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ОбложкаLamb B.C. Human diversity: its nature, extent, causes and effects on people. - Singapore: World scientific, 2016. - xv, 432 p., [20] p. col. ill.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.418-432. - ISBN 978-981-4632-35-5
Шифр: (И/ Е7-L20) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Acknowledgements ................................................ v

Chapter 1. Introduction: Scope of the Book; Types
of Human Difference and Their Causes ............................ 1
1.1  The aims and scope of this book ............................ 1
1.2  The major types of human difference ........................ 7
1.3  Examples of differences and their causes; heritability ..... 8
Reference ...................................................... 11

Chapter 2. Races and Inter-Mixing, Nationalities, Cultures,
Castes, Classes and Religions .................................. 12
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 12
2.2  Cultures and nationalities ................................ 16
2.3  Race ...................................................... 19
     2.3.1  Introduction ....................................... 19
     2.3.2  Racism ............................................. 22
     2.3.3  Racial quotas ...................................... 26
     2.3.4  Political correctness gone wrong ................... 27
2.4  Racial mixing ............................................. 28
     Research on what it is like to be of mixed race ........... 29
2.5  Religion .................................................. 31
2.6  Diversity in a school, then and now ....................... 35
2.7  The origins of racial and population differences .......... 35
2.8  Race, adaptation to environment, selection, chance
     and preferring one's own kind ............................. 37
2.9  Races and geography ....................................... 39
     References ................................................ 40
     Recommended reading ....................................... 40

Chapter 3. Height, Weight, Shape and Obesity ................... 41
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 41
3.2  Body fat and heat ......................................... 44
3.3  Height .................................................... 45
3.4  Weight and health ......................................... 49
3.5  Dissatisfaction with body image ........................... 52
3.6  Shape, obesity and diet ................................... 53
References ..................................................... 58

Chapter 4. Differences Between Males and Females;
Reproduction and its Production of Genetic Diversity ........... 59
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 59
4.2  Females ................................................... 59
4.3  Males ..................................................... 61
4.4  Fertilisation ............................................. 62
4.5  Diversity from reproduction ............................... 64
4.6  Physical variations ....................................... 64
4.7  Conception through the oral route, a true virgin birth .... 65
     References ................................................ 65
     Recommended reading ....................................... 65

Chapter 5. Personal Choice, Cosmetic and Preventative
Surgery, Clothing and Make-up .................................. 66
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 66
5.2  Cosmetic surgery and other treatments ..................... 68
5.3  Preventative surgery ...................................... 72
5.4  Clothing, hats, shoes and make-up ......................... 73

Chapter 6. Languages - A Rich but Frustrating Diversity 80
Recommended reading ............................................ 97

Chapter 7. Names and Identity .................................. 98
7.1  Introduction .............................................. 98
7.2  The history of surnames .................................. 100
7.3  DNA sequencing and surnames .............................. 102
7.4  Name changes ............................................. 102
7.5  Local associations of surnames ........................... 104
7.6  Russian names ............................................ 104
7.7  Iceland's unusual (dottier?) way with surnames ........... 105
7.8  The frequency and geography of names ..................... 105
7.9  Choosing forenames ....................................... 106
7.10 Unusual names ............................................ 107
7.11 The meanings of some Christian names ..................... 108
7.12 Names of Native Americans ................................ 108
7.13 Initials, combinations and titles ........................ 109
7.14 Permitted names and ugly names ........................... 109
7.15 Nicknames ................................................ 110
7.16 Scripts, diacritical marks and punctuation in names ...... 110
7.17 Illegitimacy and surnames ................................ 111
7.18 Consequences of name confusions .......................... 111

Chapter 8. Albinos, Colour Blindness and Height:
How Human Characteristics are Inherited ....................... 113
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 113
8.2  How an autosomal characteristic is inherited, albinism ... 115
8.3  How a sex-linked characteristic such as red-green
     colour blindness is inherited ............................ 119
8.4  How characteristics with continuous variation, such as
     normal height, are inherited ............................. 120
8.5  Threshold characteristics ................................ 125
8.6  The human genome ......................................... 126
     References ............................................... 127

Chapter 9. The Brain, Intelligence, Mind, Personality, Mental
Problems, Learning, Memory, Creativity, Happiness ............. 128
9.1.   The brain and nerves ................................... 128
9.2  Intelligence ............................................. 130
9.3  Stress ................................................... 132
9.4  Mind-altering drugs ...................................... 133
9.5  Personality; self-esteem ................................. 134
9.6  Mental disorders; Alzheimer's; depression; manic-
     depressiveness; autism; schizophrenia; dyspraxia;
     dyslexia; recognition disorders; self-harming; epilepsy;
     obsessive-compulsive disorder ............................ 136
9.7  Synaesthesia ............................................. 151
9.8  Epilepsy ................................................. 151
9.9  Learning and memory ...................................... 152
9.10 Creativity ............................................... 153
9.11 Happiness ................................................ 154
     Reference ................................................ 155

