Schwartz M. New materials, processes, and methods technology
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Schwartz M. New materials, processes, and methods technology / Schwartz M. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2006. - 686 p. - ISBN 0-8493-2053-4.
 
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   1 Introduction ......................................................... 1
     References .......................................................... 12

   2 Nanotechnology ...................................................... 13
     Nanoscience / Nanotechnology ........................................ 13
     Nanofabrication / Nanoassembly ...................................... 19
        Atomic Bit Processing ............................................ 19
        Nanomaterials .................................................... 21
        Synthesis: Metals / Intermetallics ............................... 26
        Sol-Gel Methods .................................................. 27
        Compaction ....................................................... 28
        Silicon-Based Nanostructures ..................................... 29
        Hybrid Semiconductors — Molecular Nanoelectronics ................ 31
     Hybrid Circuits ..................................................... 31
     Nanophase Materials ................................................. 33
        Producing Nanophase Particles .................................... 33
        Grain Boundaries / Size .......................................... 35
     Nanostructured Oxides ............................................... 35
     Nanostructured Nitrides and Carbonitrides ........................... 37
     Nanocomposites ...................................................... 37
        Background ....................................................... 37
        Some Typical Material Types and Processing Methods ............... 39
        Modeling ......................................................... 46
     Polymer Nanocomposites .............................................. 47
        Properties of PNCs ............................................... 50
     Some Applications of Nanotechnology ................................. 51
        Films/Coatings ................................................... 51
        Nanoelectronics .................................................. 55
        New Bone Materials ............................................... 57
        Shoes ............................................................ 57
        Biosensors / Computational Optoelectronics ....................... 58
        Molecular Electronics ............................................ 58
        Inorganic Nanowires .............................................. 58
        Lubricants ....................................................... 58
        Polyesters ....................................................... 59
        Cellulose Materials .............................................. 60
        Automotive ....................................................... 60
        Protection of Food Supply ........................................ 61
        Optics ........................................................... 61
        Building Blocks (Carbon Tubules) ................................. 61
        Motors ........................................................... 62
        Switches ......................................................... 63
        Rules and Measuring Devices ...................................... 63
        Piezoceramics .................................................... 64
        Clothing ......................................................... 65
        Clusters ......................................................... 66
        Cosmetics ........................................................ 66
        Nanowire Arrays .................................................. 66
        Nanobatteries .................................................... 67
     Future and Potential ................................................ 68
        Challenges ....................................................... 68
        Self-Assembly .................................................... 69
        Next Decade ...................................................... 70
     References .......................................................... 71
     Bibliography ........................................................ 75

   3 Carbon-Carbon Composites ............................................ 77
     Introduction ........................................................ 77
     Graphite and Carbon-Carbon Composites ............................... 78
     Carbon Fiber and Matrix Materials ................................... 82
        Carbon Fibers .................................................... 82
        Matrix Materials ................................................. 87
        Thermosetting Resins ............................................. 88
        Tar Pitch Resins ................................................. 88
     Carbon Fiber Structure .............................................. 89
        Rayon-Based Carbon Fibers ........................................ 90
        Pan-Based Carbon Fibers .......................................... 93
        Pitch-Derived Carbon Fibers ...................................... 94
        Fiber Structure and Architecture ................................. 96
        Weaving .......................................................... 97
        Multidirectional Preforms ........................................ 99
        Braiding ........................................................ 101
     Matrix Precursors .................................................. 104
     C/C Significant Properties ......................................... 113
        Mechanical Properties ........................................... 113
        High-Temperature Mechanical Properties .......................... 116
        Fatigue Properties .............................................. 116
        Fracture Toughness .............................................. 117
        Thermal Properties .............................................. 118
           Thermal Conductivity at High Temperatures .................... 120
           Thermal Expansion ............................................ 120
        Processing Effects on Mechanical Properties ..................... 120
     Oxidation Protection ............................................... 122
        Low-Temperature Protection (Up to 1000°C) ....................... 124
        Protection up to 1800°C ......................................... 125
           Chemical Vapor Deposition .................................... 126
           Chemical Vapor Infiltration .................................. 127
           Chemical Vapor Reaction ...................................... 127
     Protection Beyond 1800°C ........................................... 128
     NDE of Coatings .................................................... 131
     Fabrication Processes / Techniques ................................. 132
        Mechanical Fastening ............................................ 133
           Bushings ..................................................... 133
           Tolerances ................................................... 133
           Locking Fasteners ............................................ 134
        Brazing ......................................................... 134
        High-Energy Electron Beam (HEEB) ................................ 139
     Applications ....................................................... 141
        Brakes and Clutches ............................................. 142
        Pistons ......................................................... 150
        Rocket Motors ................................................... 152
        Heat Shields (Thermal Protection Systems) ....................... 154
        Aero-Engine Components .......................................... 155
        Biomedical Devices .............................................. 156
     Industrial and Miscellaneous Applications .......................... 157
        Reflective Panels ............................................... 157
        Ion-Accelerator Grids ........................................... 158
        Glass Making .................................................... 160
        High-Temperature Mechanical Fasteners ........................... 160
        Molds for Forming Superplastic Metals ........................... 161
        Hot-Press Dies .................................................. 161
        Hot Gas Ducts ................................................... 162
        Furnace Heating Elements and Charging Stages .................... 162
     Summary ............................................................ 165
     References ......................................................... 166
     Bibliography ....................................................... 171

