Nanomaterials for biosensors (Weinheim, 2008). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаNanomaterials for biosensors / ed. C.S.S.R. Kumar. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2008. - xxi, 408 p.: ill. - (Nanotechnologies for the life sciences; vol.8). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.398-408. - ISBN 978-3-527-31388-4
Шифр: (И/Е0-N21) 02

 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
     Preface ................................................... XV
     List of Authors .......................................... XIX

1    Biosensing using Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors .. 1
     Padmakar D. Kichambare and Alexander Star
1.1  Overview ................................................... 1
1.2  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.3  Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors (NTFETs) .......... 3
     1.3.1  Carbon Nanotubes .................................... 3
     1.3.2  Nanotube Synthesis .................................. 4
     1.3.3  Fabrication of NTFETs ............................... 6
1.4  Sensor Applications of NTFETs .............................. 9
     1.4.1  Sensitivity of NTFETs to Chemical Environment ....... 9
     1.4.2  Bioconjugates of Carbon Nanotubes .................. 12
     1.4.3  Protein Detection .................................. 14
     1.4.4  Detection of Antibody-Antigen Interactions ......... 15
     1.4.5  DNA Detection ...................................... 17
     1.4.6  Enzymatic Reactions ................................ 19
     1.4.7  Glucose Detection .................................. 20
1.5  Conclusion and Outlook .................................... 21
     References ................................................ 21

2    Carbon Nanotube-based Sensor .............................. 27
     Jian-Shan Ye and Fwu-Shan Sheu
2.1  Overview .................................................. 27
2.2  Introduction of Carbon Nanotubes .......................... 27
2.3  Growth of Carbon Nanotubes ................................ 29
2.4  Methods to Prepare CNTs-based Sensors and Biosensors ...... 29
     2.4.1  Individual MWCNTs as Nanoelectrodes ................ 29
     2.4.2  Randomly Distributed CNT Electrodes ................ 30
     2.4.3  Well-aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes ............ 30
     2.4.4  Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrodes ................... 31
     2.4.5  Screen-printing Carbon Nanotubes ................... 32
     2.4.6  Self-assembly of Carbon Nanotubes .................. 33
     2.4.7  Carbon Nanotube-packaged Microelectrodes ........... 34
2.5  Application of CNTs-based Electrochemical Sensors and
     Biosensors ................................................ 34
     2.5.1  Electrochemical and Electrocatalytical Properties
            of Carbon Nanotubes ................................ 34
     2.5.2  CNTs-based Electrochemical Biosensors .............. 37
2.6  Functionalization of CNTs ................................. 39
     2.6.1  Biological Functionalization of CNTs ............... 39
     2.6.2  Self-assembly of Surfactant and Lipid Molecules
            at CNTs ............................................ 39
     2.6.3  Electrochemical Functionalization of CNTs .......... 42
     2.6.4  Electrochemical Application of Functionalized
            CNTs ............................................... 43
       2.6.4.1  Application of Lipid-CNT Nanomaterials in
                Electrochemical Sensors ........................ 43
       2.6.4.2  Achieving direct Electron Transfer to Redox
                Proteins by Functional CNTs .................... 44
       2.6.4.3  Biomolecule-functionalized CNTs for
                Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors ......... 45
2.7  Conclusions and Future Prospects .......................... 48
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 49
     References ................................................ 49

