiber ................ 279
     6.2.5. Sizing .......................................................... 280
6.3. Mechanisms for the Pyrolysis and Carbonization Stages of
     Cellulosic based Precursors ............................................ 280
References .................................................................. 292

Chapter 7 Carbon Fiber Production using a Pitch based Precursor ............. 295
7.1. Introduction ........................................................... 295
7.2. Choice of Melt Spun Precursor .......................................... 295
7.3. The Manufacturing Process .............................................. 296
     7.3.1. Stabilization (thermosetting) of Spun Fiber ..................... 296
     7.3.2. Carbonization ................................................... 301
     7.3.3. Graphitization .................................................. 303
     7.3.4. Surface Treatment of Pitch based Carbon Fibers .................. 304
7.4. The Structural Ordering and Morphology of Mesophase Pitch Fibers ....... 305
     7.4.1. Mechanisms Associated with the Preparation of Pitch
            Precursors ...................................................... 309
     7.4.2. Mechanisms Associated with the Stabilization
            of Pitch Fiber Precursors ....................................... 320
     7.4.3. Mechanisms Associated with the Carbonization of Pitch Fibers .... 321
References .................................................................. 322

Chapter 8 Production of Vapor Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF) .................... 325
8.1. Introduction ........................................................... 325
8.2. Preparation of VGCF .................................................... 325
8.3. Growth Process ......................................................... 334
8.4. Mode of Tensile Failure ................................................ 339
8.5. Mechanical Properties .................................................. 339
References .................................................................. 343

Chapter 9 Surface Treatment and Sizing of Carbon Fibers ..................... 347
9.1. Introduction ........................................................... 347
9.2. Oxidative Processes .................................................... 347
     9.2.1. Gas Phase Oxidation ............................................. 348
     9.2.2. Liquid Phase Oxidation .......................................... 350
     9.2.3. Anodic Oxidation ................................................ 352
9.3. Plasma ................................................................. 355
9.4. Non-oxidative Surface Treatment—Whiskerization ......................... 356
9.5. Effect of Surface Treatment on Fiber Properties ........................ 357
     9.5.1. Introduction .................................................... 357
     9.5.2. The Effects of Surface Treatment ................................ 358
     9.5.3. Summary ......................................................... 362
9.6. Coupling Agents ........................................................ 363
9.7. Sizing Carbon Fiber .................................................... 363
     9.7.1. Deposition from Solution of a Polymer onto the Fiber Surface .... 363
     9.7.2. Deposition of a Polymer onto the Fiber Surface by
            Electrodeposition ............................................... 367
     9.7.3. Deposition of a Polymer onto the Fiber
            Surface by Electropolymerization ................................ 369
References .................................................................. 370

Chapter 10 Guidelines for the Design of Equipment for Carbon Fiber Plant .... 377
10.1.  Introduction ......................................................... 377
10.2.  Precursor Handling ................................................... 377
10.3.  Drive Systems ........................................................ 379
10.4.  Ovens for Oxidation .................................................. 380
10.5.  Removal of Effluent Gases Evolved in the Oxidation Process ........... 383
10.6.  Application of an Antistatic Finish .................................. 384
10.7.  Plaiter Table ........................................................ 384
10.8.  LT Carbonization Furnace ............................................. 384
       10.8.1. LT Furnace Gas Seals ......................................... 386
       10.8.2. LT Furnace Insulation ........................................ 387
       10.8.3. Element Materials for LT Furnaces ............................ 388
10.9.  LT Furnace Exhaust Removal ........................................... 392
10.10. HT Carbonization Furnace ............................................. 395
       10.10.1. HT Furnace Gas Seals ........................................ 396
       10.10.2. HT Furnace Insulation ....................................... 396
       10.10.3. Element Materials for HT Furnaces ........................... 397
10.11. Typical Calculations for the Design of an HT Furnace ................. 398
10.12. Sodium Removal ....................................................... 400
10.13. HM Heat Treatment Furnace ............................................ 401
       10.13.1. HM Furnace Gas Seals ........................................ 401
       10.13.2. HM Furnace Insulation ....................................... 402
       10.13.3. HM Furnace Element Design ................................... 402
10.14. Surface Treatment .................................................... 403
10.15. Sizing ............................................................... 404
10.16. Drying ............................................................... 405
10.17. Online Collection .................................................... 409
10.18. Offline Winding ...................................................... 411
10.19. Packaging ............................................................ 415
10.20. Exhaust Systems ...................................................... 415
10.21. Dust Extraction ...................................................... 418
10.22. Application of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) ...................... 420
References .................................................................. 420

Chapter 11 Operation of Carbon Fiber Plant and Safety Aspects ............... 421
11.1.  Introduction ......................................................... 421
11.2.  Serendipity .......................................................... 421
11.3.  Maintenance .......................................................... 423
11.4.  Protecting Electrical Equipment ...................................... 423
11.5.  Air Flow Measurement ................................................. 424
       11.5.1. Measurement of Pressure ...................................... 424
       11.5.2. Determination of Velocity .................................... 424
       11.5.3. Determination of Volume Flow ................................. 429
11.6.  Collimation and Spreading of Oxidized and Carbonized Fiber ........... 433
       11.6.1. Lateral Movement ............................................. 433
       11.6.2. Lateral Expansion or Contraction ............................. 434
11.7.  Splicing Small Tows .................................................. 435
11.8.  Drive Systems and Rotating Rollers ................................... 436
11.9.  Precursor Creel ...................................................... 438
11.10. Oxidation Plant ...................................................... 439
11.11. Pyrolysis Plant ...................................................... 440
11.12. Low Temperature Carbonization Furnace ................................ 440
11.13. High Temperature Carbonization Furnace ............................... 441
       11.13.1. Calibration of Pyrometer .................................... 441
11.14. High Modulus Furnace ................................................. 442
11.15. Surface Treatment .................................................... 442
11.16. Sizing ............................................................... 443
11.17. Winding .............................................................. 443
11.18. Dealing with Emissions ............................................... 444
11.19. Treatment of Cyanide Effluent ........................................ 444
11.20. Protecting the Environment ........................................... 446
11.21. Safety Committee ..................................................... 448
11.22. COSH-H Requirements .................................................. 448
11.23. Toxicology of Carbon Fibers .......................................... 449
       11.23.1. Definitions of Exposure Limits .............................. 449
       11.23.2. Data for UK Exposure Limits for Gaseous Emissions ........... 449
       11.23.3. Possible Hazards with Carbon and Graphite Fibers ............ 449
11.24. The Risks of Carbon Fiber Composites in a Fire ....................... 450
References .................................................................. 451

