Dandekar A.Y. Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties
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Dandekar A.Y. Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties / Dandekar A.Y. - Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. - 460 p. - ISBN 0-8493-3043-2.
 
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Chapter 1 Introduction .......................................................... 1

1.1 The Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs ....................................... 1
1.2 Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs ............................. 1
1.3 The Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties ........... 3


Chapter 2 Preamble to Petroleum Reservoir Rock Properties ....................... 5

2.1 Introduction ................................................................ 5
2.2 Coring Methods .............................................................. 6
    2.2.1 Rotary Method ......................................................... 6
    2.2.2 Sidewall Coring ....................................................... 6
    2.2.3 High-Pressure Coring .................................................. 6
2.3 Important Issues Related to Coring Methods .................................. 7
2.4 Types of Cores .............................................................. 7
    2.4.1 Whole Core ............................................................ 7
    2.4.2 Core Plug ............................................................. 8
2.5 Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir Rock Properties ........ 9
2.6 Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples ..................................... 9
2.7 Types of Core Tests ........................................................ 10
    2.7.1 Routine or Conventional Core Analysis ................................ 10
    2.7.2 Special Core Analysis ................................................ 10
References ..................................................................... 11


Chapter 3 Porosity ............................................................. 13

3.1 Significance and Definition ................................................ 13
3.2 Types of Porosities ........................................................ 13
    3.2.1 Total or Absolute Porosity ........................................... 14
    3.2.2 Effective Porosity ................................................... 15
    3.2.3 Ineffective Porosity ................................................. 15
3.3 Classification of Porosity ................................................. 16
3.4 Parameters That Influence Porosity ......................................... 16
3.5 Laboratory Measurement of Porosity ......................................... 17
    3.5.1 Porosity Determination Using Routine Core Analysis ................... 18
          3.5.1.1 Bulk Volume Measurement ...................................... 18
          3.5.1.2 Pore Volume Measurement ...................................... 19
          3.5.1.3 Grain Volume Measurement ..................................... 21
3.6 Nonconventional Methods of Porosity Measurements ........................... 22
3.7 Averaging of Porosity ...................................................... 23
3.8 Examples of Typical Porosities ............................................. 24
Problems ....................................................................... 25
References ..................................................................... 26


Chapter 4 Absolute Permeability ................................................ 27

4.1  Significance and Definition ............................................... 27
4.2  Mathematical Expression of Permeability: Darcy's Law ...................... 27
4.3  Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition of a Darcy ............ 30
4.4  Application of Darcy's Law to Inclined Flow and Radial Flow ............... 31
4.5  Averaging of Permeabilities ............................................... 33
     4.5.1 Parallel Flow ....................................................... 34
     4.5.2 Series Flow ......................................................... 35
4.6  Permeability of Fractures and Channels .................................... 37
4.7  Darcy's Law in Field Units ................................................ 39
4.8  Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability ........................... 40
     4.8.1 Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using Liquids .................. 40
     4.8.2 Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using Gases .................... 42
4.9  Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability ................................... 45
     4.9.1 Rock-Related Factors ................................................ 46
     4.9.2 Fluid Phase-Related Factors ......................................... 47
     4.9.3 Thermodynamic Factors ............................................... 49
     4.9.4 Mechanical Factors .................................................. 49
4.10 Porosity and Permeability Relationships ................................... 50
4.11 Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks ................................ 52
Problems ....................................................................... 52
References ..................................................................... 54


Chapter 5 Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks .............. 55

