Terrestrial Ecosystems in a changing world (Berlin [et al.], 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаTerrestrial Ecosystems in a changing world / ed. by J.G.Canadell, D.E.Pataki, L.F.Pitelka. – Berlin [et al.]: Springer, 2007. - xxiv, 336 p.: ill. – (Global change - the IGBP series). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. – Ind.: p.323-336. – ISBN 978-3-540-32729-5; ISSN 1619-2435
Шифр: (И/Е08-Т37) 02

 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 

1    Global Ecology, Networks, and Research Synthesis ........... 1
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.2  Carbon and Water Cycles in the 21st Century ................ 2
1.3  Changing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning ............ 3
1.4  Landscapes under Changing Disturbance Regimes .............. 3
1.5  Managing Ecosystem Services ................................ 4
1.6  Regions under Stress ....................................... 4
1.7  The Way Forward ............................................ 4
     References ................................................. 5

Part A. Carbon and Water Cycles in the 21st Century ............. 7

2    CO2 Fertilization: When, Where, How Much? .................. 9
2.1  Carbon a Limiting Plant Resource? .......................... 9
2.2  Long-Term Biomass Responses and Carbon Pools .............. 10
     2.2.1  Time Matters ....................................... 10
     2.2.2  Nutrients and Water Determine Biomass Responses
            at Elevated CO2 .................................... 11
     2.2.3  Scaling from Growth to Carbon Pools ................ 13
2.3  Carbon to Nutrient Ratios and Consumer Responses .......... 13
     2.3.1  The С to N Ratio Widens ............................ 13
     2.3.2  Consequences for Herbivory, Decomposition and 
            Plant Nutrition .................................... 14
2.4  Plant Water Relations and Hydrological Implications ....... 14
2.5  Stress Resistance under Elevated CO2 ...................... 16
2.6  Biodiversity Effects May Outweigh Physiology Effects ...... 16
     2.6.1  Hydrology Implications of Elevated CO2 Depend on
            Species Abundance .................................. 16
     2.6.2  Biodiversity Effects on Forest Carbon Stocking and 
            Grassland Responses ................................ 16
2.7  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 17
     References ................................................ 18

3    Ecosystem Responses to Warming and Interacting Global 
     Change Factors ............................................ 23
3.1  The Multiple Factor Imperative in Global Change Research .. 23
3.2  Ecosystem Responses to Experimental Warming ............... 23
     3.2.1  The GCTE-NEWS Synthesis ............................ 24
     3.2.2  The ITEX Synthesis ................................. 25
     3.2.3  The Harvard Forest Soil Warming Experiment ......... 26
3.3  Temperature and CO2 Interactions in Trees: the TACIT 
     Experiment ................................................ 26
     3.3.1  Experimental Design ................................ 26
     3.3.2  Growth Responses ................................... 27
     3.3.3  Higher-Order Responses ............................. 28
     3.3.4  TACIT Summary ...................................... 28
3.4  More Than Two Factors: the Jasper Ridge Global Change 
     Experiment ................................................ 28
     3.4.1  Experimental Design ................................ 28
     3.4.2  Net Primary Productivity ........................... 29
     3.4.3  Community Composition .............................. 29
     3.4.4  JRGCE Summary ...................................... 30
3.5  Modeling Temperature, CO2 and N Interactions in Trees 
     and Grass ................................................. 30
     3.5.1  Global Change Simulations for a California Annual 
            Grassland .......................................... 30
     3.5.2  Comparing Forest and Grassland with G'DAY .......... 32
3.6  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 33
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 34
     References ................................................ 34

4    Insights from Stable Isotopes on the Role of Terrestrial
     Ecosystems in the Global Carbon Cycle ..................... 37
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 37
4.2  Ecosystem Carbon Cycles ................................... 37
4.3  The Global Carbon Cycle ................................... 40
4.4  Future Directions ......................................... 42
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 42
     In Memoriam ............................................... 42
     References ................................................ 43

