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ОбложкаRoth S. One-dimensional metals: conjugated polymers, organic crystals, carbon nanotubes and graphene / S.Roth, D.Carroll. - 3rd comp. rev. a. enl. ed. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2015. - xviii, 342 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.335-342. - ISBN 978-3-527-33557-2
Шифр: (И/Л7-R82) 02

 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
About the Authors .............................................. XI
Preface to the Third Edition ................................. XIII
Preface to the Second Edition .................................. XV
Preface to the First Edition ................................. XVII

1  Introduction ................................................. 1
1.1  Dimensionality ............................................. 1
1.2  Approaching One-Dimensionality from Outside and from
     Inside ..................................................... 2
1.3  Dimensionality of Carbon Solids ............................ 7
     1.3.1  Three-Dimensional Carbon: Diamond ................... 7
     1.3.2  Two-Dimensional Carbon: Graphite .................... 8
     1.3.3  One-Dimensional Carbon: Cumulene, Polycarbyne,
            Polyene ............................................. 9
     1.3.4  Zero-Dimensional Carbon: Fullerene ................. 11
     1.3.5  What about Something in between? ................... 12
1.4  Peculiarities of One-Dimensional Systems .................. 13
     References ................................................ 17

2    One-Dimensional Substances ................................ 19
2.1  A15 Compounds ............................................. 23
2.2  Krogmann Salts ............................................ 27
2.3  Alchemists' Gold .......................................... 29
2.4  Bechgaard Salts and Other Charge Transfer Compounds ....... 31
2.5  Polysulfurnitride ......................................... 34
2.6  Phthalocyanines and Other Macrocycles ..................... 36
2.7  Transition Metal Chalcogenides and Halides ................ 38
2.8  Conducting Polymers ....................................... 40
2.9  Halogen-Bridged Mixed-Valence Transition Metal Complexes .. 44
2.10 Miscellaneous ............................................. 45
     2.10.1 Poly-deckers ....................................... 45
     2.10.2 Polycarbenes ....................................... 46
2.11 Isolated Nanowires ........................................ 46
     2.11.1 Templates and Filled Pores ......................... 46
     2.11.2 Asymmetric Growth Using Catalysts .................. 48
     2.11.1 Carbon Nanotubes ................................... 49
     2.11.4 Inorganic Semiconductor Quantum Wires .............. 51
     2.11.5 Metal Nanowires .................................... 52
2.12 Summary ................................................... 53
     References ................................................ 53

3  One-Dimensional Solid-State Physics ......................... 57
3.1  Crystal Lattice and Translation Symmetry .................. 57
     3.1.1  Classifying the Lattice ............................ 59
     3.1.2  Using a Coordinate System .......................... 62
     3.1.3  The One-Dimensional Lattice ........................ 63
     3.1.4  Carbon Nanotubes as One-Dimensional Lattices ....... 65
3.2  Reciprocal Lattice, Reciprocal Space ...................... 67
     3.2.1  Describing Objects Using Momentum and Energy ....... 67
     3.2.2  Constructing the Reciprocal Lattice ................ 68
     3.2.3  Applying This to One Dimension ..................... 69
3.3  The Dynamic Crystal and Dispersion Relations .............. 71
     3.3.1  Crystal Vibrations and Phonons ..................... 71
     3.3.2  Quantum Considerations with Phonons ................ 79
     3.3.3  Counting Phonons ................................... 81
3.4  Phonons and Electrons Are Different ....................... 83
     3.4.1  Electron Waves ..................................... 84
     3.4.2  Electron Statistics ................................ 85
     3.4.3  The Fermi Surface .................................. 86
     3.4.4  The Free Electron Model ............................ 87
     3.4.5  Nearly Free Electron Model; Energy Bands, Energy
            Gap, and Density of States ......................... 91
     3.4.6  The Molecular Orbital Approach ..................... 97
     3.4.7  Returning to Carbon Nanotubes ...................... 98
3.5  Summary .................................................. 102
     References ............................................... 102

4    Electron-Phonon Coupling and the Peierls Transition ...... 105
4.1  The Peierls Distortion ................................... 107
4.2  Phonon Softening and the Kohn Anomaly .................... 111
4.3  Fermi Surface Warping .................................... 112
4.4  Beyond Electron-Phonon Coupling .......................... 113
     References ............................................... 114

5    Conducting Polymers: Solitons and Polarons ............... 117
5.1  General Remarks .......................................... 117
5.2  Conjugated Double Bonds .................................. 119
5.3  A Molecular Picture ...................................... 122
     5.3.1  Bonding and Antibonding States .................... 123
     5.3.2  The Polyenes ...................................... 123
     5.3.3  Translating to Blochs Theorem ..................... 128
5.4  Conjugational Defects .................................... 132
5.5  Solitons ................................................. 136
5.6  Generation of Solitons ................................... 144
5.7  Nondegenerate Ground-State Polymers: Polarons ............ 146
5.8  Fractional Charges ....................................... 151
5.9  Soliton Lifetime ......................................... 153
     References ............................................... 156

