Narison S. Particles and the universe: from the Ionian School to the Higgs Boson and beyond (Singapore; Hackensack, NJ, 2016). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаNarison S. Particles and the universe: from the Ionian School to the Higgs Boson and beyond / S.Narison. - Singapore; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, 2016.- xx, 369 p.: ill. - ISBN 978-981-4644-68-6
Шифр: (И/В38-N23) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword ...................................................... vii
Outline ........................................................ xi

I  General Introduction ......................................... 1

1  Evolution of Physical Sciences ............................... 3
   1.1  Greek Philosophers ...................................... 3
   1.2  Classical Physics ....................................... 7
   1.3  Beginning of Modernity ................................. 13
   1.4  Quantum Mechanics ...................................... 17
   1.5  Special Relativity ..................................... 28
   1.6  Quantum Field Theory ................................... 31
2  Anatomy of the Universe ..................................... 35
   2.1  Across the Universe: The Two Infinities ................ 35
   2.2  The Four Forces of Nature .............................. 36
   2.3  Understanding the Origin of the Universe ............... 39
3  Basics of Particle Physics .................................. 43
   3.1  Conservation Laws and Symmetries ....................... 43
   3.2  Observables in Particle Physics ........................ 47
   3.3  Particle Physics Units of Measurement .................. 48
   3.4  Birth of Particle Physics .............................. 50
   3.5  Concluding Remarks ..................................... 55

II Modern Theories of Forces ................................... 57

4  Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) ............................... 59
   4.1  QED is a U(l) Gauge Theory ............................. 59
   4.2  Path Integral and Feynman Diagrams ..................... 60
   4.3  Renormalization Program in QED ......................... 62
   4.4  Beyond the Dirac Theory ................................ 64
   4.5  Some High-Precision Tests of QED ....................... 66
   4.6  Success of QED ......................................... 69
5  Pre-QCD Era ................................................. 71
   5.1  SU(3) Classification of Hadrons ........................ 71
   5.2  Regge Theory for Hadrons ............................... 74
   5.3  Veneziano Amplitude .................................... 76
   5.4  Quark Model ............................................ 77
   5.5  Parton Model and Bjorken Sum Rules ..................... 82

6  Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ................................ 85
   6.1  QCD Color Gauge Theory ................................. 85
   6.2  QCD Asymptotically Free Theory ......................... 88
   6.3  Deep Inelastic Neutrino Scattering ..................... 93
   6.4  Polarized DIS Process and the Proton Spin .............. 95
   6.5  Some Experimental Tests of QCD ......................... 96
   6.6  QCD as a Theory of Hadrons ............................ 104
   6.7  QCD Spectral Sum Rules (QSSR) ......................... 107
   6.8  QSSR Phenomenology .................................... 110
   6.9  Hot Plasma Soup of Quark-Gluon ........................ 118
   6.10  AdS/QCD Correspondence ............................... 120
   6.11  QCD Confinement ...................................... 121
   6.12  QCD is in a Good Shape ............................... 121

7  Electroweak Standard Model ................................. 123
   7.1  Weak Interactions in the 1930-1960s ................... 123
   7.2  Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Boson ....................... 130
   7.3  Electroweak Standard Model ............................ 134
   7.4  Uncomplete Success of the Standard Model .............. 146

III  Higgs Boson Discovery and Beyond ......................... 147

8  Higgs Boson Discovery ...................................... 149
   8.1  The Hunt for the Higgs Boson .......................... 149
   8.2  The Higgs Big Show at CERN ............................ 155

9  The Era After Higgs ........................................ 165
   9.1  Theoretical Status After Higgs ........................ 165
   9.2  Some Open Theoretical Problems ........................ 166
   9.3  Grand Unified Theory (GUT) ............................ 169
   9.4  Theory of Everything and Gravitation .................. 172
   9.5  Concluding Remarks .................................... 179

IV  Experiments to Go Back in Time ............................ 181

10 High-Energy Colliders ...................................... 183
   10.1 The LHC: A Jewel of Technology ........................ 186
   10.2 Concluding Remarks .................................... 194

11 Fishing the Invisible Neutrinos ............................ 195
   11.1 From Reactors to Cosmic Rays .......................... 195
   11.2 Reactor and Accelerator Experiments ................... 196
   11.3 Neutrinos from Cosmic Rays ............................ 200
   11.4 Some Other Cosmic Neutrino Experiments ................ 204

