Sabban A. Low-visibility antennas for communication systems (Boca Raton, 2016). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаSabban A. Low-visibility antennas for communication systems / A.Sabban. - Boca Raton [et al.]: CRC Press; Taylor & Francis, 2016. - xviii, 277 p.: ill. - (Gregory L. Charvat Series on Practical Approaches to Electrical Engineering). - 978-1-4822-4643-8
Шифр: (И/З84-S11) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Series ....................................................... xiii
Preface ........................................................ xv
About the Author ............................................. xvii

Chapter 1   Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines ....... 1
1.1  Definitions ................................................ 1
1.2  Electromagnetic Waves ...................................... 2
     1.2.1  Maxwell's Equations ................................. 2
     1.2.2  Gauss's Law for Electric Fields ..................... 3
     1.2.3  Gauss's Law for Magnetic Fields ..................... 3
     1.2.4  Ampere's Law ........................................ 3
     1.2.5  Faraday's Law ....................................... 4
     1.2.6  Wave Equations ...................................... 4
1.3  Transmission Lines ......................................... 6
1.4  Matching Techniques ....................................... 11
     1.4.1  Smith Chart Guidelines ............................. 14
     1.4.2  Quarter-Wave Transformers .......................... 14
     1.4.3  Wideband Matching—Multisection Transformers ........ 15
     1.4.4  Single-Stub Matching ............................... 15
1.5  Coaxial Transmission Line ................................. 16
     1.5.1  Cutoff Frequency and Wavelength of Coaxial Cables .. 18
1.6  Microstrip Line ........................................... 18
     1.6.1  Effective Dielectric Constant ...................... 19
     1.6.2  Characteristic Impedance ........................... 19
     1.6.3  Higher-Order Transmission Modes in a Microstrip
            Line ............................................... 20
       1.6.3.1  Examples ....................................... 20
       1.6.3.2  Losses in Microstrip Line ...................... 21
     1.6.4  Conductor Loss ..................................... 21
     1.6.5  Dielectric Loss .................................... 21
1.7  Materials ................................................. 24
1.8  Waveguides ................................................ 24
     1.8.1  ТЕ Waves ........................................... 25
     1.8.2  TM Waves ........................................... 28
1.9  Circular Waveguide ........................................ 30
     1.9.1  ТЕ Waves in a Circular Waveguide ................... 32
     1.9.2  TM Waves in a Circular Waveguide ................... 34
     References ................................................ 36

Chapter 2  Basic Antenna Theory ................................ 39
2.1  Introduction to Antennas .................................. 39
2.2  Antenna Parameters ........................................ 39
2.3  Dipole Antenna ............................................ 42
     2.3.1  Radiation from a Small Dipole ...................... 42
     2.3.2  Dipole Radiation Pattern ........................... 43
     2.3.3  Dipole E-Plane Radiation Pattern ................... 44
     2.3.4  Dipole H-Plane Radiation Pattern ................... 44
     2.3.5  Antenna Radiation Pattern .......................... 45
     2.3.6  Dipole Directivity ................................. 46
     2.3.7  Antenna Impedance .................................. 47
     2.3.8  Impedance of a Folded Dipole ....................... 47
2.4  Basic Aperture Antennas ................................... 47
     2.4.1  The Parabolic Reflector Antenna .................... 48
     2.4.2  Reflector Directivity .............................. 49
     2.4.3  Cassegrain Reflector ............................... 51
2.5  Horn Antennas ............................................. 51
     2.5.1  E-Plane Sectoral Horn .............................. 51
     2.5.2  H-Plane Sectoral Horn .............................. 54
     2.5.3  Pyramidal Horn Antenna ............................. 59
     References ................................................ 61

Chapter 3  Low-Visibility Printed Antennas ..................... 63
3.1  Microstrip Antennas ....................................... 63
     3.1.1  Introduction to Microstrip Antennas ................ 63
     3.1.2  Transmission Line Model of Microstrip Antennas ..... 65
     3.1.3  Higher-Order Transmission Modes in Microstrip
            Antennas ........................................... 66
     3.1.4  Effective Dielectric Constant ...................... 67
     3.1.5  Losses in Microstrip Antennas ...................... 67
       3.1.5.1  Conductor Loss ................................. 67
       3.1.5.2  Dielectric Loss ................................ 67
     3.1.6  Patch Radiation Pattern ............................ 68
3.2  Two-Layer Stacked Microstrip Antennas ..................... 68
3.3  Stacked Monopulse Ku Band Patch Antenna ................... 71
     3.3.1  Rat-Race Coupler ................................... 71
3.4  Loop Antennas ............................................. 72
     3.4.1  Small Loop Antenna ................................. 72
     3.4.2  Printed Loop Antenna ............................... 73
     3.4.3  Radio Frequency Identification Loop Antennas ....... 76
     3.4.4  New Loop Antenna with Ground Plane ................. 77
3.5  Wired Loop Antenna ........................................ 80
3.6  Radiation Pattern of a Loop Antenna Near a Metal Sheet .... 81
3.7  Planar Inverted-F Antenna ................................. 83
     3.7.1  Grounded Quarter-Wavelength Patch Antenna .......... 84
     3.7.2  A New Double-Layer PIFA Antenna .................... 85
     References ................................................ 87