5    Effects of Urban Land-Use Change on Biogeochemical 
     Cycles .................................................... 45
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 45
5.2  Urban Land-Use Change ..................................... 46
5.3  Urban Environmental Factors ............................... 47
     5.3.1  Climate and Atmospheric Composition ................ 47
     5.3.2  Atmospheric and Soil Pollution ..................... 49
     5.3.3  Introductions of Exotic Species .................... 49
5.4  Disturbance and Management Effects ........................ 50
     5.4.1  Lawn and Horticultural Management .................. 50
     5.4.2  Management Effort .................................. 51
5.5  Effects of Built Environment .............................. 52
5.6  Assessing Biogeochemical Effects - the Importance of
     Scale ..................................................... 54
5.7  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 55
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 56
     References ................................................ 56

6    Saturation of the Terrestrial Carbon Sink ................. 59
6.1  Introduction .............................................. 59
6.2  Location of the Current Terrestrial Carbon Sinks .......... 59
6.3  Dynamics of Processes that Contribute to Carbon Sink 
     Saturation ................................................ 60
6.4  Processes Contributing to Terrestrial Carbon Sink 
     Saturation ................................................ 60
     6.4.1  Processes Driven by Atmospheric Composition
            Change ............................................. 60
     6.4.2  Processes Driven by Climate Change ................. 64
     6.4.3  Processes Driven by Land-Use Change and Land 
            Management ......................................... 66
6.5  Integration and Model Predictions ......................... 71
6.6  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 73
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 74
     References ................................................ 74

Part В. Changing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning ........ 79

7    Functional Diversity - at the Crossroads between
     Ecosystem Functioning and Environmental Filters ........... 81
7.1  Introduction .............................................. 81
7.2  Environmental Filters Affect FD ........................... 82
7.3  FD effects on Global Change Drivers ....................... 82
     7.3.1  The Traits of the Dominants ........................ 82
     7.3.2  The Role of Interactions ........................... 87
7.4  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 89
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 89
     References ................................................ 90

8    Linking Plant Invasions to Global Environmental Change .... 93
8.1  Introduction .............................................. 93
8.2  Plant Invasions and Elevated C02 .......................... 93
8.3  Plant Invasions and Climatic Change ....................... 95
8.4  Plant Invasions and Land Eutrophication ................... 96
8.5  Plant Invasions and Changes in Land Use/Cover ............. 97
8.6  Multiple Interactions ..................................... 98
8.7  Summary and Conclusions ................................... 99
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 99
     References ................................................ 99

9    Plant Biodiversity and Responses to Elevated Carbon
     Dioxide .................................................. 103
9.1  Ten Years of GCTE Research: Apprehending Complexity ...... 103
     9.1.1  Effects of CO2 on Plant Diversity Through 
            Alterations of the Physical Environment ........... 103
9.2  Temporal Variation and Response to Elevated CO2 .......... 105
     9.2.1  Reproductive and Evolutionary Aspects of the
            Response to Elevated CO2 .......................... 105
     9.2.2  Communities at Equilibrium Versus Dynamic 
            Systems ........................................... 105
9.3  Biodiversity Loss and Response to Elevated CO2 ........... 107
     9.3.1  Species Diversity and Response to Elevated CO2 .... 107
     9.3.2  Ecosystem С Fluxes in a Species-Poor World ........ 108
9.4  Summary and Conclusions .................................. 110
     References ............................................... 111