Chapter 12 Techniques for Determining the Structure of Carbon Fibers ........ 453
12.1.  Introduction ......................................................... 453
12.2.  Optical Microscope ................................................... 453
12.3.  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) ................................... 456
12.4.  Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) ............................... 460
12.5.  X-ray Diffraction .................................................... 464
       12.5.1. Convention for Axes in Graphite and Carbon
               Fibers and Dimensional Notation .............................. 464
       12.5.2. Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction ................................. 466
       12.5.3. Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction ............................. 470
       12.5.4. X-ray Powder Diffraction ..................................... 470
       12.5.5. Low Angle X-ray Diffraction .................................. 473
12.6.  Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) .................................... 473
12.7.  X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) ....................... 475
12.8.  Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) ......................... 477
12.9.  Infrared Spectroscopy ................................................ 479
       12.9.1. Introduction ................................................. 479
       12.9.2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) ............... 481
       12.9.3. Fourier Transform Infrared/Attenuated Total
               Reflectance Spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR) .......................... 483
12.10. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) ............................. 483
12.11. Raman Spectroscopy ................................................... 485
       12.11.1. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) .................... 485
12.12. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) ............................... 485
       12.12.1. Static SIMS ................................................. 486
       12.12.2. Dynamic SIMS ................................................ 489
       12.12.3. Imaging or Microscope SIMS .................................. 489
12.13. Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) ................................. 490
12.14. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) or Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) ..... 493
References .................................................................. 494

Chapter 13 Polymer Matrices for Carbon Fiber Composites ..................... 501
13.1. Selected Thermoset Resins ............................................. 501
      13.1.1. Introduction .................................................. 501
      13.1.2. Phenolic Resins ............................................... 502
      13.1.3. Polyester Resins .............................................. 503
      13.1.4. Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins ...................................... 507
      13.1.5. Epoxide Resins ................................................ 508
              13.1.5.1.  Bisphenol resins ................................... 508
              13.1.5.2.  Novalac resins ..................................... 509
              13.1.5.3.  Trifunctional resins ............................... 511
              13.1.5.4.  Tetrafunctional resins ............................. 511
              13.1.5.5.  Cycloaliphatic resins .............................. 512
              13.1.5.6.  New developments ................................... 512
              13.1.5.7.  Epoxy diluents ..................................... 513
              13.1.5.8.  Characterization of epoxy resins ................... 513
              13.1.5.9.  Curing epoxide resins .............................. 513
              13.1.5.10. Calculating stoichiometric ratios for epoxy
                         resins and curing agents ........................... 519
      13.1.6. Cyanate Resins ................................................ 520
      13.1.7. Polyimide Resins .............................................. 521
              13.1.7.1. Condensation type polyimides ........................ 523
              13.1.7.2. Addition type polyimides ............................ 525
                        13.1.7.2.1. The earliest bismaleimides .............. 525
                        13.1.7.2.2. Bismaleimides ........................... 527
                        13.1.7.2.3. Acetylene (ethynyl) terminated
                                    polyimides .............................. 529
      13.1.8. Special Resin Systems ......................................... 530
      13.1.9. Introducing Toughness to Thermoset Resin Systems .............. 530
              13.1.9.1. Introduction ........................................ 530
              13.1.9.2. Toughening versus flexibilizing ..................... 531
              13.1.9.3. Types of elastomeric modifiers ...................... 531
              13.1.9.4. Duplex materials .................................... 532
              13.1.9.5. Thermoplastic modifiers ............................. 532
              13.1.9.6. Effect of carbon fiber reinforcement ................ 533
13.2. Selected Thermoplastic Resins ......................................... 533
      13.2.1. Introduction .................................................. 533
      13.2.2. Morphology Property Relationships in Semi-crystalline 
              Thermoplastics ................................................ 535
      13.2.3. Polyamide (PA) Resins ......................................... 538
      13.2.4. Polycarbonate (PC) Resin ...................................... 540
      13.2.5. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Resin ............................. 540
      13.2.6. Polyetherimide (PEI) Resin .................................... 542
      13.2.7. Polyethersulfone (PES) Resin .................................. 542
      13.2.8. Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Resin ............................. 543
13.3. Improving the Bond with Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastics ................... 543
References .................................................................. 544

Chapter 14 Carbon Fiber Carbon Matrix Composites ............................ 551
14.1. Introduction .......................................................... 551
14.2. Selection of Materials for Carbon-Carbon Processing ................... 552
      14.2.1. Types of Reinforcement ........................................ 552
              14.2.1.1. Oxidized PAN fiber (opf) ............................ 552
              14.2.1.2. PAN based carbon fibers ............................. 552
              14.2.1.3. Pitch based carbon fibers (pbcf) .................... 554
              14.2.1.4. Cellulose based carbon fibers ....................... 555
      14.2.2. Type of Matrix ................................................ 555
              14.2.2.1. Thermosetting resin ................................. 556
                        1. Furan resin ...................................... 556
                        2. Phenolic resins .................................. 557
                        3. Polyimide resins ................................. 557
              14.2.2.2. Thermoplastic matrix precursors ..................... 558
                        1. Pitch ............................................ 558
                        2. Other thermoplastic matrices ..................... 559
14.3. Methods of Processing Carbon-Carbon Matrix Materials .................. 560
      14.3.1. Introduction .................................................. 560
      14.3.2. Use of Gas Phase Impregnation arid Densification .............. 560
              14.3.2.1. Introduction ........................................ 560
              14.3.2.2. CVI processes ....................................... 565
                        1. Isothermal CVI process ........................... 565
                        2. Thermal gradient CVI process (TG-CVI) ............ 566
                        3. Pressure gradient process ........................ 566
                        4. Pulse CVD process ................................ 566
                        5. Possible new routes .............................. 566
      14.3.3. Processing with Thermosetting Resin Matrices .................. 567
              14.3.3.1. Low pressure impregnation (LPI) ..................... 567
              14.3.3.2. Pressure impregnation and carbonization (PIC) ....... 568
              14.3.3.3. Hot isostatic pressure impregnation
                        carbonization (HIPIC) ............................... 568
14.4. Some Thoughts on Carbon-Carbon Processing ............................. 569
      14.4.1. Chemical Vapor Deposition ..................................... 569
      14.4.2. Liquid Infiltration ........................................... 572
14.5. Provision for Providing Oxidation Protection .......................... 573
      14.5.1. Introduction .................................................. 573
      14.5.2. The Use of Inhibitors to Provide Oxidation Protection ......... 574
              1. Boron ...................................................... 574
              2. Phosphorus ................................................. 575
      14.5.3. The Use of a Barrier Coating .................................. 575
              1. Noble metals ............................................... 575
              2. Silicon coatings ........................................... 575
      14.5.4. Other Coating Systems ......................................... 578
References .................................................................. 578

