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ОбложкаCheremisinoff N.P. Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs): contaminants of concern. - Hoboken: Wiley; Beverly: Scrivener Publishing, 2017. - xxiv, 239 p.: ill., tab. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.29-239. - ISBN 978-1-119-36353-8
Шифр: (И/Е08-C51) 02

 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ ix
About the Author ............................................... xv
Abbreviations and Acronyms ................................... xvii
Useful Conversion Factors ..................................... xxi
1  What Fluoropolymers Are ...................................... 1
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ 1
   1.2  Evolution of Fluoropolymers and the Markets ............. 3
   1.3  PFAS Compounds .......................................... 6
        1.3.1  General Description .............................. 6
        1.3.2  How They Are Made ............................... 10
        1.3.3  The Proliferation of PFAS ....................... 15
   1.4  Terminology ............................................ 17
   References .................................................. 19
2  Definitions, Uses, and Evolution of PFCs .................... 21
   2.1  Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Of Interest ............ 21
   2.2  The PFC Family ......................................... 43
   2.3  PFOS ................................................... 44
   2.4  PFOA ................................................... 49
   2.5  Fluorotelomers ......................................... 50
   References .................................................. 52
3  Fire Fighting Foams ......................................... 55
   3.1  What AFFFs Are ......................................... 55
   3.2  Environmental Impacts .................................. 58
   References .................................................. 62
4  Health Risk Studies ......................................... 63
   4.1  General ................................................ 63
   4.2  PFOA ................................................... 65
   4.3  PFOS ................................................... 77
   4.4  EFSA - EU Food and Safety Authority Findings ........... 77
   References .................................................. 90
5  Overview of the Environmental Concerns ...................... 91
   5.1  Where It All Began ..................................... 91
   5.2  Emerging Contaminants of Concern ....................... 93
   5.3  PFOS ................................................... 96
   5.4  PFOA .................................................. 100
   References ................................................. 107
6  The Supply Chain and Pathways to Contamination ............. 109
   6.1  Losses Along the Supply Chain and End of Life ......... 109
   6.2  Consumer Articles ..................................... 119
   6.3  Consumer Exposure to PFOS And PFOA .................... 124
   References ................................................. 127
7  Standards, Advisories, and Restrictions .................... 129
   7.1  Extent of Groundwater Contamination in the United
        States ................................................ 129
   7.2  The U.S. Water Quality Standards ...................... 133
   7.3  Remedial Guidelines ................................... 142
   7.4  Standards in Other Countries .......................... 143
        7.4.1  United Kingdom ................................. 144
        7.4.2  Canada ......................................... 144
        7.4.3  Germany ........................................ 145
        7.4.4  Norway ......................................... 145
        7.4.5  European Union (EU) ............................ 146
        7.4.6  OECD ........................................... 148
        7.4.7  Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
               Pollutants (POPs) .............................. 149
        7.4.8  United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
               (ECE) .......................................... 150
   References ................................................. 151
8  Overview of Water Treatment Technology Options ............. 153
   8.1  Technology Options .................................... 153
   8.2  Case Studies, Literature, and Technologies ............ 156
   Reference .................................................. 163
9  Adsorption Technology ...................................... 165
   9.1  Overview .............................................. 165
   9.2  Activated Carbon and Other Carbonaceous Adsorbents .... 169
   9.3  Zeolites .............................................. 178
   9.4  Polymeric Adsorbents .................................. 179
   9.5  Oxidic Adsorbents ..................................... 180
   9.6  Adsorption Theory Basics and Isotherms ................ 181
   9.7  Adsorption of PFOA .................................... 186
   9.8  Hardware and Operational Considerations ............... 189
   9.9  Backwashing ........................................... 196
   9.10 Permitting ............................................ 197
   9.11 Spent Carbon Management ............................... 197
   9.12 Recommended References ................................ 198
   References ................................................. 201
10 Case Studies ............................................... 203
   10.1 PFOA in Southern New Hampshire ........................ 203
   10.2 Former Wurtsmith Air Force Base ....................... 206
   10.3 Dupont Washington Works in West Virginia .............. 213
   10.4 PFC Contamination in Minnesota ........................ 218
   References ................................................. 228
Index ......................................................... 229


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