3    Nanotubes, Nanowires, and Nanocantilevers in Biosensor
     Development ............................................... 56
     Jun Wang, Cuodong Liu, and Yuehe Lin
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 56
3.2  Carbon Nanotubes in Biosensor Development ................. 57
     3.2.1  Preparation and Purification of CNTs ............... 58
     3.2.2  Construction of CNT-based Biosensors ............... 60
       3.2.2.1  Dispersion and Stabilization by Oxidative
                Acids .......................................... 60
       3.2.2.2  Dispersion by Surfactant Interaction ........... 61
       3.2.2.3  Polymer-assisted Solubilization ................ 61
       3.2.2.4  CNT Adsorption on the Transducer Substrate ..... 61
       3.2.2.5  Surface Functionalization of CNTs .............. 62
       3.2.2.6  Composite Entrapment and CNTs Bulky Electrode
                Material ....................................... 63
       3.2.2.7  More Sophisticated Surface Tailoring Based on
                Combination of Co-adsorption, Integration,
                Prohibition, Spacing, Linkage, Sandwich,
                Tagging, and other Anchoring Approaches ........ 66
     3.2.3  CNT-based Electrochemical Biosensors ............... 69
       3.2.3.1  Direct Electrochemistry of Biomolecules on
                Carbon Nanotubes ............................... 69
       3.2.3.2  Enzyme/CNTs Biosensors ......................... 72
       3.2.3.3  DNA and Protein Biosensors ..................... 73
       3.2.3.4  Immunosensors .................................. 74
     3.2.4  Flow-injection Analysis ............................ 75
     3.2.5  Carbon Nanotube Array-based Biosensors ............. 76
     3.2.6  Chemiluminescence .................................. 80
     3.2.7  Field-effect Transistor and Bioelectronics ......... 82
3.3  Nanowires in Biosensor Development ........................ 84
     3.3.1  Silicon Nanowire-based Biosensors .................. 84
     3.3.2  Conducting Polymer Nanowire-based Biosensors ....... 86
     3.3.3  Metal Oxide Nanowire-based Biosensors .............. 89
3.4  Nanocantilevers for Biosensors ............................ 89
3.5  Summary ................................................... 90
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 91
     Glossary .................................................. 91
     Abbreviations ............................................. 92
     References ................................................ 93

4    Fullerene-based Electrochemical Detection Methods for
     Biosensing ............................................... 101
     Nikos Chaniotakis
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 101
4.2  Aims of the Chapter ...................................... 101
4.3  Electrochemical Biosensing ............................... 103
     4.3.1  Making a Biosensor ................................ 205
4.4  Evolution of Biosensors .................................. 105
4.5  Mediation Process in Biosensors .......................... 206
     4.5.1  Case A: Non-mediated Biosensor .................... 107
     4.5.2  Case B: Mediated Biosensor ........................ 108
4.6  Fullerenes ............................................... 109
     4.6.1  Synthesis of Fullerenes ........................... 109
     4.6.2  Biofunctionalization of Fullerenes ................ 109
     4.6.3  Electrochemistry of Fullerenes .................... 113
4.7  Fullerene-mediated Biosensing ............................ 114
4.8  Conclusions .............................................. 118
     References ............................................... 118

5    Optical Biosensing Based on Metal and Semiconductor
     Colloidal Nanocrystals ................................... 123
     Roberto Comparelli, Maria Lucia Curri, Pantaleo Davide
     Cozzoli, and Marinella Striccoli
5.1  Overview ................................................. 123
5.2  Introduction ............................................. 123
5.3  Colloidal Nanocrystals ................................... 127
     5.3.1  Size-dependent Optical Properties ................. 127
     5.3.2  Chemical Synthesis ................................ 131
5.4         Nanocrystal Functionalization for Biosensing ...... 134
     5.4.1  Surface Capping Exchange .......................... 135
     5.4.2  Coating with a Silica Shell ....................... 237
     5.4.3  Surface Modification through Hydrophobic
            Interactions ...................................... 237
5.5         Optical Techniques ................................ 239
     5.5.1  Colorimetric Tests ................................ 239
     5.5.2  Fluorescence ...................................... 239
     5.5.3  Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ............ 141
     5.5.4  Fluorescence Lifetime ............................. 142
     5.5.5  Multiphoton Techniques ............................ 145
     5.5.6  Metal-enhanced Fluorescence ....................... 245
     5.5.7  Surface Plasmon Resonance ......................... 246
     5.5.8  Surface-enhanced Resonance Spectroscopy ........... 249
5.6  Advantages and Disadvantages of Nanocrystals in Optical
     Detection ................................................ 252
5.7  Applications ............................................. 253
     5.7.1  Biosensing with Semiconductor Nanocrystals ........ 253
     5.7.2  Biosensing with Metallic Nanoparticles ............ 257
5.8  Towards Marketing ........................................ 262
5.9  Conclusions .............................................. 264
     References ............................................... 264