5.1 Introduction ............................................................... 55
5.2 Mechanical Properties ...................................................... 56
    5.2.1 Stress ............................................................... 56
    5.2.2 Strain ............................................................... 56
    5.2.3 The Stress-Strain Relationship ....................................... 57
          5.2.3.1 Factors Affecting the Stress-Strain Relationship ............. 58
    5.2.4 Rock Strength ........................................................ 59
    5.2.5 Rock Mechanics Parameters ............................................ 59
          5.2.5.1 Poisson's Ratio .............................................. 59
          5.2.5.2 Young's Modulus .............................................. 60
          5.2.5.3 Modulus of Rigidity .......................................... 61
          5.2.5.4 Bulk Modulus ................................................. 61
    5.2.6 Laboratory Measurement of Rock Strength .............................. 61
          5.2.6.1 Triaxial Cell ................................................ 62
    5.2.7 Reservoir Rock Compressibility ....................................... 64
          5.2.7.1 Empirical Correlations of Formation Compressibility .......... 66
5.3 Electrical Properties ...................................................... 66
     5.3.1 Fundamental Concepts and the Archie Equation ........................ 67
          5.3.1.1 Formation Factor ............................................. 67
          5.3.1.2 Tortuosity ................................................... 68
          5.3.1.3 Cementation Factor ........................................... 68
          5.3.1.4 Resistivity Index ............................................ 68
    5.3.2 Effect of Wettability on Electrical Properties ....................... 71
    5.3.3 Effect of Clay on Electrical Properties .............................. 73
Problems ....................................................................... 75
References ..................................................................... 77


Chapter 6 Fluid Saturation ..................................................... 79

6.1 Significance and Definition ................................................ 79
6.2 Distribution of Fluid Saturation in a Petroleum Reservoir .................. 80
6.3 Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid Saturation ............... 80
6.4 Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation Determination ............. 82
6.5 Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation ................................. 83
    6.5.1 Retort Distillation .................................................. 84
    6.5.2 Dean-Stark Extraction ................................................ 86
6.6 Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured on the Plug-End
    Trim for the Core Plug Sample .............................................. 88
6.7 Special Types of Fluid Saturations ......................................... 89
    6.7.1 Critical Gas Saturation .............................................. 90
    6.7.2 Residual Oil Saturation .............................................. 90
    6.7.3 Irreducible Water Saturation ......................................... 93
6.8 Saturation Averaging ....................................................... 94
6.9 Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination ........................... 95
    6.9.1 Effect of Drilling Muds on Fluid Saturation .......................... 95
    6.9.2 Effect of Fluid Expansion on Fluid Saturation ........................ 97
    6.9.3 Combined Effects of Mud Filtrate Invasion and Fluid Expansion
          on Fluid Saturation .................................................. 98
    6.9.4 Mitigation of Mud Filtrate Invasion and Fluid Expansion Effects
          on Fluid Saturation ................................................. 100
          6.9.4.1 Measures That Avoid or Account for Mud Filtrate Invasion .... 101
          6.9.4.2 Measures That Avoid or Account for Fluid Expansion .......... 104
Problems ...................................................................... 106
References .................................................................... 107


Chapter 7 Interfacial Tension and Wettability ................................. 109

7.1 Introduction and Fundamental Concepts ..................................... 109
7.2 Interfacial and Surface Tension ........................................... 110
    7.2.1 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Interfacial Tension
          and Surface Tension ................................................. 112
    7.2.2 Laboratory Measurement of Interfacial Tension ....................... 115
7.3 Wettability ............................................................... 116
7.4 Fundamental Concepts of Wettability ....................................... 117
7.5 A Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability .......................... 121
    7.5.1 Classification/Types of Wettability ................................. 122
          7.5.1.1 Water-Wet ................................................... 122
          7.5.1.2 Oil-Wet ..................................................... 122
          7.5.1.3 Intermediate Wet ............................................ 122
          7.5.1.4 Fractional Wettability ...................................... 123
          7.5.1.5 Mixed Wettability ........................................... 123
7.6 Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability ................................. 123
    7.6.1 Contact Angle Measurement ........................................... 124
          7.6.1.1 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Contact Angles ........ 126
    7.6.2 Core Samples for Amott Test and USBM Methods ........................ 126
    7.6.3 Amott Test .......................................................... 128
          7.6.3.1 Modification of the Amott Test (Amott-Harvey Test) .......... 130
    7.6.4 USBM Method ......................................................... 131
7.7 Factors Affecting Wettability ............................................. 133
    7.7.1 Composition of the Reservoir Oil .................................... 133
    7.7.2 Composition of the Brine ............................................ 134
    7.7.3 Reservoir Pressure and Temperature .................................. 135
    7.7.4 Depth of the Reservoir Structure .................................... 136
7.8 Relationship between Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation
    and Residual Oil Saturation ............................................... 137
    7.8.1 Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation ........................ 137
    7.8.2 Wettability and Residual Oil Saturation ............................. 138
Problems ...................................................................... 140
References .................................................................... 141