10   Predicting the Ecosystem Consequences of Biodiversity 
     Loss: the Biomerge Framework ............................. 113
10.1 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: a Synthesis ...... 113
     10.1.1 Why Biodiversity Matters to Global Change 
            Ecology ........................................... 113
     10.1.2 Linking Change in Biodiversity with Change in 
            Ecosystem Functioning ............................. 114
     10.1.3 Lessons Learned from Early Debates ................ 114
     10.1.4 What We Have Learned about the Relationship
            between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function ....... 115
     10.1.5 The Scientific Framework for Linking 
            Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning ............ 115
10.2 The BioMERGE Framework ................................... 117
     10.2.1 The BioMERGE Structural Sub-Framework ............. 117
     10.2.2 The BioMERGE BEF Sub-Framework: an Expansion of 
            the Vitousek-Hooper Framework ..................... 117
     10.2.3 The BioMERGE Research Implementation 
            Sub-Framework ..................................... 119
10.3 Discussion: Towards a Large Scale BEF .................... 122
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 123
     References ............................................... 123

Part С. Landscapes under Changing Disturbance Regimes ......... 127

11   Plant Species Migration as a Key Uncertainty in 
     Predicting Future Impacts of Climate Change on
     Ecosystems: Progress and Challenges ...................... 129
ил   Introduction ............................................. 129
11.2 Will Migration Be Necessary for Species Persistence? ..... 130
     11.2.1 Vegetation-Type Models ............................ 131
     11.2.2 Species-Based Models .............................. 132
11.3 Measurements and Models of Migration Rates ............... 133
11.4 Linking Migration and Niche Based Models ................. 134
11.5 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 135
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 135
     References ............................................... 135

12   Understanding Global Fire Dynamics by Classifying and 
     Comparing Spatial Models of Vegetation and Fire .......... 139
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 139
12.2 Background ............................................... 140
12.3 Model Classification ..................................... 140
12.4 Model Comparison ......................................... 141
     12.4.1 The Models ........................................ 141
     12.4.2 The Comparison Design ............................. 143
12.5  Results and Discussion .................................. 144
     12.5.1 Model Classification .............................. 144
     12.5.2 Model Comparison .................................. 145
12.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 145
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 146
     References ............................................... 146

13   Plant Functional Types: Are We Getting Any Closer to the
     Holy Grail? .............................................. 149
13.1 In Search of the Holy Grail .............................. 149
13.2 Individual Plant Structure and Function .................. 149
13.3 Traits and Environmental Gradients ....................... 152
     13.3.1 Plant Functional Response to Mineral Resource
            Availability ...................................... 152
     13.3.2 Plant Functional Response to Disturbance .......... 152
     13.3.3 Projecting Changes in Plant Functional Traits
            in Response to Global Change ...................... 154
13.4 Scaling from Individual Plants to Communities: from
     Response Traits to Community Assembly .................... 155
13.5 Scaling from Communities to Ecosystems: from Response 
     Traits to Effect Traits .................................. 156
13.6 So, Are We Getting Closer to the Holy Grail? Scaling
     beyond Ecosystems ........................................ 157
     13.6.1 Plant Functional Traits and Landscape Dynamics .... 157
     13.6.2 Regional to Global Models - Revisiting the Early
            Functional Classifications ........................ 157
     13.6.3 Validation: the Contribution of Paleo-Data ........ 158
13.7 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 159
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 159
     References ............................................... 159
     
14   Spatial Nonlinearities: Cascading Effects in the Earth
     System ................................................... 165
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 165
14.2 Conceptual Framework ..................................... 166
14.3 Insights to Global Change Issues ......................... 166
     14.3.1 Historical Example: the Dust Bowl of the 1930s .... 166
     14.3.2 Wildfire .......................................... 168
     14.3.3 Invasive Species and Desertification .............. 171
14.4 Forecasting Spatial Nonlinearities and Catastrophic
     Events ................................................... 172
14.5 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 173
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 173
     References ............................................... 173