Chapter 15 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrices ......................... 583
15.1. Introduction .......................................................... 583
15.2. Cement, Concrete and Gypsum Matrices .................................. 583
      15.2.1. Cement ........................................................ 583
      15.2.2. Concrete ...................................................... 584
      15.2.3. Concrete Additives ............................................ 584
              15.2.3.1. Silica fume ......................................... 584
              15.2.3.2. Dispersant .......................................... 584
              15.2.3.3. Water reducing agent ................................ 585
              15.2.3.4. Accelerator ......................................... 585
      15.2.4. Work Undertaken with Mortar and Concrete ...................... 585
      15.2.5. Theory ........................................................ 591
      15.2.6. Fabrication Processes for cfrc ................................ 591
15.3. Glass Matrices ........................................................ 592
      15.3.1. The Glass Matrix .............................................. 592
      15.3.2. Methods of Preparation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Glasses ..... 594
              15.3.2.1. Mode of reinforcement ............................... 594
              15.3.2.2. Slurry with hot pressing ............................ 594
              15.3.2.3. Hot filament winding under tension with
                        hot pressing above the annealing temperature ........ 597
              15.3.2.4. Melt infiltration ................................... 597
              15.3.2.5. Sol gel ............................................. 598
      15.3.3. Work Undertaken with Carbon Fiber Filled Glass Matrices ....... 599
      15.3.4. Coating Carbon Fiber to Improve the Bond to a Glass ........... 601
15.4. Ceramic Matrices ...................................................... 602
      15.4.1. Processing Ceramic Matrix Composites .......................... 602
      15.4.2. Types of Ceramic Matrices ..................................... 602
              15.4.2.1. Oxide matrix materials .............................. 603
                        1. Alumina (Al2O3) ................................... 603
                        2. Mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) ............................ 603
                        3. Zirconia (ZrO2)................................... 603
              15.4.2.2. Non-oxide matrix materials .......................... 603
                        1. Silicon carbide (SiC) ............................ 603
                        2. Titanium carbide (TiC) ........................... 604
                        3. Boron carbide (B4C)............................... 604
                        4. Titanium boride (TiB2)............................ 604
                        5. Boron nitride (BN) ............................... 604
                        6. Aluminium nitride (AlN) .......................... 604
                        7. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ........................... 604
      15.4.3. Fiber Reinforcement ........................................... 605
      15.4.4. Processing Techniques ......................................... 605
              15.4.4.1. Slurry infiltration ................................. 605
              15.4.4.2. Slip casting ........................................ 605
              15.4.4.3. Filament winding .................................... 605
              15.4.4.4. Chemical synthesis .................................. 606
                        1. Sol gel .......................................... 606
                        2. Polymer precursor ................................ 607
              15.4.4.5. Melt infiltration ................................... 609
              15.4.4.6. In situ chemical reactions .......................... 611
                        1. CVI (or CVD) ..................................... 611
                        2. Slurry pulse/CVI ................................. 612
                        3. Hot Isotactic Pressing (HIPing) .................. 613
                        4. Reaction bonding ................................. 614
              15.4.4.7. Consolidation and densification ..................... 615
                        1. Sintering ........................................ 615
                        2. Pressureless sintering ........................... 615
                        3. Hot pressing ..................................... 615
      15.5.5. Protective Coatings ........................................... 615
      15.6.6. Fracture Mechanics ............................................ 617
References .................................................................. 617

Chapter 16 Carbon Fibers in Metal Matrices .................................. 629
16.1. Introduction .......................................................... 629
16.2. Metal Matrix Composites ............................................... 629
16.3. Carbon Fiber for Reinforcement of Metal Matrices ...................... 629
16.4. Coating Processes to Improve Wettability .............................. 631
      16.4.1. CVD Process ................................................... 631
      16.4.2. Liquid Metal Transfer Agent (LMTA) Technique .................. 632
      16.4.3. Cementation ................................................... 632
      16.4.4. Electroless Plating ........................................... 632
      16.4.5. Electroplating ................................................ 633
      16.4.6. Solution Coating .............................................. 633
      16.4.7. Flux .......................................................... 634
      16.4.8. INCO Ni Coated Carbon Fiber ................................... 634
      16.4.9. Other Coating Processes ....................................... 635
16.5. Metal Matrices ........................................................ 635
      16.5.1. Aluminium ..................................................... 635
      16.5.2. Magnesium ..................................................... 639
      16.5.3. Copper ........................................................ 639
      16.5.4. Nickel ........................................................ 640
      16.5.5. Lead .......................................................... 640
      16.5.6. Tin ........................................................... 640
16.6. Techniques for Fabricating Carbon Fiber Reinforced
      Metal Matrix Composites ............................................... 641
      16.6.1. Factors Influencing Processing of Metal Matrix Composites ..... 641
              16.6.1.1. Capillary effects ................................... 641
              16.6.1.2. Fluid flow into the preform ......................... 641
              16.6.1.3. Fiber matrix interactions ........................... 641
              16.6.1.4. The solidification process .......................... 642
      16.6.2. Processing Methods for Fabricating Metal Matrix Composites .... 642
              16.6.2.1. Solid state processing methods ...................... 643
                        1. Powder metallurgy ................................ 643
                        2. Diffusion bonding ................................ 643
              16.6.2.2. Liquid state processing ............................. 644
                        1. Melt stirring .................................... 644
                        2. Compocasting or rheocasting ...................... 644
                        3. Slurry casting ................................... 644
                        4. Gravity or vacuum casting ........................ 644
                        5. Pressure casting ................................. 644
                        6. Squeeze casting .................................. 644
                        7. Fiber tow (liquid) infiltration .................. 645
                        8. Lanxide process .................................. 646
                        9. Liquid phase hot pressing, liquid phase
                           diffusion bonding or liquid phase sintering ...... 646
              16.6.2.3. Deposition processes ................................ 647
                        1. Ion plating ...................................... 647
                        2. Plasma spraying .................................. 647
      16.6.3. Fundamental Considerations .................................... 647
              16.6.3.1. Capillarity ......................................... 647
              16.6.3.2. Fluid flow into the preform ......................... 648
              16.6.3.3. Fiber matrix interactions ........................... 648
              16.6.3.4. The solidification process and matrix
                        microstructure ...................................... 648
References .................................................................. 649