6    Quantum Dot-based Nanobiohybrids for Fluorescent
     Detection of Molecular and Cellular Biological Targets ... 275
     Zhivko Zhelev, Rumiana Bakalova, Hideki Ohba, and
     Yoshinobu Baba
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 275
6.2  Quantum Dots - Basic Principles of Design and
     Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Advantages over
     Classical Fluorophores ................................... 276
     6.2.1  Basic Principles of Design and Synthesis of
            Quantum Dots ...................................... 276
     6.2.2  Optical and Chemical Properties - Advantages
            Compared with Classical Fluorophores .............. 278
6.3  Quantum Dots for Fluorescent Labeling and Imaging ........ 282
     6.3.1  Structure of Quantum Dot Nanobiohybrids for
            Fluorescent Microscopic Imaging ................... 282
     6.3.2  Quantum Dots for Fluorescent Cell Imaging ......... 282
     6.3.3  Quantum Dots for Fluorescent Deep-tissue Imaging
            In Vivo ........................................... 184
     6.3.4  Potential of Quantum Dots for Positron Emission
            Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic
            Resonance Imaging (fMRI) .......................... 292
6.4  Quantum Dots for Immunoblot Analysis with Fluorescent
     Detection ................................................ 292
     6.4.1  Basic Principles of Classical and QD-based
            Immunoblot Analyses ............................... 292
     6.4.2  QD-based Immunoblot Analysis of "tracer"
            Proteins - Privileges over Classical Immunoblot
            Analysis .......................................... 294
6.5  Quantum Dots for FRET Analyses, Time-resolved
     Fluorimetry, and Development of Optical Recognition-
     based Biosensors ......................................... 296
     6.5.1  Quantum Dots for FRET-based Bioanalyses ........... 296
     6.5.2  Quantum Dots for Time-resolved Fluorimetry ........ 297
     6.5.3  Quantum Dots for development of New Generation
            Optical Recognition-based Biosensors .............. 297
6.6  Quantum Dots as New Fluorescent Standards for the Thin
     Calibration of Fluorescent Instrumentation ............... 202
     References ............................................... 202

7    Detection of Biological Materials by Cold Nano-
     biosensor-based Electrochemical Method ................... 208
     Juan Jiang, Manju Basu, Sara Seggerson, Albert Miller,
     Michael Pugia, and Subhash Basu
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 208
7.2  Template Synthesis of Gold Nano-wire Arrays for
     Biosensor Applications ................................... 209
     7.2.1  General Template Synthesis ........................ 209
     7.2.2  Template Formation ................................ 212
     7.2.3  Fabrication of Gold Nano-wire Arrays (GNW) ........ 214
7.3  Synthesis of a Linker and its Attachment to Gold Posts
     of GNW followed by Binding to Specific Antibodies ........ 220
7.4  Development of Electrochemical Nano-biosensor for
     Bacteria Detection ....................................... 224
     7.4.1  General Detections for Biosensors ................. 224
     7.4.2  Experimental Conditions ........................... 226
     7.4.3  Electrochemical Impedance (EIS) Detection of
            E. coli ........................................... 227
       7.4.3.1  EIS on Flat Gold Surfaces ..................... 228
       7.4.3.2  EIS on GNW .................................... 230
       7.4.3.3  EIS on GNW with A12O3 ......................... 230
     7.4.4  Summary of EIS Detection of E. coli Bacteria....... 233
7.5  Conclusions .............................................. 235
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 235
     References ............................................... 236

8    Dendrimer-based Electrochemical Detection Methods ........ 240
     Hak-Sung Kim and Hyun C. Yoon
8.1  Overview ................................................. 240
8.2  Introduction ............................................. 240
     8.2.1  Background ........................................ 240
     8.2.2  Dendrimers as a new Constituent of Biocomposite
            Structures ........................................ 241
8.3  Applications for Biosensors .............................. 242
     8.3.1  Bioelectrocatalytic Enzyme Electrodes based on
            LBL (layer-by-layer) Assembly with Dendrimers ..... 243
     8.3.2  Bioelectrocatalytic Immunosensors based on the
            Dendrimer-associated SAMs ......................... 244
       8.3.2.1  Affinity Recognition Surface based on the
                Dendrimer-associated SAMs ..................... 244
       8.3.2.2  Electrochemical Signaling from Affinity
                Recognition Reactions ......................... 248
     8.3.3  Protein Micropatterning on Sensor Surfaces for
            Multiplexed Analysis .............................. 253
8.4  Conclusions .............................................. 256
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 256
     References ............................................... 256