Chapter 8 Capillary Pressure .................................................. 145

8.1  Introduction ............................................................. 145
8.2  Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure ...................... 146
8.3  The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries ........................................ 147
8.4  Dependence of Capillary Pressure On Rock and Fluid Properties ............ 150
8.5  Capillary Pressure and Saturation History ................................ 151
8.6  Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure ............................. 153
     8.6.1 Leverett's Capillary Pressure Experiments .......................... 154
     8.6.2 Porous Diaphragm Method ............................................ 156
     8.6.3 Mercury Injection Method ........................................... 157
     8.6.4 Centrifuge Method .................................................. 159
8.7  Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves ............................. 160
     8.7.1 Saturation Scale ................................................... 161
     8.7.2 Pressure Scale ..................................................... 161
     8.7.3 Capillary Hysterisis ............................................... 162
     8.7.4 Capillary Pressure and Permeability ................................ 163
8.8  Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data to Reservoir Conditions .... 163
8.9  Averaging Capillary Pressure: The J Function ............................. 166
8.10 Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure ...................... 168
8.11 Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure .............................. 170
8.12 Practical Application of Capillary Pressure .............................. 172
     8.12.1 Pore Size Distribution ............................................ 173
     8.12.2 Pore Throat Sorting ............................................... 176
     8.12.3 Connate Water Saturation .......................................... 176
     8.12.4 Zonation, Fluid Contacts, and Initial Saturation Distribution
            in a Reservoir .................................................... 177
            8.12.4.1 Free Water Level ......................................... 178
            8.12.4.2 Oil-Water Contact ........................................ 179
            8.12.4.3 Transition Zone .......................................... 179
            8.12.4.4 Oil Pay Zone or Clean Oil Zone ........................... 180
            8.12.4.5 Fluid Saturation in the Gas Zone ......................... 180
Problems ...................................................................... 181
References .................................................................... 182


Chapter 9 Relative Permeability ............................................... 185

9.1  Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability ............................ 185
9.2  Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability ....................... 186
9.3  Salient Features of Gas-Oil and Water-Oil Relative Permeability Curves ... 187
     9.3.1 The End-Point Fluid Saturations .................................... 189
     9.3.2 The Base Permeabilities ............................................ 189
     9.3.3 End-Point Permeabilities and Relative Permeability Curves .......... 189
           9.3.3.1 Gas-Oil Relative Permeability Curves ....................... 190
           9.3.3.2 Oil-Water Relative Permeability Curves ..................... 190
     9.3.4 The Direction of the Relative Permeability Curves .................. 192
9.4  Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability .......................... 192
     9.4.1 Flowchart for Relative Permeability Measurements ................... 193
     9.4.2 Core Plug Samples Used in Relative Permeability Measurements ....... 195
     9.4.3 Displacement Fluids and Test Conditions ............................ 196
           9.4.3.1 Room Condition Tests ....................................... 196
           9.4.3.2 Partial Reservoir Condition Tests .......................... 196
           9.4.3.3 Reservoir Condition Tests .................................. 197
     9.4.4 Establishment of Initial Water Saturation .......................... 197
           9.4.4.1 Preserved Core Plug Samples ................................ 197
           9.4.4.2 Cleaned Core Plug Samples .................................. 198
     9.4.5 Determination of Base Permeability ................................. 198
     9.4.6 Displacement Apparatus for Relative Permeability ................... 200
     9.4.7 Steady-State Technique ............................................. 201
     9.4.8 Unsteady-State Technique ........................................... 204
           9.4.8.1 Buckley-Leverett to Welge to Johnson-Bossler-Naumann ....... 205
           9.4.8.2 Relative Permeabilities from the Alternate Method .......... 217
     9.4.9 Capillary End Effect ............................................... 218
9.5  Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary Pressure Data ...... 220
9.6  Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements ..................... 222
     9.6.1 Effect of Fluid Saturation, History of Saturation, and Initial
           Water Saturation ................................................... 223
     9.6.2 Effect of Wettability on Relative Permeability ..................... 225
     9.6.3 Effect of Rock Pore Structure ...................................... 226
     9.6.4 Effect of Overburden Stress (Confining Stress) ..................... 227
     9.6.5 Effect of Clay Content and Movement of Fines ....................... 228
     9.6.6 Effect of Temperature .............................................. 228
     9.6.7 Effect of Interfacial Tension, Viscosity, and Flow Velocity ........ 228
9.7  Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data .............................. 230
9.8  Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data and Determination
     of Corey Exponents ....................................................... 232
9.9  Significance of Relative Permeability Data ............................... 234
     9.9.1 Example of Practical Application of Relative Permeability Data ..... 235
9.10 Three-Phase Relative Permeability ........................................ 237
     9.10.1 Representation of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Data .......... 237
     9.10.2 Empirical Models for Three-Phase Relative Permeability ............ 239
Problems ...................................................................... 241
References .................................................................... 244