   4 Shape Memory Alloys / Effect ....................................... 175
     Introduction ....................................................... 175
     One-Way Shape Memory Effect ........................................ 176
     Two-Way Shape Memory Effect ........................................ 178
        How It Works .................................................... 179
           Superelastic Effect .......................................... 180
     SMA Systems ........................................................ 180
        Fe-based Alloys ................................................. 182
        Cu-based Alloys ................................................. 184
           Transformation Temperatures / Quenching ...................... 185
           The Influence of the Composition ............................. 185
           Influence of Grain-Refining Elements Forming Precipitates..... 188
           Influence of Grain Size ...................................... 188
           Influence of Defects ......................................... 188
        Ni-Ti Alloys .................................................... 190
           Influence of Strain Rate on Deformation ...................... 192
        Ternary Ni-Ti Alloy Systems ..................................... 192
           Ni-Ti-Cu ..................................................... 192
           Ti-Ni-Nb ..................................................... 193
           Ni-Ti-Zr ..................................................... 193
           Ni-Ti-Pd ..................................................... 194
           Ni-Ti-Hf ..................................................... 194
           High-Temperature SMAs ........................................ 196
        Composite Materials ............................................. 197
           Ni-Ti-Al ..................................................... 197
           Ni-Ti-TiC .................................................... 197
        Other Types of SMAs ............................................. 197
           Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Alloys ........................................ 198
        Hybrid Composites ............................................... 198
           SMA Fiber / Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) ................... 198
           SMA Fiber / Polymer Matrix Composites ........................ 199
           SMA Particulate / Al Matrix Composites ....................... 201
           Ceramic Particulate / SMA Matrix Composites .................. 202
           Magnetic Particulate / SMA Matrix Composites ................. 203
     Material Forms ..................................................... 204
     Design Constraints and Considerations .............................. 205
        General Guidelines .............................................. 205
     Material Processing Techniques ..................................... 207
        Cu-Al-Ni-based SMA .............................................. 207
     Fabrication Techniques ............................................. 208
        Joining ......................................................... 208
           Fundamental Difference ....................................... 208
        Fusion Welding of SMAs .......................................... 209
        Solid-State Welding of SMAs ..................................... 210
        Alternative Processes for Joining ............................... 211
           Transient Liquid Phase Bonding ............................... 212
           Work To Be Done .............................................. 212
        Superplastic Forming ............................................ 213
        Forming ......................................................... 213
        Machining ....................................................... 214
        Design for Assembly ............................................. 214
           Micromachining and Fabrication of SMA Microdevices ........... 214
        Laser Machining ................................................. 217
     SMA Applications ................................................... 217
        Aeronautics / Aerospace ......................................... 217
           Leading-Edge Deicing ......................................... 220
           Helicopter Smart Materials ................................... 222
        Consumer Products ............................................... 222
        Commercial / Industrial Safety .................................. 225
        Medical ......................................................... 226
        Automotive ...................................................... 233
        Industrial / Civil Engineering .................................. 234
           Reinforcing or Decommissioning Structures .................... 235
        Power Generation System ......................................... 236
        Miscellaneous ................................................... 239
           Springs for Isolation Devices ................................ 241
        Electronics ..................................................... 241
           Microactuators ............................................... 243
           Ni-Ti Thin Films ............................................. 243
           Microrobotics and Microdevices ............................... 245
           Specialized Actuator Applications ............................ 248
     Future Trends and Prospects ........................................ 255
        Final Remarks on Future Prospects ............................... 256
        SMPs ............................................................ 258
           SMP Advantages ............................................... 258
     References ......................................................... 259
     Bibliography ....................................................... 270