9    Coordinated Biosensors: Integrated Systems for
     Ultrasensitive Detection of Biomarkers ................... 259
     Joanne I. Yeh
9.1  Overview ................................................. 259
9.2  Introduction ............................................. 260
9.3  Elements of a Nanobiosensor .............................. 262
     9.3.1  Biomolecular Components ........................... 262
     9.3.2  Nanoparticles ..................................... 263
     9.3.3  Nanoelectrodes .................................... 264
9.4  Coordinated Biosensors ................................... 265
     9.4.1  Biomolecular Conduits: Signal Transducing
            Mediators ......................................... 265
     9.4.2  NADH Peroxidase: the Biocatalytic Element ......... 267
     9.4.3  Undecagold Nanoparticle: Role in Alignment and
            Directing Electron Flow ........................... 270
     9.4.4  Integrated Signals ................................ 270
9.5  Conclusion ............................................... 272
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 274
     References ............................................... 274

10   Protein-based Biosensors using Nanomaterials ............. 278
     Cenxi Li
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 278
10.2 Metal Nanoparticles ...................................... 279
     10.2.1 Gold Nanoparticles ................................ 279
     10.2.2 Silver Nanoparticles .............................. 284
     10.2.3 Other Metal Nanomaterials ......................... 285
10.3 Metallic Oxide Nanoparticles ............................. 285
10.4 Carbon Nanotubes ......................................... 286
10.5 Nanocomposite Materials .................................. 292
10.6 Nanoparticles with Special Functions ..................... 293
     10.6.1 Semiconductor Nanoparticles ....................... 293
     10.6.2 Magnetic Nanoparticles ............................ 295
10.7 Other Nanomaterials ...................................... 295
10.8 Conclusion ............................................... 297
     References ............................................... 297

11   Biomimetic Nanosensors ................................... 311
     Raz Jelinek and Sofiya Kolusheva
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 311
11.2 Nanostructures in Biosensor Design ....................... 312
11.3 Nanosensors for Probing Biological and Cellular Systems .. 317
11.4 Biological Components in Nanosensors ..................... 323
11.5 Nano-biotechnology and Biomedical Diagnosis .............. 327
11.6 Conclusions and Future Directions ........................ 329
     Abbreviations ............................................ 330
     References ............................................... 330

12   Reagentless Biosensors Based on Nanoparticles ............ 337
     David E. Benson
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 337
12.2 Surface Dielectric Enhancement ........................... 339
     12.2.1 Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon
            Resonance ......................................... 340
     12.2.2 Carbon Nanotube and Silicon Nanowire Enhanced
            Conductivity ...................................... 343
     12.2.3 Advantages and Caveats ............................ 346
12.3 Catalytic Activation ..................................... 346
     12.3.1 Electrocatalytic Detection ........................ 347
     12.3.2 Catalytically Enabled Optical and Magnetic
            Detection ......................................... 349
     12.3.3 Advantages and Caveats ............................ 350
12.4 Biomolecule Conformational Modulated Effects ............. 351
     12.4.1 Biosensors Based on DNA Conformation Changes ...... 352
     12.4.2 Biosensors Based on Protein Conformation Changes .. 355
12.5 Conclusion ............................................... 361
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 362
     References ............................................... 362

13   Pico/Nanoliter Chamber Array Chips for Single-cell, DNA
     and Protein Analyses ..................................... 368
     Shohei Yamamura, Ramachandra Rao Sathuluri, and Eiichi
     Tamiya
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 368
13.2 Multiplexed Polymerase Chain Reaction from A Single
     Copy DNA using Nanoliter-volume Microchamber Array ....... 369
     13.2.1 PCR Microchamber Array Chip System ................ 371
        13.2.1.1 Microchamber Array Chip Fabrication .......... 371
        13.2.1.2 Sample Loading with a Nanoliter Dispenser .... 372
     13.2.2 Multiplexed Detection of Different Target DNA
            on a Single Chip .................................. 373
     13.2.3 On-chip Quantification of Amplified DNA ........... 376
13.3 On-chip Cell-free Protein Synthesis using A Picoliter
     Chamber Array ............................................ 378
     13.3.1 Cell-free Protein Synthesis Chip Fabrication ...... 379
     13.3.2 Cell-free Protein Synthesis using a Microchamber
            Array ............................................. 381
13.4 High-throughput Single-cell Analysis System using
     Pico-liter Microarray .................................... 384
     13.4.1 Single-cell Microarray Chip Fabrication ........... 386
     13.4.2 Pico-liter Microarray for Single-cell Studies ..... 388
     13.4.3 Single-cell Microarray System for Analysis of
            Antigen-specific Single B-cells ................... 389
13.5 Conclusions .............................................. 392
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 393
     References ............................................... 393

     Index .................................................... 398


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