Chapter 17 Testing of PAN Precursor, Virgin Carbon Fibers,
           Carbon Fiber Composites and Related Products ..................... 657
17.1.  Introduction ......................................................... 657
17.2.  Testing of PAN Precursor ............................................. 657
       17.2.1. Filament Diameter Distribution in PAN Tow .................... 657
       17.2.2. Measurement of Precursor d'tex using the Vibroskop
               (ASTM D1577) ................................................. 660
       17.2.3. Determination of Fiber Moisture Content and
               Fiber Moisture Regain ........................................ 660
       17.2.4. Determination of Residual Solvent (NaSCN) in
               Courtelle Precursor .......................................... 661
       17.2.5. Determination of Sodium Content in the Precursor ............. 661
               1. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer ....................... 661
               2. Ion chromatograph ......................................... 661
       17.2.6. Determination of the Soft Finish Content in
               Courtelle Precursor .......................................... 662
       17.2.7. Silver Sulphide Staining Test for Checking Structure
               of a PAN Precursor ........................................... 662
       17.2.8. An Experimental Rig for Determination of Precursor
               Burn-up Temperature .......................................... 662
17.3.  Testing of Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) and Virgin Carbon Fiber .......... 662
       17.3.1. Mass per Unit Length ......................................... 662
       17.3.2. Determination of Density ..................................... 663
       17.3.3. Determination of Diameter .................................... 666
               1. Mounting a single filament ................................ 666
               2. Determining filament diameter using a
                  Watson image shearing eyepiece ............................ 667
               3. Determination of filament diameter using a He/Ne laser .... 668
               4. Calibration of a Stereoscan with a traceable
                  reference standard ........................................ 669
               5. Preparation of a mini composite (impregnated tow) ......... 670
       17.3.4. Tensile Testing of Filament .................................. 670
               17.3.4.1. Determination of compliance of the tensile
                         test machine system ................................ 670
               17.3.4.2. Measurment of filament tensile modulus ............. 671
               17.3.4.3. Measurment of filament tensile strength ............ 674
       17.3.5. Determination of Oxidized PAN Fiber Finish Content ........... 674
       17.3.6. Determination of Carbon Fiber Size Content ................... 676
       17.3.7. Conductivity of a Water Extract .............................. 677
       17.3.8. Skin Core .................................................... 677
       17.3.9. Measurement of Electrical Properties ......................... 678
17.4.  Carbon Fiber Tow Testing ............................................. 678
       17.4.1. Dry Tow Test ................................................. 678
       17.4.2. Testing of the Impregnated Tow ............................... 679
17.5.  Testing of Carbon Fiber Yarn and Fabric .............................. 682
       17.5.1. Determination of Twist ....................................... 683
       17.5.2. Determination of Ends and Picks .............................. 683
17.6.  Testing of Matrix .................................................... 684
       17.6.1. Fineness of Grind ............................................ 684
       17.6.2. Selection of a Suitable Grade of Paper for Resin Coating ..... 684
       17.6.3. Determination of Gel Time .................................... 685
               1. Using the Kofler hotbench ................................. 685
               2. Determination of gel time at ambient temperature .......... 686
       17.6.4. Determination of the Viscosity of a Resin Mix ................ 686
       17.6.5. Determination of the Epoxy Molar Mass (EMM) of
               Epoxy Resins ................................................. 687
               1. Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide-perchloric
                  acid titration method ..................................... 687
               2. Determination of EMM by potentiometric titration .......... 688
17.7.  Testing of Carbon Fiber Prepreg ...................................... 688
       17.7.1. Mass per unit Area ........................................... 688
       17.7.2. Volatiles Content ............................................ 688
       17.7.3. Fiber Content ................................................ 688
       17.7.4. Resin Gel Time ............................................... 689
17.8.  Testing of Carbon Fiber Composite .................................... 689
       17.8.1. Introduction ................................................. 689
       17.8.2. Preparation of Composite Specimen from Wet Resins ............ 690
       17.8.3. Preparation of Composite Specimen from Prepreg Systems ....... 692
       17.8.4. Determination of Carbon Fiber Content ........................ 693
       17.8.5. Measurement of Tensile Modulus ............................... 693
       17.8.6. Measurement Tensile Strength ................................. 695
       17.8.7. Measurement of Strain using Resistance Strain Gages .......... 697
       17.8.8. Measurment of Shear Strength ................................. 699
               17.8.8.1. Interlaminar shear strength ........................ 699
               17.8.8.2. In-plane shear tests ............................... 700
                         1. The torsion test ................................ 700
                         2. Two-rail or three-rail shear test ............... 701
                         3. The double V-notch shear (Iosipescu test) ....... 702
                         4. Tension coupon test ............................. 702
                         5. The 10° off-axis test ........................... 704
       17.8.9.  Measurement of Flexural Strength and Modulus ................ 706
       17.8.10. Measurement of Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Modulus .... 708
       17.8.11. Testing of Fatigue .......................................... 710
       17.8.12. Measurement of Creep ........................................ 712
       17.8.13. Testing of Impact Behavior .................................. 714
       17.8.14. Measurement of Interlaminar Fracture Toughness .............. 714
17.9.  Testing of Carbon Fiber Filled Thermoplastics ........................ 714
       17.9.1.  Measurement of Moisture Content ............................. 714
       17.9.2.  Molding ..................................................... 715
       17.9.3.  Determination of Melt Flow Index (MFI) ...................... 717
       17.9.4.  Impact Testing of Thermoplastics ............................ 718
17.10. Instrumental Analysis ................................................ 718
       17.10.1. Optical Microscope .......................................... 718
       17.10.2. Laboratory Furnace .......................................... 720
       17.10.3. Thermal Analysis ............................................ 721
                17.10.3.1. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) .......... 721
                           1. Classical DTA ................................. 721
                           2. Boersma DTA ................................... 722
                           3. DSC ........................................... 722
                17.10.3.2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) ................. 725
                17.10.3.3. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) ................ 726
                17.10.3.4. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) .................. 729
       17.10.4. Chromatography .............................................. 729
       17.10.5. Infrared Analysis (IR) ...................................... 732
       17.10.6. Elemental Analysis .......................................... 735
17.11. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) ........................................ 735
       17.11.1. Ultrasonic Testing .......................................... 736
       17.11.2. Radiography ................................................. 738
       17.11.3. Acoustic Emission ........................................... 738
17.12. Supplement 1 ......................................................... 738
       17.12.1. Sinclair's Loop Test for Filament Testing ................... 738
                1. Tension testing .......................................... 739
                2. Compression testing ...................................... 739
References .................................................................. 739