   5 Nanostructured Materials (NSM) ..................................... 273
     Structure and Properties of NSM .................................... 276
     Nanocrystals and Nanocrystalline Materials ......................... 277
        Nanocrystals .................................................... 277
        Nanocrystalline Materials ....................................... 281
     Nanocrystalline Processing ......................................... 286
        Sintering ....................................................... 287
        CVS ............................................................. 288
     Nanocomposites ..................................................... 290
        Ceramics ........................................................ 290
        Sintering ....................................................... 292
        Other Processes ................................................. 295
           Solid-State Thermolysis of Polymer Precursors ................ 295
        Powder-Making ................................................... 295
           Explosive Energy ............................................. 296
           Polymer / Clay ............................................... 297
           Polymer / Silica ............................................. 301
           Laminated .................................................... 302
           Extrusions ................................................... 303
     Nanomanufacturing .................................................. 304
     Nanocomposite Applications and Directions .......................... 306
        Automotive ...................................................... 306
        Coatings ........................................................ 307
        Gas Phase Condensation (GPC) .................................... 309
        MEMS ............................................................ 310
        Medical ......................................................... 310
        Textile / Clothing .............................................. 310
        Micro Springs ................................................... 311
        Computers ....................................................... 313
        Miscellaneous ................................................... 314
     Nanoparticles ...................................................... 314
     Nanopowders ........................................................ 324
        Approaches to Powder Fabrication ................................ 324
           CVD .......................................................... 324
           Laser Synthesis .............................................. 324
           Microwave Energy Transfer .................................... 326
           Mechanical Alloying (MA) ..................................... 329
           Severe Plastic Deformation ................................... 329
           High-Energy Ball Milling ..................................... 330
        Densification and Treatment ..................................... 331
        Applications .................................................... 332
     Nanowires .......................................................... 335
     Nanobelts .......................................................... 335
     Nanofilms .......................................................... 336
     Nanocircuits ....................................................... 336
     Nanowhiskers ....................................................... 337
     Nanocapsules ....................................................... 341
     Nanospheres ........................................................ 342
     Nanofibers ......................................................... 343
     Nanoceramics / Shells .............................................. 343
     Nanoantennas ....................................................... 344
     Nanoelectronics .................................................... 345
        Hybrid Circuits ................................................. 346
        Neuromorphic Networks ........................................... 347
        Self-Evolution .................................................. 348
     References ......................................................... 349
     Bibliography ....................................................... 353

   6 Powder Metallurgy (P/M) ............................................ 357
     Introduction ....................................................... 357
        Definition ...................................................... 357
     Materials .......................................................... 358
        Titanium Alloys ................................................. 358
        Intermetallics .................................................. 359
        Composites ...................................................... 360
        Copper-Iron-Cobalt Alloys ....................................... 362
        Rhenium ......................................................... 362
        Cermets ......................................................... 364
        Cemented Carbides ............................................... 365
        Tungsten-Based Heavy Alloys...................................... 365
     Processes for Powder Production .................................... 366
     Status of MA ....................................................... 366
        Solid Solubility Processing ..................................... 367
        Plasma Processing (PP) .......................................... 368
        Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) ................................. 368
        Novel Plasma Process ............................................ 369
        Plasma Melting .................................................. 369
        Plasma Discharge Spheroidization (PDS) .......................... 371
     Spray Compaction ................................................... 372
     Other Innovative Advanced P/M Processes ............................ 372
        Warm Compaction ................................................. 372
        Cold Forming .................................................... 373
        Dynamic Magnetic Compaction ..................................... 374
        Laser Manufacturing / Processing ................................ 374
     Processes for Part Fabrication ..................................... 375
     Specialty Production Processes: Powder-Injection Molding ........... 376
        What Is PIM? .................................................... 376
        Design and Material Considerations .............................. 378
        Materials and Trends ............................................ 379
     Another Specialty Production Process: Metal Injection
      Molding (MIM) ..................................................... 380
        Material Basics ................................................. 381
        Debind and Sinter ............................................... 382
        MIM vs. Other Processes ......................................... 383
     Typical Applications ............................................... 385
     References ......................................................... 388
     Bibliography ....................................................... 390