15   Dynamic Global Vegetation Modeling: Quantifying 
     Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Large-Scale 
     Environmental Change ..................................... 175
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 175
15.2 Historical Antecedents and Development of DGVMs .......... 175
     15.2.1 Plant Geography ................................... 176
     15.2.2 Plant Physiology and Biogeochemistry .............. 176
     15.2.3 Vegetation Dynamics ............................... 177
     15.2.4 Biophysics ........................................ 177
     15.2.5 Human Intervention ................................ 178
15.3 Principles and Construction of DGVMs ..................... 178
     15.3.1 Model Architecture ................................ 178
     15.3.2 Net Primary Production ............................ 179
     15.3.3 Plant Growth and Vegetation Dynamics .............. 179
     15.3.4 Hydrology ......................................... 180
     15.3.5 Soil Organic Matter Transformations ............... 180
     15.3.6 Nitrogen (N) Cycling .............................. 180
     15.3.7 Disturbance ....................................... 180
15.4 Evaluating DGVMS ......................................... 181
     15.4.1 Net Primary Production ............................ 181
     15.4.2 Remotely Sensed "Greenness" and Vegetation 
            Composition ....................................... 181
     15.4.3 Atmospheric CO2 Concentration ..................... 181
     15.4.4 Runoff ............................................ 182
     15.4.5 CO2 and Water Flux Measurements ................... 182
15.5 Examples of Applications of DGVMS ........................ 182
     15.5.1 Holocene Changes in Atmospheric C02 ............... 182
     15.5.2 Boreal "Greening" and the Contemporary Carbon
            Balance ........................................... 182
     15.5.3 The Pinatubo Effect ............................... 183
     15.5.4 Future Carbon Balance Projections ................. 183
     15.5.5 Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks to Future Climate Change ... 183
     15.5.6 Effects of Land-Use Change on the Carbon Cycle .... 185
15.6 Some Perspectives and Research Needs ..................... 185
     15.6.1 Comparison with Field Experiments ................. 185
     15.6.2 Plant Functional Types ............................ 185
     15.6.3 The Nitrogen Cycle ................................ 185
     15.6.4 Plant Dispersal and Migration ..................... 186
     15.6.5 Wetlands .......................................... 186
     15.6.6 Multiple Nutrient Limitations ..................... 186
     15.6.7 Agriculture and Forestry .......................... 186
     15.6.8 Grazers and Pests ................................. 186
     15.6.9 Biogenic Emissions of Trace Gases and Aerosol 
            Precursors ........................................ 187
15.7 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 187
     References ............................................... 187

Part D. Managing Ecosystem Services ........................... 193

16   Wheat Production Systems and Global Climate Change ....... 195
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 195
16.2 Global Atmospheric Change, Climate and Yields ............ 197
16.3 Impacts on Wheat Productivity ............................ 199
16.4 Addressing the Yield Gap ................................. 200
16.5 The Protein Gap .......................................... 200
16.6 The Rice-Wheat System .................................... 201
16.7 The Effect of Climate Change on the Rice-Wheat System .... 202
16.8 The Contribution of the Rice-Wheat System to Climate
     Change ................................................... 202
16.9 Carbon Dioxide ........................................... 203
16.10 Methane ................................................. 203
16.11 Nitrous Oxide ........................................... 204
16.12 Comparative Greenhouse Gas Budgets for Rice-Wheat 
      Farming Systems ......................................... 204
16.13 Summary and Conclusions ................................. 207
      References .............................................. 208

17   Pests Under Global Change - Meeting Your Future 
     Landlords? ............................................... 211
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 211
17.2 Methods .................................................. 211
     17.2.1 IPCC Processes .................................... 211
     17.2.2 Monitoring, Benchmarks and Indicators for 
            Measuring Impacts ................................. 212
     17.2.3 Estimating Impacts ................................ 213
17.3 Impacts .................................................. 216
     17.3.1 Atmospheric CO, and Climate ....................... 216
     17.3.2 Land Use, Land Cover and Biodiversity ............. 219
     17.3.3 Trade and Travel .................................. 219
17.4 Adaptation ............................................... 220
     17.4.1 Natural Adaptations ............................... 220
     17.4.2 Adaptive Management Options ....................... 220
     17.4.3 Adaptation of Control Measures in Response to 
            Global Change ..................................... 221
     17.4.4 Threats to Sustainability of Adaptation Options ... 221
17.5 Vulnerability ............................................ 222
17.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 222
     References ............................................... 223