Chapter 18 Statistics and Statistical Process Control (SPC) ................. 747
18.1.  Frequency Distribution ............................................... 747
18.2.  Location of Data ..................................................... 748
18.3.  Measures of Dispersion ............................................... 750
18.4.  Standard Error ....................................................... 751
18.5.  Sample Correlation Coefficient ....................................... 751
18.6.  Linear Regression .................................................... 752
18.7.  Normal Distribution .................................................. 753
18.8.  Weibull Distribution ................................................. 756
18.9.  Variation ............................................................ 756
18.10. Control Chart Method ................................................. 758
18.11. Statistical Process Control Charts ................................... 758
       18.11.1. Average and Range (x and R) Chart ........................... 760
       18.11.2. Mean and Standard Deviation (x and σ) Chart ................. 764
       18.11.3. Median Control Chart ........................................ 766
       18.11.4. Rules for Detecting Out-of-control Conditions on
                Control Charts .............................................. 766
       18.11.5. Cumulative Sum Chart (Cusum) ................................ 769
18.12. Capability Index ..................................................... 770
18.13. Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) .................................. 771
References .................................................................. 771

Chapter 19 Quality Control .................................................. 773
19.1. Inhouse Testing ....................................................... 773
19.2. Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards .................... 773
19.3. The ISO 9000 Family of Standards and Quality Systems .................. 774
      Para 4.1  Management Responsibility ................................... 774
      Para 4.2  Quality System .............................................. 774
      Para 4.3  Contract Review ............................................. 774
      Para 4.4  Design Control .............................................. 774
      Para 4.5  Document Control and Data ................................... 774
      Para 4.6  Purchasing .................................................. 774
      Para 4.7  Control of Customer Supplied Product ........................ 774
      Para 4.8  Product Identification and Traceability ..................... 774
      Para 4.9  Process Control ............................................. 774
      Para 4.10 Inspection and Testing ...................................... 774
      Para 4.11 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment ......... 775
      Para 4.12 Inspection and Test Status .................................. 775
      Para 4.13 Control of Non-Conforming Product ........................... 775
      Para 4.14 Corrective and Preventive Action ............................ 775
      Para 4.15 Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery ..... 775
      Para 4.16 Control of Quality Records .................................. 775
      Para 4.17 Internal Quality Audits ..................................... 775
      Para 4.18 Training .................................................... 775
      Para 4.19 Servicing ................................................... 775
      Para 4.20 Statistical Techniques ...................................... 775
19.4. Quality Gurus ......................................................... 775
      19.4.1. The Early Americans ........................................... 776
              19.4.1.1. W Edwards Deeming ................................... 776
              19.4.1.2. Joseph M Juran ...................................... 778
              19.4.1.3. Armand V Fiegenbaum ................................. 779
      19.4.2. The Japanese Gurus ............................................ 779
              19.4.2.1. Dr Kaoru Ishikawa ................................... 779
              19.4.2.2. Dr Genichi Taguchi .................................. 780
              19.4.2.3. Shigeo Shindo ....................................... 781
      19.4.3. The New Western Group of Gurus ................................ 782
              19.4.3.1. Philip B Crosby ..................................... 782
              19.4.3.2. Tom Peters .......................................... 783
              19.4.3.3. Claus Moller ........................................ 784
19.5. Quality Circles ....................................................... 785
19.6. Total Quality Management .............................................. 786
19.7. Quality Costing ....................................................... 788
References .................................................................. 789

Chapter 20 Properties of Carbon Fibers ...................................... 791
20.1.  The Role of Carbon Fibers ............................................ 791
20.2.  Types of Carbon Fibers Available in the World Market ................. 792
20.3.  Tensile Properties ................................................... 800
20.4.  Factors Effecting Composite Strength ................................. 808
20.5.  The Importance of Critical Aspect Ratio .............................. 810
20.6.  Elastic Constants .................................................... 811
20.7.  Flexural Properties .................................................. 814
20.8.  Effect of Surface Treatment and Sizing on Composite Properties ....... 815
20.9.  Compression Properties ............................................... 817
20.10. Thermal Properties ................................................... 823
20.11. Thermal Expansion of Carbon Fibers ................................... 829
20.12. Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fibers ................................ 831
20.13. Creep Properties ..................................................... 831
20.14. Impact Strength and Fracture Toughness ............................... 833
20.15. Fatigue Properties ................................................... 834
20.16. Electrical Properties ................................................ 834
20.17. Chemical Resistance .................................................. 836
       20.17.1. Intercalation ............................................... 837
20.18. Friction and Wear .................................................... 837
20.19. Hybrid Composites .................................................... 838
20.20. Some Selected Properties of Composites ............................... 839
       20.20.1. Thermoplastic Polymer Matrices .............................. 839
       20.20.2. Cement Matrices ............................................. 839
       20.20.3. Glass and Ceramic Matrices .................................. 841
       20.20.4. Carbon-Carbon ............................................... 844
20.21. Metal Matrices ....................................................... 845
References .................................................................. 849

