Monitoring compliance with the comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) (Hannover, 2017). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаMonitoring compliance with the comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) / contr. by the Germ. Nat. Data Center; ed. by C.Pilger, L.Ceranna, C.Bonnemann. - Hannover: Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaft und Rohstoffe, 2017. - 325 p.: ill., tab. - (Geologisches Jahrbuch. Reihe B. Regionale Geologie Ausland und angewandte Geowissenschaften; h.105). - Res. also Germ. - Bibliogr.: p.303-316. - ISBN 978-3-510-96858-9
Шифр: (И/Ц-М81) 02

 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Introduction ................................................... 15

   OVERVIEW AND THE ROLE OF GERMANY IN THE VERIFICATION REGIME

1  Verification of the CTBT and its Implementation in Germany .. 21
   Christian Bönnemann
   1.1  Introduction ........................................... 21
   1.2  Verification regime .................................... 24
   1.3  Seismological monitoring of nuclear explosions in 
        Germany (before the CTBT) .............................. 25
   1.4  Implementation of the CTBT in Germany .................. 28
   1.5  Verification of the CTBT in Germany .................... 29
   1.6  Main CTBT actors of the German Federal Government ...... 33
   1.7  Other German CTBT actors ............................... 34
2  German Contributions to the International Monitoring 
   System (IMS) ................................................ 35
   Peter J. Gaebler, Christoph Pilger, Lars Ceranna, Gernot 
   Hartmann, J. Ole Ross, Clemens Schlosser & Andreas 
   Bollhöfer
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 35
   2.2  Station operation and maintenance ...................... 39
   2.3  Primary seismic monitoring station PS19 ................ 41
   2.4  Auxiliary seismic monitoring station AS035 ............. 46
   2.5  Infrasound array IS26 .................................. 48
   2.6  Infrasound array IS27 .................................. 53
   2.7  Radionuclide monitoring station RN33 ................... 59
   
VERIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM
   
3  The Seismic Network of the International Monitoring 
   System (IMS) ................................................ 69
   Peter J. Gaebler & Lars Ceranna
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 69
   3.2  IMS seismic network stations ........................... 70
   3.3  Global seismicity and nuclear explosion tests .......... 74
   3.4  Event discrimination and magnitude-yield 
        relationships .......................................... 76
   3.5  Detection capability of the seismic network-
        methodology ............................................ 78
   3.6  Detection capability of the seismic network-results .... 81
   3.7  Comparison of the detection capability against REB
        events ................................................. 89
   3.8  Conclusions ............................................ 90
4  The Infrasound Network of the International Monitoring 
   System (IMS) ................................................ 91
   Christoph Pilger, Lars Ceranna & Alexis le Pichon
   4.1  Introduction ........................................... 91
   4.2  Infrasound - an overview ............................... 91
   4.3  Infrasound activity in Central and Northern Europe ..... 93
   4.4  Infrasound activity from Mt. Etna volcano .............. 98
   4.5  IMS global network performance ........................ 104
   4.6  Conclusions ........................................... 108
5  The Hydroacoustic Network of the International Monitoring
   System (IMS) ............................................... 111
   Christoph Pilger & Lars Ceranna
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 111
   5.2  Hydroacoustic stations and technology ................. 111
   5.3  Hydroacoustic propagation ............................. 113
   5.4  Hydroacoustic monitoring-examples of natural and 
        anthropogenic signals ................................. 116
   5.5  Worldwide location of hydroacoustic events ............ 119
   5.6  Conclusions ........................................... 121
6  The IMS Radionuclide Network Supported by Atmospheric
   Transport Modelling (ATM) .................................. 123
   J. Ole Ross, Andreas Bollhöfer & Clemens Schlosser
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 123
   6.2  Anthropogenic fission products in the atmosphere ...... 125
   6.3  Atmospheric Transport Modelling ....................... 129
   6.4  Conclusions ........................................... 133

