Flewitt P.E.J. Physical methods for materials characterisation
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Flewitt P.E.J. Physical methods for materials characterisation / Flewitt P.E.J., Wild R.K. - 2nd ed. - Bristol: Institute of Physics, 2003. - 602 p. - (Series in materials science and engineering; vol.6). - ISBN 0-7503-0808-7.
 
ОглавлениеСноска

Preface to second edition ............................................. x

Preface .............................................................. xi

1 Introduction ........................................................ 1
  1.1  Introduction ................................................... 1
  1.2  Atom bonding ................................................... 1
  1.3  Ceramics ....................................................... 6
  1.4  Semiconductors ................................................. 8
  1.5  Glasses ........................................................ 9
  1.6  Metals and alloys ............................................. 11
  1.7  Polymers ...................................................... 11
  1.8  Composite materials ........................................... 13
  1.9  Microstructure ................................................ 14
  1.10 References .................................................... 18

2 Interaction of radiation with materials ............................ 21
  2.1  Radiation sources ............................................. 21
  2.2  Penetration depths ............................................ 22
  2.3  Material damage ............................................... 33
  2.4  Resolution .................................................... 38
  2.5  Loss processes ................................................ 38
  2.6  Atom and ion processes ........................................ 47
  2.7  Effect of high electric fields ................................ 48
  2.8  Acoustic phenomena ............................................ 49
  2.9  References .................................................... 50

3 Vacuum systems ..................................................... 53
  3.1  Introduction .................................................. 53
  3.2  Kinetic theory of gases ....................................... 53
  3.3  Production of vacuum .......................................... 55
  3.4  Vacuum pumps .................................................. 60
  3.5  Pressure measurement .......................................... 68
  3.6  Leak detection ................................................ 73
  3.7  Specimen handling ............................................. 74
  3.8  References .................................................... 74

4 Diffraction ........................................................ 76
  4.1  Electromagnetic radiation ..................................... 76
  4.2  Photons ....................................................... 78
  4.3  X-ray diffraction ............................................. 89
  4.4  Electron diffraction ......................................... 129
  4.5  References ................................................... 171

5 Photo/electromagnetic sources ..................................... 176
  5.1  Introduction ................................................. 176
  5.2  Resolution ................................................... 177
  5.3  Lens defects ................................................. 179
  5.4  Light microscopy ............................................. 182
  5.5  Laser microscopy ............................................. 199
  5.6  Acoustic microscopy .......................................... 213
  5.7  Infrared microscopy .......................................... 223
  5.8  X-ray microscopy ............................................. 226
  5.9  X-ray topography ............................................. 233
  5.10 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ............................. 236
  5.11 Autoradiography .............................................. 254
  5.12 Mossbauer spectroscopy ....................................... 256
  5.13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ................................... 263
  5.14 Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ............. 266
  5.15 References ................................................... 268

6 Electron sources .................................................. 274
  6.1  Introduction ................................................. 274
  6.2  Scanning electron microscopy ................................. 274
  6.3  Electron probe microanalysis ................................. 297
  6.4  Transmission electron microscopy ............................. 324
  6.5  Electron energy-loss spectrometry ............................ 393
  6.6  Auger electron spectroscopy .................................. 411
  6.7  References ................................................... 440

7 Atom/ion sources .................................................. 451
  7.1  Introduction ................................................. 451
  7.2  Ion scattering spectroscopy .................................. 452
  7.3  Rutherford backscattering .................................... 457
  7.4  Proton backscattering ........................................ 463
  7.5  Secondary ion mass spectroscopy .............................. 463
  7.6  Sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy .......................... 489
  7.7  Field ion microscopy ......................................... 493
  7.8  Scanning probe microscopy .................................... 501
  7.9  Particle induced X-ray emission .............................. 513
  7.10 Glow discharge spectroscopy .................................. 517
  7.11 References ................................................... 519

8 Application of computers .......................................... 523
  8.1  Introduction ................................................. 523
  8.2  Instrument control ........................................... 524
  8.3  Computer aided instruction ................................... 525
  8.4  Data acquisition ............................................. 527
  8.5  Data processing and analysis ................................. 530
  8.6  Image quantification ......................................... 542
  8.7  Data bases ................................................... 556
  8.8  Data transfer ................................................ 558
  8.9  Expert systems ............................................... 558
  8.10 Computer simulation .......................................... 562
  8.11 Future developments .......................................... 568
  8.12 References ................................................... 570

Appendix 1 List of symbols used in book ............................. 574

Appendix 2.1 Commonly used conversion factors ....................... 576

Appendix 2.2 Wavelength of selected radiation sources ............... 577

Appendix 3 Physical constants ....................................... 578

Appendix 4 Acronyms for techniques .................................. 574

Appendix 5 Electron structure of elements ........................... 583

Index ............................................................... 587


Вверх Flewitt P.E.J. Physical methods for materials characterisation / Flewitt P.E.J., Wild R.K. - 2nd ed. - Bristol: Institute of Physics, 2003. - 602 p. - (Series in materials science and engineering; vol.6). - ISBN 0-7503-0808-7.

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