18   Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential in Agricultural
     Soils .................................................... 227
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 227
     18.1.1 Soil Carbon and Carbon Dioxide .................... 227
     18.1.2 Trade-Offs between GHGs in Agriculture ............ 227
18.2 What Is Meant by GHG Mitigation Potential? ............... 229
18.3 Regional Case Studies .................................... 230
     18.3.1 Sustainable Soil Management in the Moscow Region
            to Enhance Soil Carbon ............................ 230
     18.3.2 Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential in the US ..... 231
18.4 Carbon Sequestration in the Future ....................... 232
18.5 Win-Win Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
     by Agricultural Soils .................................... 232
18.6 Future Challenges ........................................ 233
     18.6.1 Improving Carbon Sequestration .................... 233
     18.6.2 Monitoring Soil Carbon Sequestration .............. 233
18.7 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 234
     References ............................................... 235
     
19   Carbon and Water Tradeoffs in Conversions to Forests
     and Shrublands ........................................... 237
19.1 Introduction ............................................. 237
19.2 Afforestation ............................................ 237
     19.2.1 Afforestation: Carbon Storage Potential ........... 237
     19.2.2 Afforestation: Evapotranspiration and Water 
            Yield ............................................. 238
     19.2.3 Afforestation: Potential Atmospheric Feedbacks .... 239
19.3 Woody Encroachment and Agriculture ....................... 240
     19.3.1 Grassland Conversions with Woody Plant 
            Encroachment and Agriculture ...................... 240
     19.3.2 Processes Controlling Soil С Storage: Grassland 
            Vs. Woodland ...................................... 241
     19.3.3 Uncertainties in Water and Carbon Balances
            with Woody Plant Encroachment ..................... 242
19.4 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 243
     References ............................................... 244

20   Natural and Human Dimensions of Land Degradation in
     Drylands: Causes and Consequences ........................ 247
20.1 Introduction ............................................. 247
20.2 Drylands, Desertification, Drivers, and Scales ........... 247
     20.2.1 Distribution of People and Land-Cover Types ....... 247
     20.2.2 Defining Land Degradation and Desertification ..... 248
     20.2.3 What Drives Land Degradation and 
            Desertification? .................................. 249
     20.2.4 Estimating the Extent of Desertification .......... 249
     20.2.5 Consequences of Desertification ................... 250
     20.2.6 Scale and Hierarchy ............................... 251
20.3 Joint GCTE-LUCC Desertification Initiative ............... 252
     20.3.1 Dahlem Desertification Paradigm ................... 252
     20.3.2 Initiatives to Test the Dahlem Desertification
            Paradigm .......................................... 253
20.4 Management of Desertified Drylands ....................... 254
     20.4.1 Avoidance ......................................... 254
     20.4.2 Monitoring ........................................ 254
     20.4.3 Restoration ....................................... 254
20.5 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 255
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 255
     References ............................................... 255
     
Part E. Regions under Stress .................................. 259

21   Southeast Asian Fire Regimes and Land Development 
     Policy ................................................... 261
21.1 Introduction ............................................. 261
21.2 Underlying Causes of Land Fires .......................... 262
     21.2.1 Explaining Fire Occurrence ........................ 262
     21.2.2 Land Development Policies ......................... 262
     21.2.3 Land Management Practices ......................... 263
     21.2.4 Property Rights and Conflicts ..................... 265
21.3 Landscape, Regional and Global Interactions .............. 265
     21.3.1 Ecosystem Dynamics ................................ 265
     21.3.2 Regional Haze Episodes ............................ 266
     21.3.3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions .......................... 266
     21.3.4 Interactions with Climate Variability and Change .. 267
21.4 Human Well-Being ......................................... 267
     21.4.1 Economic and Health Impacts ....................... 267
     21.4.2 Livelihoods ....................................... 267
21.5 Informed Decision-Making and Better Governance ........... 268
     21.5.1 Role of Expertise ................................. 268
     21.5.2 Regional Cooperation .............................. 269
21.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 269
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 270
     References ............................................... 270