Chapter 21 Manufacturing Techniques for Carbon Fiber Reinforced
           Composites in Thermoset and Thermoplastic Matrices ............... 861
21.1. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and Architecture ........................... 861
      21.1.1. Virgin Carbon Fiber ........................................... 861
      21.1.2. Non-woven Discontinuous Reinforcement (Staple Fiber) .......... 863
              21.1.2.1. Adhesive bonded reinforcements ...................... 863
                        1. Chopped strand mat (csm) ......................... 863
                        2. Carbon fiber tissue .............................. 864
                        3. Carbon fiber paper reinforcement ................. 864
              21.1.2.2. Needled mat ......................................... 864
              21.1.2.3. Milled fiber ........................................ 864
              21.1.2.4. Chopped carbon fiber ................................ 865
      21.1.3. Unidirectional Fabrics ........................................ 865
              21.1.3.1. Non-woven UD fabrics ................................ 865
              21.1.3.2. Woven UD fabrics .................................... 866
                        1. Warp UD fabric ................................... 866
                        2. Weft UD fabric ................................... 866
      21.1.4. Woven Fabrics (2-D Planar or Biaxial Reinforcement) ........... 866
              1. Plain or square weave ...................................... 868
              2. Basket (Hopsack) weave ..................................... 868
              3. Leno weave ................................................. 869
              4. Mock Leno weave ............................................ 870
              5. Twill weave ................................................ 871
              6. Satin weave ................................................ 871
              7. High modulus (non-crimp) weave ............................. 872
      21.1.5. Woven Spread Tow .............................................. 872
      21.1.6. Knitted Fabrics ............................................... 872
              21.1.6.1. Weft knitting ....................................... 874
                        1. Plain knitting ................................... 874
              21.1.6.2. Warp knitting ....................................... 876
                        1. Plain tricot ..................................... 877
                        2. Raschel .......................................... 877
      21.1.7. Inlaid Fabrics ................................................ 877
      21.1.8. Braiding ...................................................... 877
              21.1.8.1. Forms of braiding ................................... 879
                        1. Flat braids ...................................... 879
                        2. Sleevings ........................................ 879
                        3. Wide braided fabric .............................. 879
                        4. Overbraids ....................................... 880
              21.1.8.2. Braid architecture .................................. 880
                        1. Biaxial 2-D braid ................................ 880
                        2. Triaxial 3-D braid ............................... 881
      21.1.9. 3-D Reinforcements ............................................ 882
              21.1.9.1. Multiaxial non-crimp reinforcements ................. 882
                        1. Producing a stitched fabric by the simultaneous
                           stitch process ................................... 883
                        2. Producing a stitched fabric by the weave and
                           stitch process ................................... 885
                        3. Double bias fabrics .............................. 885
                        4. Triaxial weave ................................... 885
                        5. Quadraxial ....................................... 889
              21.1.9.2. Woven 3-D fabrics ................................... 889
              21.1.9.3. Proprietary 3-D weaving processes ................... 889
              21.1.9.4. Knitted 3-D fabrics ................................. 890
              21.1.9.5. Braided 3-D multiaxial .............................. 890
              21.1.9.6. n-D orthogonal blocks ............................... 891
              21.1.9.7. Aztex Inc Z-FiberTM .................................. 893
21.2. Core Materials ........................................................ 893
21.3. Manufacturing Processes for Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices ....... 894
      21.3.1.  Contact Molding Wet Lay-up ................................... 894
               21.3.1.1. Hand lay-up (contact molding) ...................... 895
               21.3.1.2. Spray lay-up ....................................... 895
      21.3.2. Hot Press Matched Metal Molding ............................... 896
               21.3.2.1. Thermoset dough molding compound (DMC) ............. 896
               21.3.2.2. Thermoset bulk molding compound (BMC) .............. 896
               21.3.2.3. Thermoset sheet molding compound (SMC) ............. 896
      21.3.3.  Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) ................................. 897
               21.3.3.1. Dow AdvRTMTM ........................................ 898
               21.3.3.2. Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) ..... 900
               21.3.3.3. Vacuum infusion processing (VIP) ................... 901
               21.3.3.4. Seemann Composite Resin Infusion Molding Process
                         (SCRIMPTM) .......................................... 901
               21.3.3.5. Resin infusion under flexible tooling (RIFT) ....... 901
               21.3.3.6. Vacuum infusion molding process (VIMP) ............. 901
               21.3.3.7. SP Resin Infusion Technology (SPRINTTM) ........,.... 901
               21.3.3.8. Resin film infusion (RFI) .......................... 902
      21.3.4.  Sequential Multiport Resin Injection System (SMRIM) .......... 904
      21.3.5.  Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) ............................. 904
      21.3.6.  Centrifugal Molding .......................................... 904
      21.3.7.  Preparation of Fiber Preforms ................................ 904
      21.3.8.  Flow and Cure Monitoring of Resin Infusion Processes ......... 904
      21.3.9.  Filament Winding ............................................. 905
               1. Hoop winding .............................................. 906
               2. Helical winding ........................................... 906
               3. Polar winding ............................................. 906
               4. Multiaxial winding ........................................ 907
               5. Variants of multiaxial winding ............................ 907
      21.3.10. Pultrusion ................................................... 909
               1. Reinforcement handling .................................... 910
               2. Resin impregnation ........................................ 911
               3. Pre-die forming ........................................... 911
               4. Heated die to shape and cure the resin .................... 911
               5. Pulling unit to provide traction .......................... 912
               6. Cut off saw ............................................... 912
               7. Post cure oven ............................................ 912
      21.3.11. Prepreg Molding .............................................. 913
               21.3.11.1. Prepreg manufacture ............................... 913
               21.3.11.2. Manufacture of composites from prepreg ............ 916
                          1. Ply cutting and stacking prepreg ............... 916
                          2. Compression molding of prepreg ................. 916
                          3. Vacuum bag molding ............................. 916
                          4. Press-clave molding ............................ 917
                          5. Autoclave molding .............................. 918
                          6. QuickstepTM Molding ............................. 920
                          7. Tube rolling ................................... 921
                          8. Automatic tape lay-up .......................... 921
      21.3.12. Fiber Placement Systems ...................................... 921
      21.3.13. Mold Release ................................................. 922
               1. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ................................... 923
               2. Waxes ..................................................... 923
               3. Internal mold release agents .............................. 923
               4. Silicones ................................................. 923
               5. Fluorocarbons ............................................. 923
               6. New products .............................................. 923
21.4. Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices ............................... 923
      21.4.1.  The Importance of Critical Aspect Ratio ...................... 923
      21.4.2.  Preparation of Thermoplastic Molding Compounds ............... 924
               21.4.2.1. Sizing carbon fiber with compatible
                         thermoplastic polymer size ......................... 924
               21.4.2.2. Manufacture of thermoplastic molding compound ...... 924
                         1. Short fiber process ............................. 924
                         2. Long fiber process .............................. 924
      21.4.3.  Injection Molding ............................................ 925
      21.4.4.  Film Stacking Process ........................................ 927
      21.4.5.  Thermoplastic Prepreg ........................................ 927
               1. Molding carbon fiber/PEI laminate ......................... 928
               2. Platen pressing of carbon fiber/PEEK laminate ............. 928
      21.4.6.  Thermoplastic Filament Winding ............................... 928
      21.4.7.  Thermoplastic Pultrusion ..................................... 929
      21.4.8.  Continuous Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials ................ 929
21.5. Hybrid Composites ..................................................... 929
References .................................................................. 930