Chapter 10 Introduction to Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ......................... 247

10.1 Introduction ............................................................. 247
10.2 Chemistry of Petroleum ................................................... 247
     10.2.1 Alkanes ........................................................... 248
     10.2.2 Alkenes ........................................................... 249
     10.2.3 Alkynes ........................................................... 250
     10.2.4 Cycloaliphatics ................................................... 250
     10.2.5 Aromatics ......................................................... 250
     10.2.6 Nonhydrocarbons in Reservoir Fluids ............................... 251
10.3 The Solid Components of Petroleum ........................................ 251
     10.3.1 Gas Hydrates ...................................................... 251
     10.3.2 Waxes ............................................................. 252
     10.3.3 Asphaltenes ....................................................... 252
     10.3.4 Diamondoids ....................................................... 252
10.4 Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils ............................... 252
     10.4.1 Chemical Classification of Reservoir Oils or Crude Oils ........... 253
     10.4.2 Physical Classification of Crude Oils ............................. 253
10.5 Five Reservoir Fluids .................................................... 254
10.6 Formation Waters ......................................................... 255
Reference ..................................................................... 255


Chapter 11 Introduction to Phase Behavior ..................................... 257

11.1 Introduction ............................................................. 257
11.2 Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior ............................... 258
     11.2.1 Phase ............................................................. 258
     11.2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and Intermolecular Forces .................. 258
     11.2.3 Equilibrium ....................................................... 258
     11.2.4 Component and Composition ......................................... 258
     11.2.5 Distinction between Gases and Liquids ............................. 259
     11.2.6 Types of Physical Properties ...................................... 259
     11.2.7 Phase Rule ........................................................ 259
11.3 Phase Behavior of a Pure Component ....................................... 260
     11.3.1 Phase Diagram of a Pure Component ................................. 260
            11.3.1.1 Vapor Pressure Curve ..................................... 260
            11.3.1.2 Critical Point ........................................... 261
            11.3.1.3 Triple Point ............................................. 262
            11.3.1.4 Melting Point Curve ...................................... 262
            11.3.1.5 Sublimation-Pressure Curve ............................... 262
            11.3.1.6 Conditions Outside the Pc-Tc Boundary .................... 262
     11.3.2 Pressure-Volume Diagram ........................................... 263
     11.3.3 Density-Temperature Behavior of a Pure Component .................. 264
     11.3.4 Determination of Vapor Pressure ................................... 265
11.4 Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems ........................ 266
     11.4.1 Phase Diagram of a Binary System .................................. 267
            11.4.1.1 Critical Point ........................................... 267
            11.4.1.2 Bubble Point and Dew Point ............................... 268
            11.4.1.3 Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Curves ........................ 268
            11.4.1.4 Cricondenbar and Cricondentherm .......................... 269
            11.4.1.5 Retrograde Dew Point and Condensation .................... 269
            11.4.1.6 Behavior of a Mixture in the Two-Phase Region ............ 269
     11.4.2 Effect of Changing the System Composition ......................... 272
11.5 Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures ................................ 274
11.6 Construction of Phase Envelopes .......................................... 275
Problems ...................................................................... 276
References .................................................................... 277


Chapter 12 Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ....................... 279