22   Global Change Impacts on Agroecosystems of Eastern 
     China .................................................... 273
22.1 Introduction ............................................. 273
22.2 Chinese Terrestrial Transects ............................ 274
22.3 Physiological and Plant Responses to Multiple Global 
     Change Forcing ........................................... 275
22.4 Productivity and Its Responses to Global Change .......... 276
22.5 Carbon Budget and Its Responses to Global Change ......... 278
22.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 282
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 282
     References ............................................... 282

23   Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia: Scaling up 
     from Shoot Module to Watershed ........................... 285
23.1 Introduction ............................................. 285
23.2 Responses of Plant Communities to the Global Change:
     Scaling from Leaf to Landscape Through Individual Plant .. 285
     23.2.1 Competition among Individual Plants in Even-Aged 
            Monospecific Stands at Elevated C02 ............... 286
     23.2.2 Shoot-Module-Based Simulator As a Tool of 
            Individual Tree Response .......................... 288
     23.2.3 Modeling the Shift of Forest Zonation ............. 289
23.3 Carbon Budget at the Forest Watershed Scale .............. 289
     23.3.1 Carbon Exchange between Atmosphere-Forest-Stream
            Boundaries ........................................ 290
     23.3.2 Transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon Associated 
            with Dissolved Nitrogen from Terrestrial to 
            Aquatic Ecosystems ................................ 290
     23.3.3 Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon at the 
            Interface of Stream and Lake Ecosystems ........... 291
23.4 Carbon Budget and Functions of the Lake Biwa Ecosystem ... 292
     23.4.1 Carbon Budget in the Lake ......................... 292
     23.4.2 Metabolism in the Lake Sediments .................. 293
     23.4.3 Terrestrial Environment and Function of Lake 
            Ecosystems ........................................ 293
23.5 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 294
     References................................................ 294

24   Responses of High Latitude Ecosystems to Global Change:
     Potential Consequences for the Climate System ............ 297
24.1 Introduction ............................................. 297
24.2 Recent Changes in Climate, Disturbance Regimes, and 
     Land Cover ............................................... 297
24.3 Responses of Radiatively Active Gases .................... 300
     24.3.1 General Issues .................................... 300
     24.3.2 Responses of CO2 Exchange to Climatic Change ...... 300
     24.3.3 Responses of CH4 Exchange to Climatic Change ...... 302
     24.3.4 Responses to Changes in Disturbance and Land 
            Cover ............................................. 303
24.4 Responses of Water and Energy Exchange ................... 304
     24.4.1 General Issues .................................... 304
     24.4.2 Responses to Changes in Climate, Disturbance,
            and Land Cover .................................... 304
24.5 Delivery of Freshwater to the Arctic Ocean ............... 305
     24.5.1 General Issues .................................... 305
24.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 305
     References ............................................... 306

Part F. Future Directions: the Global Land Project ............ 311

25   The Future Research Challenge: the Global Land Project ... 313
25.1 Introduction ............................................. 313
25.2 Research Objectives ...................................... 314
25.3 Emergent Concepts ........................................ 315
     25.3.1 Land-Use Decision Making and Adaptive Management .. 315
     25.3.2 Ecosystem Services ................................ 316
     25.3.3 Vulnerability and Sustainability Science .......... 316
25.4 Research Framework ....................................... 317
     25.4.1 Theme 1: Dynamics of Land System .................. 317
     25.4.2 Theme 2: Consequences of Land-System Change ....... 318
     25.4.3 Theme 3: Integrating Analysis and Modeling
            for Land Sustainability ........................... 318
25.5 Implementation Strategy .................................. 319
25.6 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 320
     References ............................................... 321
     
Index ......................................................... 323


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