Chapter 22 Design ........................................................... 935
22.1.  Design Considerations ................................................ 935
22.2.  Micromechanics ....................................................... 935
22.3.  Selection of Materials ............................................... 940
22.4.  Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates ....................... 940
22.5.  Choice of Composite Manufacturing Method ............................. 943
22.6.  Bonding and Joining .................................................. 943
22.7.  Fabrication .......................................................... 944
22.8.  Testing and Inspection ............................................... 944
22.9.  Smart Devices ........................................................ 944
22.10. Design Cases ......................................................... 945
       22.10.1. Expanding Core Technique .................................... 945
       22.10.2. A Yacht Mast ................................................ 946
References .................................................................. 946
Supplementary Bibliography .................................................. 947

Chapter 23 The Uses of Carbon Fibers ........................................ 951
23.1.  Uses of Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) ..................................... 951
       23.1.1. Flameproof Applications ...................................... 951
               23.1.1.1. Aviation and aerospace ............................. 953
               23.1.1.2. Industrial workwear ................................ 954
               23.1.1.3. Defence and law enforcement ........................ 954
               23.1.1.4. Transportation and furnishings ..................... 955
               23.1.1.5. Cable insulation ................................... 955
       23.1.2. Friction Materials ........................................... 955
       23.1.3. Gland Packings ............................................... 955
       23.1.4. Precursor for PAN based Carbon Fiber and
               Activated Carbon Fibers ...................................... 955
23.2.  Uses of Virgin Carbon Fiber .......................................... 955
       23.2.1. Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) ................................ 955
       23.2.2. Molecular Sieves ............................................. 958
       23.2.3. Catalysts .................................................... 958
       23.2.4. Biomedical Applications ...................................... 958
23.3.  Electrical Applications .............................................. 960
       23.3.1. Electrical Conduction ........................................ 960
       23.3.2. Tailored Resistance Carbon Fiber ............................. 960
       23.3.3. Cathodic Protection .......................................... 960
       23.3.4. Elimination of Static ........................................ 960
       23.3.5. Electrodes ................................................... 961
       23.3.6. Batteries .................................................... 962
               23.3.6.1. Lithium Ion Batteries .............................. 962
       23.3.7. Fuel Cells ................................................... 964
               23.3.7.1. Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) ........................... 965
               23.3.7.2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) ......... 966
               23.3.7.3. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) ................... 967
               23.3.7.4. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) .................. 968
               23.3.7.5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) ....................... 969
               23.3.7.6. Carbon fiber in fuel cells ......................... 969
23.4.  Thermal Insulation ................................................... 970
23.5.  Packing Materials and Gaskets ........................................ 973
23.6.  Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices .................................. 973
       23.6.1.  Aerospace ................................................... 973
                23.6.1.1. Defence aircraft .................................. 973
                23.6.1.2. Civil aircraft .................................... 973
                23.6.1.3. Helicopters ....................................... 977
                23.6.1.4. Aero engines ...................................... 977
                23.6.1.5. Propeller blades .................................. 977
                23.6.1.6. Antenna, lightening conductors .................... 979
                23.6.1.7. Gliders and sailplanes ............................ 982
                23.6.1.8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) ................... 982
                23.6.1.9. Stealth aerial vehicles ........................... 982
       23.6.2.  Space ....................................................... 982
       23.6.3.  Rocket Motor Cases .......................................... 983
       23.6.4.  Flywheels ................................................... 983
       23.6.5.  Marine Applications ......................................... 987
                23.6.5.1. Yachts ............................................ 987
                23.6.5.2. Submarines ........................................ 989
                23.6.5.3. Air cushion vehicle ............................... 989
       23.6.6.  Oil Exploration ............................................. 989
       23.6.7.  Automobile and Racing Car Applications ...................... 991
                23.6.7.1. Chassis, body and interior ........................ 991
                23.6.7.2. Brakes and clutches ............................... 992
                23.6.7.3. Suspension systems ................................ 992
                23.6.7.4. Push rods ......................................... 993
                23.6.7.5. Air bags .......................................... 993
       23.6.8.  Heavy Goods Vehicles and Buses .............................. 993
                23.6.8.1. Drive shafts ...................................... 993
                23.6.8.2. Buses ............................................. 994
       23.6.9.  CNG Storage Cylinders ....................................... 994
       23.6.10. Motor Bikes ................................................. 994
       23.6.11. Railways .................................................... 995
       23.6.12. Engineering and Textile Applications ........................ 995
                23.6.12.1. Structural work .................................. 995
                23.6.12.2. Robot arms ....................................... 995
                23.6.12.3. Rollers .......................................... 995
       23.6.13. Turbine Blades .............................................. 995
                23.6.13.1. Wind turbine blades .............................. 995
                23.6.13.2. Tidal turbine blades ............................. 997
       23.6.14. Textile Applications ........................................ 998
       23.6.15. Chemical and Nuclear Applications ........................... 998