12.1  Introduction ............................................................ 279
12.2  Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ............ 279
12.3  A Brief Description of the Plus Fraction ................................ 280
12.4  Classification and Identification of Fluid Type ......................... 281
12.5  Black Oils .............................................................. 281
12.6  Volatile Oils ........................................................... 282
12.7  Gas Condensates ......................................................... 285
12.8  Wet Gases ............................................................... 287
12.9  Dry Gases ............................................................... 288
12.10 Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the Two-Phase Region .......... 288
Problems ...................................................................... 291
References .................................................................... 292


Chapter 13 Sampling of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ............................. 293

13.1 Introduction ............................................................. 293
13.2 Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling ............................... 294
     13.2.1 Well Conditioning ................................................. 294
13.3 Methods of Fluid Sampling ................................................ 296
     13.3.1 Subsurface Sampling ............................................... 296
     13.3.2 Wellhead Sampling ................................................. 296
     13.3.3 Surface Sampling .................................................. 297
13.4 Evaluating the Representativity of Fluid Samples: Quality Checks ......... 298
13.5 Factors Affecting Sample Representativity ................................ 299
Problems ...................................................................... 301
References .................................................................... 301


Chapter 14 Compositional Analysis of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ............... 303

14.1 Introduction ............................................................. 303
14.2 Strategy of Compositional Analysis ....................................... 303
     14.2.1 Surface Samples of Separator Gas and Liquid ....................... 304
     14.2.2 Blow-Down Method .................................................. 304
     14.2.3 Direct Determination of Composition ............................... 304
14.3 Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition ........................... 305
     14.3.1 Well-Defined Components ........................................... 306
     14.3.2 Pseudo Fractions .................................................. 306
     14.3.3 Plus Fraction ..................................................... 306
14.4 Gas Chromatography ....................................................... 307
14.5 True Boiling-Point Distillation .......................................... 309
     14.5.1 Properties of TBP Cuts and Residue ................................ 310
     14.5.2 Internal Consistency of TBP Data .................................. 311
     14.5.3 Properties of TBP Cuts and Generalized Data ....................... 313
14.6 Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue ......................... 314
14.7 Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis .................. 316
Problems ...................................................................... 317
References .................................................................... 318


Chapter 15 PVT Analysis and Reservoir Fluid Properties ........................ 321

15.1 Introduction ............................................................. 321
15.2 Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ................................. 322
     15.2.1 Gases and Liquids ................................................. 323
     15.2.2 Ideal Gases ....................................................... 323
            15.2.2.1    Standard Volume ....................................... 324
     15.2.3 Real Gases ........................................................ 324
            15.2.3.1 Gas Density .............................................. 327
            15.2.3.2 Specific Gravity ......................................... 328
     15.2.4 Mixtures of Gases ................................................. 328
            15.2.4.1 Apparent Molecular Weight ................................ 328
            15.2.4.2 Critical Pressure and Temperature of Gas Mixtures ........ 329
            15.2.4.3 Determination of Compressibility Factor of Gas
                     Mixtures ................................................. 332
            15.2.4.4 Determination of Density of Gas Mixtures ................. 334
     15.2.5 Dry Gases ......................................................... 334
            15.2.5.1 Formation Volume Factor .................................. 334
            15.2.5.2 Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility ................ 336
            15.2.5.3 Viscosity ................................................ 336
     15.2.6 Wet Gases ......................................................... 338
            15.2.6.1 Recombination Cases ...................................... 338
            15.2.6.2 Formation Volume Factor .................................. 342
     15.2.7 Gas Condensates ................................................... 343
     15.2.8 Black Oils and Volatile Oils ...................................... 343
            15.2.8.1 Formation Volume Factor .................................. 344
            15.2.8.2 Solution Gas-Oil Ratio or Gas Solubility ................. 345
            15.2.8.3 Total Formation Volume Vactor ............................ 345
            15.2.8.4 Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility ................ 347
            15.2.8.5 Viscosity ................................................ 348
            15.2.8.6 Surface Tension .......................................... 349
            15.2.8.7 Volatile Oils ............................................ 351
15.3 Laboratory Tests ......................................................... 351
     15.3.1 PVT Equipment ..................................................... 352
     15.3.2 Constant Composition Expansion .................................... 354
     15.3.3 Differential Liberation ........................................... 356
     15.3.4 Constant Volume Depletion ......................................... 359
            15.3.4.1 Liquid Drop Out .......................................... 361
            15.3.4.2 Material Balance for Condensate Composition .............. 361
            15.3.4.3 Two-Phase Compressibility Factor ......................... 365
     15.3.5 Separator Tests ................................................... 365
            15.3.5.1 Optimum Separator Conditions ............................. 367
15.4 Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data .................................. 367
     15.4.1 Combination Equations ............................................. 370
            15.4.1.1 Formation Volume Factor of Oil ........................... 371
            15.4.1.2 Solution Gas-Oil Ratio ................................... 372
            15.4.1.3 Formation Volume Factor of Gas ........................... 373
            15.4.1.4 Total Formation Volume Factor ............................ 374
            15.4.1.5 Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil ......... 374
     15.4.2 Composite Liberation .............................................. 374
15.5 Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
     Fluids ................................................................... 375
     15.5.1 Empirical Correlations ............................................ 375
            15.5.1.1 Standing's Empirical Correlations ........................ 376
     15.5.2 Prediction of Viscosity from Compositional Data ................... 378
     15.5.3 Prediction of Surface Tension ..................................... 380
Problems ...................................................................... 381
References .................................................................... 387