   7 Nanotubes .......................................................... 393
     Introduction ....................................................... 393
        Definition and Structure ........................................ 393
     Growth and Fabrication ............................................. 395
     Properties ......................................................... 401
        Mechanical Properties ........................................... 402
        Composite-Reinforced Properties ................................. 402
        Electrical Properties ........................................... 405
        Thermal Properties .............................................. 406
        Other Properties ................................................ 406
     Dialing-Up Properties .............................................. 407
     Other Nanotube Materials ........................................... 409
     Welding Nanotubes .................................................. 412
     Applications ....................................................... 413
        DNA ............................................................. 413
        Military and Space .............................................. 414
        Composites ...................................................... 415
        Medical ......................................................... 416
        Commercial Products and Fiber Optics ............................ 417
        Electronics ..................................................... 420
     Future Potential ................................................... 424
     References ......................................................... 426
     Bibliography ....................................................... 428

   8 Functionally Gradient Materials .................................... 431
     Introduction ....................................................... 431
     Definition and Design of FGMs ...................................... 431
        Definition ...................................................... 431
        Design .......................................................... 432
     Material Combinations .............................................. 437
     Fabrication / Processing Methods ................................... 443
        Joining FGMs .................................................... 460
     Properties ......................................................... 461
     Applications ....................................................... 462
        Dental Implant .................................................. 462
        Building Materials .............................................. 463
        Ballistic Protection ............................................ 463
        Temperature Sensors ............................................. 464
     References ......................................................... 466
     Bibliography ....................................................... 470

   9 Microelectromechanical Systems ..................................... 473
     Introduction ....................................................... 473
     What Are MEMS? ..................................................... 474
     MEMS Design ........................................................ 475
     Types of MEMS ...................................................... 476
     Fabrication ........................................................ 478
        UV Lasers ....................................................... 478
           Photo Ablation ............................................... 480
           Protective Film Technique .................................... 480
           What Is Left? ................................................ 482
           Debris Removal Methods ....................................... 482
        Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition ....................... 483
        Wafer-Level Membrane Transfer Process ........................... 486
        Micromachines ................................................... 486
     Manufacturing MEMS ................................................. 487
     Applications ....................................................... 488
     Future Potential ................................................... 496
        Packaging Advancements .......................................... 497
           MEMS Component Challenges .................................... 497
           Assembly Automation Design Considerations .................... 498
        Future Work ..................................................... 499
     References ......................................................... 500
     Bibliography ....................................................... 501

  10 Fuel Cells ......................................................... 503
     Introduction ....................................................... 503
     What Is a Fuel Cell? ............................................... 504
     Major Types and Operations ......................................... 505
        Proton Exchange Membrane ........................................ 506
        Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ........................................... 509
           Basic Science Behind SOFCs ................................... 509
        Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) ............................... 519
        Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) ................................ 519
        Other Fuel Cells ................................................ 520
     Applications in Transportation ..................................... 522
        Automotive ...................................................... 523
        Motorcycles, Scooters, and Water Taxis .......................... 524
        Locomotives, Submarines, Ferries, and Yachts .................... 524
        Trucks and Buses ................................................ 525
        Auxiliary Power Units ........................................... 526
     Applications in Commercial Sector .................................. 526
        Cell Phones / Computers ......................................... 526
        DC Rotary Motors ................................................ 530
        Office Buildings / Residential Homes / Hotels ................... 531
        Communications Equipment ........................................ 532
        Forklifts ....................................................... 532
        Power Plant ..................................................... 532
        Medical Implants ................................................ 533
        Power Supply Equipment .......................................... 533
        Life-Cycle Cost Savings ......................................... 534
        Musical Band .................................................... 534
        Sailboats / Powerboats .......................................... 534
     Future ............................................................. 534
     References ......................................................... 542
     Bibliography ....................................................... 544