       23.6.16. Medical and Prosthetic Applications ......................... 998
                23.6.16.1. Hospital equipment .............................. 1000
       23.6.17. Dental ..................................................... 1000
       23.6.18. Sports and Leisure Goods ................................... 1001
                23.6.18.1.  Bicycles, tandem ............................... 1001
                23.6.18.2.  Bows and arrows ................................ 1002
                23.6.18.3.  Rifles ......................................... 1002
                23.6.18.4.  Skis and ski sticks ............................ 1002
                23.6.18.5.  Snowboards ..................................... 1002
                23.6.18.6.  Baseball bats .................................. 1002
                23.6.18.7.  Cricket bats ................................... 1003
                23.6.18.8.  Hockey sticks .................................. 1003
                23.6.18.9.  Golf shafts and heads .......................... 1003
                23.6.18.10. Tennis, racquetball, badminton and
                            squash racquets ................................ 1004
                23.6.18.11. Snooker and pool cues .......................... 1004
                23.6.18.12. Fishing rods and reels ......................... 1005
                23.6.18.13. Hang glider .................................... 1005
                23.6.18.14. Canoe paddles .................................. 1005
                23.6.18.15. Wind surfing ................................... 1005
       23.6.19. Musical Instruments and Hi-Fi .............................. 1005
                23.6.19.1. Loudspeaker cones ............................... 1006
                23.6.19.2. Carbon fiber cable .............................. 1006
                23.6.19.3. Satellite reflectors ............................ 1006
                23.6.19.4. Stringed instruments ............................ 1006
                23.6.19.5. Bows for cello and violin ....................... 1007
       23.6.20. Other End Uses in Thermoset Matrices ....................... 1007
                23.6.20.1. Model aeroplanes ................................ 1007
                23.6.20.2. Knives, fountain pens, watches .................. 1007
                23.6.20.3. Precision instruments ........................... 1008
                23.6.20.4. Tripods ......................................... 1008
                23.6.20.5. Optical instruments ............................. 1008
                           23.6.20.5.1. Telescopes ......................... 1008
                           23.6.20.5.2. Binoculars ......................... 1009
       23.6.21. Furniture .................................................. 1009
       23.6.22. Carbon Fiber and Wood ...................................... 1009
23.7.  Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices ............................. 1009
       23.7.1. Thermoplastic Molding Compounds ............................. 1010
23.8.  Carbon Fibers for Carbon-Carbon Applications ........................ 1010
       23.8.1. Carbon-Carbon Braking Systems ............................... 1011
       23.8.2. Carbon-Carbon Clutches and Limited Slip Differentials ....... 1018
       23.8.3. Carbon-Carbon in Space ...................................... 1020
       23.8.4. Carbon-Carbon for Aircraft .................................. 1021
       23.8.5. Rocket Motor Nozzles and Expansion Tubes .................... 1021
       23.8.6. Carbon-Carbon in Engines .................................... 1022
       23.8.7. Carbon-Carbon for Biomedical End Uses ....................... 1022
       23.8.8. Carbon-Carbon in Industry ................................... 1022
       23.8.9. Carbon-Carbon as a Dielectric Heat Sink ..................... 1023
23.9.  Carbon Fibers in Cement and Concrete ................................ 1023
       23.9.1. Carbon Fibers in Cement and Concrete ........................ 1024
       23.9.2. Carbon Fiber Cement as a Replacement for Asbestos Cement .... 1024
       23.9.3. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Chimneys, Columns,
               Beams and Retrofits ......................................... 1024
       23.9.4. New Structures with cfrp .................................... 1030
23.10. Carbon Fibers in Glass Matrices ..................................... 1031
23.10. Carbon Fibers in Ceramic Matrices ................................... 1031
23.11. Carbon Fibers in Metal Matrices ..................................... 1031
       23.12.1. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Heat Dissipation .... 1031
23.13. Other End Uses for Carbon Fibers .................................... 1032
References ................................................................. 1032

Chapter 24 Looking to the Future ........................................... 1043
24.1. The Future ........................................................... 1043
24.2. The Production Process ............................................... 1043
      24.2.1. Precursor Developments ....................................... 1043
      24.2.2. Plant Developments ........................................... 1044
24.3. Carbon Fiber ......................................................... 1044
24.4. Composite Manufacturing Techniques ................................... 1045
24.5. Quality Management Standards ......................................... 1045
24.6. Recycling ............................................................ 1046
24.7. Innovative Developments .............................................. 1046
24.8. Conclusion ........................................................... 1047

Appendix
  Appendix 1  Glossory ..................................................... 1049
  Appendix 2  The Elements ................................................. 1061
  Appendix 3  The Greek Alphabet ........................................... 1063
  Appendix 4  Some Definitions and Handy Conversion Factors ................ 1065
  Appendix 5  ISO Standard Prefixes for SI Units ........................... 1067
  Appendix 6  Interconversion of Common English and SI Units ............... 1069
  Appendix 7  Textile Terminology .......................................... 1073
  Appendix 8  Temperature Estimation from Color ............................ 1075
  Appendix 9  Humidities over Saturated Salt Solutions ..................... 1077
  Appendix 10 Wet and Dry Bulb Humidity Table .............................. 1079
  Appendix 11 Detection of Cyanide [1] ..................................... 1081
  Appendix 12 British Standards on Quality ................................. 1083
  Appendix 13 Abbreviations used in Spectroscopy and Microscopy ............ 1087
  Appendix 14 Typical Properties of Unreinforced Plastic Polymers .......... 1089
  Appendix 15 Acronyms for Thermoplastic Polymers .......................... 1117
  Appendix 16 Companies Involved with Carbon Fibers and their Composites
              Throughout the World ......................................... 1119

Index ...................................................................... 1133


Вверх Morgan P. Carbon fibers and their composites / Morgan P. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2005. - 1153 p. - (Materials engineering; vol.27). - ISBN 0-8247-0983-7.

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