Chapter 4  Antenna Array ....................................... 89
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 89
4.2  Array Radiation Pattern ................................... 89
4.3  Broadside Array ........................................... 91
4.4  End-Fire Array ............................................ 92
4.5  Printed Arrays ............................................ 92
4.6  Stacked Microstrip Antenna Arrays ......................... 94
4.7  Ka Band Microstrip Antenna Arrays ......................... 95
4.8  Series Fed Microstrip Arrays .............................. 97
4.9  Stacked Series Fed Microstrip 8-Element Array ............ 103
4.10 Stacked Series Parallel Fed Microstrip 64-Element Array .. 105
4.11 Conclusions .............................................. 106
     References ............................................... 106

Chapter 5   Applications of Low-Visibility Printed Antennas ... 109
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 109
5.2  Low-Visibility Microstrip Antenna Arrays with High
     Efficiency ............................................... 110
     5.2.1  Evaluation of Microstrip Feed Network Losses ...... 111
     5.2.2  Evaluation of Radiation Loss ...................... 111
     5.2.3  Radiation Loss from Microstrip Discontinuities .... 113
     5.2.4  64- and 256-Microstrip Antenna Arrays with High
            Efficiency ........................................ 114
5.3  W Band Microstrip Antenna Detection Array ................ 116
     5.3.1  The Array Principle of Operation .................. 117
     5.3.2  W Band Antenna Design ............................. 118
     5.3.3  Resistor Design ................................... 119
     5.3.4  220-GHz Microstrip Patch Antenna .................. 121
5.4  Medical Applications of Microstrip Antennas .............. 121
     5.4.1  Dual Polarized 434-MHz Printed Antenna ............ 121
     5.4.2  New Loop Antenna with a Ground Plane .............. 124
     5.4.3  Antenna S11 Variation as a Function of Distance
            from the Body ..................................... 124
     5.4.4  Medical Applications for Low-Visibility Antennas .. 128
5.5  Conclusion ............................................... 131
     References ............................................... 132

Chapter 6  Wearable Antennas for Communication and Medical
Applications .................................................. 133
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 133
6.2  Dually Polarized Wearable 434-MHz Printed Antenna ........ 134
6.3  Loop Antenna with a Ground Plane ......................... 137
6.4  Antenna S11 Variation as a Function of Distance
     from the Body ............................................ 140
6.5  Wearable Antennas ........................................ 144
6.6  Compact Dual Polarized Printed Antenna ................... 146
6.7  Helix Antenna Performance on the Human Body .............. 147
6.8  Compact Wearable RFID Antennas ........................... 150
     6.8.1  Dual Polarized 13.5-MHz Compact Printed Antenna ... 150
     6.8.2  Varying the Antenna Feed Network .................. 151
     6.8.3  RFID Wearable Loop Antennas ....................... 154
     6.8.4  Proposed Antenna Applications ..................... 155
6.9  Conclusions .............................................. 156
     References ............................................... 157

Chapter 7  Wearable Tunable Printed Antennas for Medical
Applications .................................................. 159
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 159
7.2  Varactor Theory .......................................... 159
     7.2.1  Varactor Diode Basics ............................. 159
     7.2.2  Types of Varactors ................................ 161
7.3  Dually Polarized Tunable Printed Antenna ................. 161
7.4  Wearable Tunable Antennas ................................ 163
7.5  Tunable Antenna Varactors ................................ 165
7.6  Measurements of Tunable Antennas ......................... 165
7.7  Folded Dual Polarized Tunable Antenna .................... 166
7.8  Medical Applications for Tunable Antennas ................ 167
7.9  Conclusions .............................................. 169
     References ............................................... 169