 VERIFICATION TEST CASES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM
   
7  Verification of the North Korean Nuclear Explosions
   2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016 ................................. 137
   Gernot Hartmann, Andreas Barth, J. Ole Ross, Ilona 
   Grünberg & Michaela Frei
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 137
   7.2  Seismic event localization ............................ 138
   7.3  Source identification ................................. 141
   7.4  Yield estimation ...................................... 148
   7.5  Moment tensor inversion ............................... 152
   7.6  Radionuclide evidence ................................. 156
   7.7  New and future system developments for CTBT ........... 162
   7.8  Conclusions ........................................... 164
8  National Data Center Preparedness Exercises (NPE) for an
   Independent Performance Assessment ......................... 167
   J. Ole Ross, Nicolai Gestermann, Thomas Plenefisch, 
   Gernot Hartmann & Lars Ceranna
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 167
   8.2  First ideas realized in NPE2007 and NPE2008 ........... 168
   8.3  NPE2009-introducing "data fusion" ..................... 169
   8.4  Complex multi-technology scenario for NPE2010 ......... 171
   8.5  Straight non-compliance in NPE2012 .................... 179
   8.6  NPE2013 ............................................... 181
   8.7  NPE2015 ............................................... 185
   8.8  Conclusions ........................................... 185
9  The Tohoku Earthquake with Tsunami and the Fukushima 
   Releases as Performance Test for the International
   Monitoring System (IMS) .................................... 187
   J. Ole Ross, Thomas Plenefisch, Lars Ceranna, Andreas
   Bollhöfer & Clemens Schlosser
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 187
   9.2  The Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 ............... 187
   9.3  Atmospheric Transport Modelling simulating the 
        Fukushima radionuclide plume arrival at IMS stations 
        across the globe ...................................... 194
   9.4  Backward modelling-finding Fukushima .................. 199
   9.5  Potential blinding of the IMS ......................... 200
   9.6  Conclusions ........................................... 203
10 Chelyabinsk - a Benchmark for Global Infrasound 
   Detections ................................................. 205
   Christoph Pilger, Karl Koch, J. Ole Ross & Lars Ceranna
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 205
   10.2 Chelyabinsk - event description and source 
        characteristics ....................................... 205
   10.3 Detections and non-detections by the global IMS 
        network ............................................... 206
   10.4 Infrasound propagation modelling ...................... 211
   10.5 Discussion of parameters influencing detection
        capability ............................................ 213
   10.6 The seismoacoustic fingerprint of the fireball 
        across Central and Northern Europe .................... 216
   10.7 Conclusions ........................................... 222
  
 INTERNATIONAL DATA CENTER, NATIONAL TECHNICAL MEANS AND ON-SITE 
                           INSPECTION
   
11 Some Considerations on the Quality of International Data 
   Center (IDC) Standard Waveform Products .................... 227
   Karl Koch
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 227
   11.2 Quality control work on the IDC Reviewed Event
        Bulletin .............................................. 229
   11.3 The impact of interactive analysis on bulletin 
        quality at the International Data Center in 2007 ...... 235
   11.4 Conclusions ........................................... 246
12 Remote Sensing Data in Support of CTBT Monitoring: Case 
   Studies of Underground Nuclear Explosions  
   Jörg Schlittenhardt, Morton Canty, Xiaoying Cong & Ilona
   Grünberg
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 247
   12.2 DlnSAR processing of ERS data over NTS ................ 247
   12.3 Co-seismic deformation ................................ 250
   12.4 Post-seismic deformation .............................. 250
   12.5 Wide-area change-detection: A case study of Nevada 
        Test Site underground nuclear explosions using 
        conventional multispectral satellite data ............. 254
   12.6 Comparison of differential SAR interferometry and
        wide-area change-detection results .................... 255
   12.7 Case study of the nuclear test in North Korea of 
        October 9, 2006 ....................................... 255
   12.8 Conclusions ........................................... 257
13 The Role of On-Site Inspections (OSI) of the CTBT .......... 259
   Nicolai Gestermann, Martin Müller & Franz Groneschild
   13.1 Introduction .......................................... 259
   13.2 Regulationsand provisions from the Treaty ............. 261
   13.3 Decision about the conduct of an OSI .................. 263
   13.4 Possible scenarios for an OSI request ................. 264
   13.5 The role of NTM in case of an OSI ..................... 264
   13.6 OSI technologies ...................................... 266
   13.7 OSI search logic and management systems ............... 272
   13.8 Results of an OSI ..................................... 273
   13.9 Integrated Field Exercises 2008 and 2014 .............. 274
   13.10 Training and nomination of inspectors ................ 277
   13.11 Conclusions .......................................... 278
14 The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for
   On-Site Inspections (OSI) of the CTBT ...................... 279
   Nicolai Gestermann, Benjamin Sick & Manfred Joswig
   14.1 Introduction .......................................... 279
   14.2 Physical background ................................... 283
   14.3 The role of SAMS in case of an OSI .................... 285
   14.4 The method of Nanoseismic Monitoring .................. 286
   14.5 SAMS at the IFE14 ..................................... 290
   14.6 Detection threshold estimation of SAMS networks ....... 296
   14.7 Conclusions ........................................... 299
   
References .................................................... 303
Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................... 317
About the Authors ............................................. 321


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