Roth J.R. Industrial plasma engineering. Vol.1. Principles
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Roth J.R. Industrial plasma engineering. Vol.1. Principles / Roth J.R. - Bristol; Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 1995. - 538 p. - ISBN 0-7503-0317-4.
 
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Volume 1: Principles

Projected Contents, Volume 2: Applications ......................... ix

Preface ............................................................ xi

Acknowledgments .................................................... xv

1  Introduction ..................................................... 1
   1.1  Organization of text ........................................ 1
   1.2  Long-Term Global Energy Issues .............................. 2
   1.3  Social Role of Industrial Plasma Engineering ............... 16
   1.4  Important Definitions ...................................... 17
   1.5  Historical Development of Plasma Physics and Engineering ... 19
   1.6  Plasma Physics Regimes and Issues .......................... 25
   1.7  Professional Interactions in Plasma Science ................ 29
        References ................................................. 32

2  Kinetic Theory of Gases ......................................... 34
   2.1  Measurement of High Vacuum ................................. 34
   2.2  Particle Distribution Functions ............................ 36
   2.3  Particle Collisions ........................................ 40
   2.4  Kinetic Characteristics in the Hard-Sphere Model ........... 44
   2.5  Direct Transport Phenomena ................................. 49
        References ................................................. 53

3  Motion of Charges in Electric and Magnetic Fields ............... 54
   3.1  Charged Particle Motion in Electric Fields ................. 54
   3.2  Charged Particle Motion in Magnetic Fields ................. 59
   3.3  Charged Particle Motion in Steady Electric and
        Magnetic Fields ............................................ 64
   3.4  Charged Particle Motion in Slowly Varying Electric or
        Magnetic Fields ............................................ 71
   3.5  Relativistic Charged Particle Motion ....................... 90
   3.6  Theory of Planar Diodes .................................... 98
   3.7  Relativistic Planar Diode ................................. 106
   3.8  Theory of Cylindrical Diodes .............................. 110
        References ................................................ 116

4  Characteristics of Plasma ...................................... 117
   4.1  Bulk Properties of Plasma ................................. 117
   4.2  Quasi-neutrality of Plasma ................................ 125
   4.3  Electrostatic Boltzmann (Barometric) Equation ............. 127
   4.4  Simple Electrostatic Plasma Sheaths ....................... 129
   4.5  Plasma Frequency .......................................... 131
   4.6  Saha Equation ............................................. 135
   4.7  Diffusive Transport in Plasmas ............................ 136
   4.8  Electron Collision Frequency .............................. 144
   4.9  Low Pressure Electrical Discharge ......................... 148
   4.10 Plasma Power Supplies ..................................... 151
        References ................................................ 158

5  Electron Sources and Beams ..................................... 159
   5.1  Thermionic Emission Sources ............................... 159
   5.2  Photoelectric Emission Sources ............................ 162
   5.3  Field Emission Sources .................................... 164
   5.4  Hollow Cathode Sources .................................... 167
   5.5  Secondary Electron Emission Sources ....................... 170
   5.6  Source and Beam Characteristics ........................... 171
   5.7  Charged Particle Beam Transport ........................... 174
        References ................................................ 187

6  Ion Sources and Beams .......................................... 189
   6.1  Characteristics of Ion Sources ............................ 189
   6.2  Figures of Merit of Ion Sources ........................... 191
   6.3  Ion Source Performance Parameters ......................... 194
   6.4  Ion Source Design ......................................... 195
   6.5  Kaufman Ion Source ........................................ 200
   6.6  Penning Discharge Sources ................................. 204
   6.7  Beam-Plasma Ion Sources ................................... 208
   6.8  Von Ardenne Ion Sources ................................... 210
   6.9  Freeman Ion Source ........................................ 214
   6.10 Miscellaneous Ion Sources ................................. 215
   6.11 Surface Ionization Sources ................................ 218
        References ................................................ 221

7  Ionizing Radiation Sources ..................................... 223
   7.1  Non-Relativistic Cyclotron ................................ 223
   7.2  Relativistic Cyclotron .................................... 225
   7.3  The Betatron .............................................. 227
   7.4  The Synchrotron ........................................... 229
   7.5  Inductive Spherical Pinch ................................. 231
   7.6  Resistive Spherical Pinch ................................. 233
   7.7  Plasma Focus .............................................. 236
        References ................................................ 236

8  Dark Electrical Discharges in Gases ............................ 237
   8.1  Background Ionization ..................................... 237
   8.2  Saturation Regime ......................................... 238
   8.3  Townsend Discharge ........................................ 240
   8.4  Corona Discharges ......................................... 251
   8.5  Corona Sources ............................................ 256
   8.6  Electrical Breakdown ...................................... 275
        References ................................................ 282

9  DC Electrical Glow Discharges in Gases ......................... 283
   9.1  Phenomenology of DC Glow Discharges ....................... 284
   9.2  Theory of DC Glow Discharges .............................. 292
   9.3  Theory of Moving Striations ............................... 308
   9.4  Theory of DC Plasma Sheaths ............................... 319
   9.5  DC Glow Discharge Plasma Sources .......................... 330
   9.6  Characteristics of Glow Discharge Reactors ................ 340
   9.7  Issues in Glow Discharge Physics .......................... 348
        References ................................................ 350

10 DC Electrical Arc Discharges in Gases .......................... 352
   10.1 Arc Regime ................................................ 352
   10.2 Phenomenology of Electrical Arcs .......................... 356
   10.3 Physical Processes in Electrical Arcs ..................... 360
   10.4 Examples of Arc Operation ................................. 371
   10.5 Power Supplies for Electrical Arcs ........................ 376
   10.6 Initiating Mechanisms for Arcs ............................ 378
   10.7 Applied Arc Configurations ................................ 379
   10.8 Issues in Arc Physics ..................................... 389
        References ................................................ 390

11 Inductive RF Electrical Discharges in Gases .................... 391
   11.1 Introduction .............................................. 391
   11.2 Phenomenology of RF-Plasma Interactions ................... 393
   11.3 Skin Depth of Plasma ...................................... 398
   11.4 Inductive Plasma Torch .................................... 404
   11.5 Other Methods of Generating Inductive Plasmas ............. 411
        References ................................................ 416

12 Capacitive RF Electrical Discharges in Gases ................... 417
   12.1 Unmagnetized RF Electrical Discharges ..................... 417
   12.2 Magnetized RF Electrical Discharges ....................... 422
   12.3 Theory of RF Plasma Sheaths ............................... 435
   12.4 Capacitively Coupled RF Plasma Sources .................... 440
   12.5 Examples of Capacitive RF Plasma Reactors ................. 450
   12.6 Issues in Capacitively Coupled Plasma Sources ............. 461
   12.7 Applications of Capacitively Coupled Reactors ............. 462
        References ................................................ 462

13 Microwave Electrical Discharges in Gases ....................... 464
   13.1 Introduction .............................................. 464
   13.2 Electromagnetic Propagation in the Collective Regime ...... 470
   13.3 Microwave Breakdown of Gases .............................. 481
   13.4 ECR Microwave Plasma Sources .............................. 501
   13.5 Non-resonant Microwave Plasma Sources ..................... 508
        References ................................................ 514

Appendices ........................................................ 516

A Nomenclature .................................................... 516

B Physical Constants .............................................. 523

C Units and Conversion Factors .................................... 524

D Useful Formulas ................................................. 526

Index ............................................................. 528

About the Author .................................................. 537


Вверх Roth J.R. Industrial plasma engineering. Vol.1. Principles / Roth J.R. - Bristol; Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 1995. - 538 p. - ISBN 0-7503-0317-4.

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