  11 Liquid Crystal Polymers / Interpenetrating Network for
     Polymers / Interpenetrating Phase Ceramics ......................... 545
     Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP) ...................................... 545
        Introduction .................................................... 545
        Types (Classes) and Properties .................................. 546
           Polymer Classes .............................................. 546
           Classes ...................................................... 547
           Forms ........................................................ 550
        Properties Especially Affecting Design .......................... 553
        Properties and How They Affect Molding .......................... 556
        Other Properties ................................................ 556
        Processing ...................................................... 557
        Applications .................................................... 559
     Interpenetrating Network (IPN) ..................................... 562
        Introduction .................................................... 562
        Types ........................................................... 562
        Processes ....................................................... 563
        Applications .................................................... 564
     Interpenetrating Phase Ceramics (IPCs) ............................. 565
     References ......................................................... 565
     Bibliography ....................................................... 566

  12 Processes and Fabrication .......................................... 569
     Introduction ....................................................... 569
     Composite Processes ................................................ 569
        Dry Process for PI/C and B: Fiber Tape .......................... 569
        Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) ................................... 571
        RTM / CoRTM / VARTM / RARTM ..................................... 575
        Infusion Processes: Resin Film Infusion (RFI) / DIAB Method ..... 580
     Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) .................................... 584
     Metal Matrix Composites ............................................ 586
     Advanced Fibers / Whiskers / Particulates .......................... 588
        Siboramic Fibers ................................................ 588
        TiB Whiskers .................................................... 588
     Biocomposites ...................................................... 590
        Crystaloy™ or CxA ............................................... 591
     Laser Processes .................................................... 591
        Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) ............................. 593
           Process Basics ............................................... 594
           Process Pluses ............................................... 596
           LENS as a Tool ............................................... 596
        Peening ......................................................... 598
           Square Beam .................................................. 599
        Welding ......................................................... 600
        Surface Treatment ............................................... 602
        Glazing and Cladding ............................................ 605
    Coatings ............................................................ 606
        Trends .......................................................... 607
           High-Temperature Coatings Design ............................. 607
           High-Temperature Coating Types ............................... 607
        Processes for Applying Coatings ................................. 608
           Degradation Modes ............................................ 608
           Engineering Considerations ................................... 609
           Life-Cycle Factors ........................................... 610
           Chemical Vapor Deposition .................................... 611
           Ion Beam Enhanced Deposition (IBED) .......................... 613
           Plasma Vapor Deposition ...................................... 615
           Vapor Plasma Spraying (VPS) .................................. 618
     Thermal Spray Processes ............................................ 620
     Metal Spray Processes .............................................. 624
     Friction Stir Processes (FSP) ...................................... 624
        Friction Stir Processing for Superplasticity .................... 624
        Friction Stir Welding (FSW) ..................................... 627
     Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) ....................................... 628
     Ceramic Welding .................................................... 630
     Ceramic Joining .................................................... 631
     Adhesives .......................................................... 633
     Wire Bonding ....................................................... 636
     Nitrocarburizing ................................................... 637
        Process ......................................................... 637
     Vacuum Carburizing ................................................. 639
     Electrospinning .................................................... 641
        Process ......................................................... 641
        Applications .................................................... 641
     Spinning Spider Silk ............................................... 643
     Press Forming Thermoplastics ....................................... 644
     Ion Implantation ................................................... 646
     Gelcasting ......................................................... 648
        Applications .................................................... 652
     Robocasting ........................................................ 653
     Rapid Prototyping .................................................. 654
     Plasma-Assisted Boriding ........................................... 656
     Net-Shape P/M ...................................................... 658
     Rheocasting Processes .............................................. 660
        Semisolid Casting ............................................... 660
     Investment Casting ................................................. 663
        Single Crystals ................................................. 663
        Single Crystal Ceramics ......................................... 664
           Applications ................................................. 666
           Other Applications and the Market ............................ 668
     Microwave Processing ............................................... 668
        Drilling ........................................................ 668
        Casting and Sintering ........................................... 669
     Flowforming ........................................................ 670
     X-Ray Inspection ................................................... 670
        Microfocus X-Ray Inspection Systems ............................. 671
        Nanofocus X-Ray Inspection ...................................... 672
        Future of X-Ray Inspection ...................................... 672
        References ...................................................... 673
        Bibliography .................................................... 678

     Index .............................................................. 681


Вверх Schwartz M. New materials, processes, and methods technology / Schwartz M. - Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2006. - 686 p. - ISBN 0-8493-2053-4.

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