Chapter 8  New Wideband Wearable Meta-Material Antennas
for Communication Applications ................................ 171
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 171
8.2  New Antennas with SRRs ................................... 171
8.3  Folded Dipole Meta-Material Antenna with SRRs ............ 177
8.4  Stacked Patch Antenna Loaded with SRRs ................... 179
8.5  Patch Antenna Loaded with SRRs ........................... 181
8.6  Meta-Material Antenna Characteristics in the Vicinity
     of the Human Body ........................................ 183
8.7  Meta-Material Wearable Antennas .......................... 187
8.8  Wideband Stacked Patch with SRR .......................... 189
8.9  Small Meta-Material Antenna Analysis ..................... 190
8.10 Conclusion ............................................... 192
     References

Chapter 9  Fractal Printed Antennas ........................... 195
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 195
9.2  Fractal Structures ....................................... 195
9.3  Fractal Antennas ......................................... i96
9.4  Antiradar Fractals and/or Multilevel Chaff Dispersers .... 198
     9.4.1  Definition of Chaff ............................... 198
     9.4.2  Geometry of Dispersers ............................ 198
9.5  Definition of Multilevel Structure ....................... 199
9.6  Advanced Antenna System .................................. 200
9.7  Comparison between Euclidean and Fractal Antennas ........ 201
9.8  Multilevel and Space-Filling Ground Planes for
     Miniature and Multiband Antennas ......................... 202
     9.8.1  Multilevel Geometry ............................... 202
     9.8.2  Space-Filling Curve ............................... 202
9.9  Applications of Fractal Printed Antennas ................. 204
     9.9.1  New 2.5-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas with
            Space-Filling Perimeter on the Radiator ........... 204
     9.9.2  New Stacked Patch 2.5-GHz Fractal Printed
            Antennas .......................................... 208
     9.9.3  New 8-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas with Space-
            Filling Perimeter of the Conducting Sheet ......... 210
     9.9.4  New Stacked Patch 7.4-GHz Fractal Printed
            Antennas .......................................... 213
9.10 New Fractal Printed Antennas Using Double-Layer Hilbert
     Curves ................................................... 220
     9.10.1 New 3.3-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas Using
            Double-Layer Hilbert Curves ....................... 220
     9.10.2 New 3.3-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas Using
            Hilbert Curves on the Resonator Layer ............. 221
9.11 Conclusions .............................................. 225
     References ............................................... 225

Chapter 10 Microwave and MM Wave Technologies ................. 227
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 227
10.2 Microwave Integrated Circuits ............................ 227
10.3 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ................. 228
     10.3.1 MMIC Design Facts ................................. 229
     10.3.2 MMIC Technology Features .......................... 230
     10.3.3 Types of Components Designed ...................... 230
     10.3.4 Advantages of GaAs versus Silicon ................. 231
     10.3.5 Semiconductor Technology .......................... 232
     10.3.6 MMIC Fabrication Process .......................... 232
     10.3.7 Generation of Microwave Signals in Microwave
            and MM Wave ....................................... 236
     10.3.8 MMIC Circuit Examples and Applications ............ 237
10.4 MEMS Technology .......................................... 237
     10.4.1 MEMS Technology Advantages ........................ 239
     10.4.2 MEMS Technology Process ........................... 239
     10.4.3 MEMS Components ................................... 240
10.5 LTCC and HTCC Technology ................................. 242
     10.5.1 LTCC and HTCC Technology Process .................. 243
     10.5.2 Design of High-Pass LTCC Filters .................. 246
     10.5.3 Comparison of Single-Layer and Multilayer
            Microstrip Circuits ............................... 249
10.6 Conclusions .............................................. 250
     References ............................................... 250

Chapter 11 Radio Frequency Measurements ....................... 251
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 251
11.2 Multiport Networks with N Ports .......................... 251
11.3 Scattering Matrix ........................................ 252
11.4 S-Parameter Measurements ................................. 254
     11.4.1 Types of S-Parameter Measurements ................. 255
11.5 Transmission Measurements ................................ 256
11.6 Output Power and Linearity Measurements .................. 257
11.7 Antenna Measurements ..................................... 257
     11.7.1 Radiation Pattern Measurements .................... 258
     11.7.2 Directivity and Antenna Effective Area ............ 260
     11.7.3 Radiation Efficiency .............................. 260
     11.7.4 Typical Antenna Radiation Pattern ................. 261
     11.7.5 Gain Measurements ................................. 261
11.8 Antenna Range Setup ...................................... 263
     References ............................................... 263

Index ......................................................... 265

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