V  A Brief Cosmos Tour ........................................ 209

12 General Relativity and Gravitation ......................... 211
   12.1 Einstein Field Equations .............................. 211
   12.2 Einstein Cosmological Constant ........................ 212
   12.3 Time Dilation ......................................... 213
   12.4 Gravitational Redshift of Light ....................... 213
   12.5 Gravitational Lensing ................................. 214
   12.6 Gravitational Time Delay .............................. 214
13 The Minimal Big Bang Model ................................. 215
   13.1 Friedmann-Lemaitre Model .............................. 215
   13.2 Evolution of the Universe ............................. 217
   13.3 Black and Dark Elements of the Universe ............... 221
14 Beyond the Minimal Big Bang Model .......................... 225
   14.1 Success of the Minimal Big Bang Model ................. 225
   14.2 Minimal Big Bang Model Limitations .................... 226
   14.3 Cosmological Standard Model ........................... 227
   14.4 Inflationary Cosmology ................................ 227
15 Excursion to the Infinitely Large .......................... 229
   15.1 Some Astrophysical Constants and Units ................ 229
   15.2 Radiation Spectra and Experiments ..................... 229
   15.3 The Space Conquest Era ................................ 236
   15.4 NASA's Searches for Exoplanets ........................ 236

VI  Fundamental Researches and Society ........................ 241

16 International Research Centers ............................. 243
   16.1 International Research Centers ........................ 243
   16.2 LHC as an International Collaboration ................. 245
   16.3 High-Technology Impacts of HEP ........................ 246

17 Popularizing High-Energy Physics ........................... 249
   17.1 Transmission of Knowledge ............................. 249
   17.2 QCD Series of International Conferences ............... 250
   17.3 Developing HEP in Madagascar .......................... 254

VIII  Appendix: Useful Notes for Advanced Readers ............. 267

A  Special and General Relativity ............................. 269
   A.l  Special Relativity .................................... 269
   A.2  General Relativity and Cosmology ...................... 272
В  Quantum Mechanics - Field Theory ........................... 273
   B.l  Creation and Annihilation Operators ................... 273
   B.2  Schrуdinger Equation .................................. 274
   B.3  Klein-Gordon Equation for Scalar Boson ................ 275
   B.4  Second Quantization of Dirac for Fermion .............. 276
   В.5  Ordered Products ...................................... 277
   B.6  Wick's Theorem ........................................ 280
   B.7  Scattering Matrices ................................... 282
   B.8  Decay Rate or Width of a Particle ..................... 282
   B.9  Cross-Section ......................................... 283
С  SU(N) Lie Algebra .......................................... 285
   C.l  Definition ............................................ 285
   C.2  Gluons in the Adjoint Representation .................. 285
   C.3  Quarks in a Fundamental Representation ................ 286
   C.4  The SU(2) Group ....................................... 287
   C.5  The SU(3) Group ....................................... 288
D  Gauge Theory ............................................... 289
   D.l  Path Integral ......................................... 289
   D.2  Maxwell's Equations ................................... 291
   D.3  QED Lagrangian ........................................ 293
   D.4  Standard Model Lagrangian ............................. 300
   D.5  QCD Lagrangian ........................................ 303
   D.6  BRST Transformation for QCD ........................... 304
   D.7  Dimensional Renormalization ........................... 306
   D.8  The Renormalization Group ............................. 311
E  Kits for Feynman Diagrams Calculus ......................... 315
   E.l  Feynman Rules for QCD ................................. 315
   E.2  Feynman Rules for QED ................................. 318
   E.3  Feynman Rules for the Standard Model .................. 318
   E.4  Dirac Matrices ........................................ 319
   E.5  Totally Anti-Symmetric Tensor ......................... 321
   E.6  CPT Transformations ................................... 321
   E.7  Polarizations ......................................... 322
   E.8  Feynman Momentum Integrals ............................ 323
   E.9  Dimensional Regularization ............................ 324
   E.10 The Г and Beta Function B(x,y) ........................ 325
   E.ll The Pseudoscalar Two-Point Correlator ................. 326

IX  Annex ..................................................... 329

Some Significant Dates in Particle Physics .................... 331
Nobel Prize in Physics ........................................ 337

X  Bibliography and Index ..................................... 341

Bibliography .................................................. 343

Index ......................................................... 349

XI About the Author ........................................... 361

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