Chapter 16 Vapors-Liquid Equilibria ........................................... 389

16.1 Introduction ............................................................. 389
16.2 Ideal Solution Principle ................................................. 390
     16.2.1 Raoult's Law ...................................................... 390
     16.2.2 Dalton's Law ...................................................... 390
     16.2.3 Equilibrium Ratio ................................................. 391
     16.2.4 Concept of PT Flash ............................................... 391
     16.2.5 Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure .............................. 393
     16.2.6 Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure ................................. 393
     16.2.7 Drawbacks of the Ideal Solution Principle ......................... 394
16.3 Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium Ratios for Real
     Solutions ................................................................ 395
     16.3.1 Wilson Equation ................................................... 395
     16.3.2 Methods Based on the Concept of Convergence Pressure .............. 396
            16.3.2.1 K-Value Charts ........................................... 399
            16.3.2.2 Whitson-Torp Correlation ................................. 403
16.4 Equations-Of-State (EOS) Models .......................................... 404
     16.4.1 Description of EOS Models ......................................... 405
            16.4.1.1 van der Waals Equation of State .......................... 405
            16.4.1.2 Redlich-Kwong Equation of State .......................... 409
            16.4.1.3 Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State .................... 410
            16.4.1.4 Peng-Robinson Equation of State .......................... 411
     16.4.2 Concept of Fugacity ............................................... 411
     16.4.3 Application of Equations of State to Pure Components .............. 412
     16.4.4 Extension of EOS Models to Mixtures ............................... 413
            16.4.4.1 Determination of Equilibrium Ratios from EOS Models ...... 416
     16.4.5 VLE Calculations Using EOS Models ................................. 418
            16.4.5.1 Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure ..................... 418
            16.4.5.2 Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure ........................ 421
            16.4.5.3 PT Flash Calculations .................................... 421
            16.4.5.4 Separator Calculations ................................... 424
            16.4.5.5 A Note About the Application of EOS Models to Real
                     Reservoir Fluids ......................................... 428
16.5 Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages ........................................ 429
Problems ...................................................................... 430
References .................................................................... 431


Chapter 17 Properties of Formation Waters ..................................... 433

17.1 Introduction ............................................................. 433
17.2 Compositional Characteristics of Formation Water ......................... 434
17.3 Bubble-Point Pressure of Formation Water ................................. 435
17.4 Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water ............................... 435
17.5 Density of Formation Water ............................................... 437
17.6 Viscosity of Formation Water ............................................. 437
17.7 Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water ............................ 438
17.8 Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons ............................ 440
     17.8.1 Water Content of Gaseous Hydrocarbons ............................. 441
     17.8.2 Water Content of Liquid Hydrocarbons .............................. 441
17.9 Compressibility of Formation Water ....................................... 442
Problems ...................................................................... 443
References .................................................................... 444

Author Index .................................................................. 445

Subject Index ................................................................. 449


Вверх Dandekar A.Y. Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties / Dandekar A.Y. - Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. - 460 p. - ISBN 0-8493-3043-2.

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