6    Conducting Polymers: Conductivity ........................ 159
6.1  General Remarks on Conductivity .......................... 159
6.2  Measuring Conductivities ................................. 164
     6.2.1  Simple Conductivity ............................... 164
     6.2.2  Conductivity in a Magnetic Field .................. 168
     6.2.3  Conductivity of Small Particles ................... 169
     6.2.4  Conductivity of High-Impedance Samples ............ 171
     6.2.5  Conductivity Measurements without Contacts ........ 171
     6.2.6  Thermoelectric Power - the Seebeck Effect ......... 172
6.3  Conductivity in One Dimension: Localization .............. 175
6.4  Conductivity and Solitons ................................ 178
6.5  Experimental Data ........................................ 182
6.6  Hopping Conductivity: Variable Range Hopping vs.
     Fluctuation-Assisted Tunneling ........................... 186
6.7  Conductivity of Highly Conducting Polymers ............... 195
6.8  Magnetoresistance ........................................ 197
     References ............................................... 202

7    Superconductivity ........................................ 209
7.1  Basic Phenomena .......................................... 209
7.2  Measuring Superconductivity .............................. 216
7.3  Applications of Superconductivity ........................ 218
7.4  Superconductivity and Dimensionality ..................... 219
7.5  Organic Superconductors .................................. 220
     7.5.1  One-Dimensional Organic Superconductors ........... 222
     7.5.2  Two-Dimensional Organic Superconductors ........... 225
     7.5.3  Three-Dimensional Organic Superconductors ......... 227
7.6  Future Prospects ......................................... 229
     References ............................................... 231

8    Charge Density Waves ..................................... 235
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 235
8.2  Coulomb Interaction, 4/rF Charge Density Waves, Spin
     Peierls Waves, Spin Density Waves ........................ 236
8.3  Phonon Dispersion Relation, Phase and Amplitude Mode in
     Charge Density Wave Excitations .......................... 240
8.4  Electronic Structure, Peierls-Frцhlich Mechanism of
     Superconductivity ........................................ 242
8.5  Pinning, Commensurability, Solitons ...................... 243
8.6  Field-Induced Spin Density Waves and the Quantized Hall
     Effect ................................................... 248
     References ............................................... 250

9    Molecular-Scale Electronics .............................. 253
9.1  Miniaturization .......................................... 253
9.2  Information in Molecular Electronics ..................... 257
9.3  Early and Radical Concepts ............................... 258
     9.3.1  Soliton Switching ................................. 258
     9.3.2  Molecular Rectifiers .............................. 261
     9.3.3  Molecular Shift Register .......................... 262
     9.3.4  Molecular Cellular Automata ....................... 264
9.4  Carbon Nanotubes ......................................... 265
     References ............................................... 269

10   Molecular Materials for Electronics ...................... 271
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 271
10.2 Switching Molecular Devices .............................. 272
     10.2.1 Photoabsorption Switching ......................... 272
     10.2.2 Rectifying Langmuir-Blodgett Layers ............... 274
10.3 Organic Light-Emitting Devices ........................... 277
     10.3.1 Fundamentals of OLEDs ............................. 277
     10.3.2 Materials for OLEDs ............................... 284
     10.3.3 Device Designs for OLEDs .......................... 284
     10.3.4 Performance and Outlooks .......................... 285
     10.3.5 Field-Induced Organic Emitters .................... 286
     10.3.6 Organic Lasers and Organic Light-Emitting
            Transistors ....................................... 289
10.4 Solar Cells .............................................. 294
10.5 Organic Field Effect Transistors ......................... 298
10.6 Organic Thermoelectrics .................................. 300
10.7 Summary .................................................. 302
     References ............................................... 303

11   Even More Applications ................................... 307
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 307
11.2 Superconductivity and High Conductivity .................. 307
11.3 Electromagnetic Shielding ................................ 308
11.4 Field Smoothening in Cables .............................. 308
11.5 Capacitors ............................................... 309
11.6 Through-Hole Electroplating .............................. 310
11.7 Loudspeakers ............................................. 311
11.8 Antistatic Protective Bags ............................... 311
11.9 Other Electrostatic Dissipation Applications ............. 313
11.10 Conducting Polymers for Welding of Plastics ............. 314
11.11 Polymer Batteries ....................................... 314
11.12 Electrochemical Polymer Actuators ....................... 316
11.13 Electrochromic Displays, Smart Windows, and
      Transparent Conducting Films ............................ 317
11.14 Electrochemical Sensors ................................. 319
11.15 Gas-Separating Membranes ................................ 320
11.16 Hydrogen Storage ........................................ 321
11.17 Corrosion Protection .................................... 321
11.18 Holographic Storage and Holographic Computing ........... 322
11.19 Biocomputing ............................................ 323
11.20 Outlook ................................................. 325
      References .............................................. 325

12   Finally .................................................. 327
     Reference ................................................ 328

Glossary and Acronyms ......................................... 329
Index ......................................................... 335


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