Chapter 10. Sex, Attraction, Reproduction, Twins, Incest ...... 156
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 156
10.2 Marital status, virginity, polygamy and polyandry ........ 159
10.3 Attractiveness and factors affecting the choice
     of mate; marriage and divorce ............................ 162
10.4 The first period, menopause, hysterectomies,
     miscarriages, hormone replacement therapy,
     endometriosis ............................................ 168
10.5 Natural and assisted reproduction, abortions,
     infertility, contraception ............................... 171
10.6 Twins and other multiple births; Siamese twins ........... 174
10.7 The sex ratio ............................................ 180
10.8 Hormone imbalance; men with breasts and women with
     beards; sex tests and sports ............................. 181
10.9 Sex-change operations and hormone treatments ............. 183
10.10 Castration — eunuchs, castrati and eugenics—and 'the
      third sex' .............................................. 184
10.11 Hermaphrodites and testicular femininism ................ 185
10.12 Nature is sexist - sex differences in disease
      susceptibility .......................................... 186
10.13 Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian tumours ........... 187
10.14 The effects of human inbreeding; incest; first-cousin
      marriages ............................................... 188
10.15 Enforced sex ............................................ 190
      References .............................................. 192
      Recommended readings .................................... 192

Chapter 11. Diseases, Disorders, Immunity, Cancer ............. 193
11.1 Diversity in disease ..................................... 193
11.2 The body's protective mechanisms; the immune system ...... 195
11.3 Diseases caused by protozoa .............................. 198
11.4 Diseases caused by parasitic worms (helminths) ........... 200
11.5 Diseases caused by viruses ............................... 201
11.6 Diseases caused by bacteria .............................. 203
11.7 Diseases caused by fungi ................................. 205
11.8 Problems from arthropods (crustaceans, insects, spiders,
     scorpions and mites) ..................................... 206
11.9 Venereal diseases ........................................ 206
11.10 Non-infectious disorders ................................ 209
11.11 Cancer .................................................. 210
11.12 Genetics and personalised medicine ...................... 216
11.13 Inherited disorders from mitochondrial DNA defects ...... 217
      References .............................................. 218
      Recommended reading ..................................... 218

Chapter 12. Eating, Drinking, Diet, Digestion, Liver, Cystic
Fibrosis, Diabetes, Allergies, Food Intolerances, Anorexia .... 219
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 219
12.2 The digestive tract ...................................... 220
12.3 An adult problem with milk - lactose intolerance ......... 222
12.4 Baby problems with milk .................................. 223
12.5 A failure to break down a dietary amino acid -
     phenylketonuria (PKU) .................................... 224
12.6 Missing digestive enzymes, cystic fibrosis; Johanson-
     Blizzard syndrome ........................................ 224
12.7 Inflammatory bowel diseases: coeliac disease (gluten
     intolerance), ulcerative colitis, diverticulosis and
     Crohn's disease .......................................... 228
12.8 Piles (haemorrhoids) ..................................... 229
12.9 Alcohol, enzyme deficiencies, the flushing reaction ...... 230
12.10 The liver; jaundice, hepatitis and cirrhosis ............ 233
12.11 Diet and cancer ......................................... 236
12.12 Meat, amino acids and malnutrition ...................... 236
12.13 Vitamin and mineral deficiencies ........................ 237
12.14 Tea, coffee and caffeine ................................ 238
12.15 Food and allergies ...................................... 239
12.16 Research on diets and allergies ......................... 243
12.17 Types of diabetes ....................................... 246
12.18 The body's energy balance; calories used in different
      activities .............................................. 253
12.19 Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G-6-P-D) enzyme
      deficiency, giving anaemia from certain drugs or broad
      beans ................................................... 257
12.20 The stomach, digestion, ulcers and irritable bowel
      syndrome ................................................ 258
12.21 Eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, pica syndrome ...... 260
12.22 Taste sensitivity; sweeteners ........................... 262
      References .............................................. 263
      Recommended reading ..................................... 263

Chapter 13. Skin, Skin Colour and Disorders ................... 264
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 264
13.2 Skin structure, function and smell ....................... 267
13.3 The effects of age on skin ............................... 270
13.4 The sense of touch ....................................... 270
13.5 Skin colour, tanning and sunburn ......................... 271
13.6 Some skin disorders ...................................... 277
13.7 Contagious diseases affecting the skin ................... 288
     Reference ................................................ 291

Chapter 14. The Skeleton, Muscles, Osteoporosis, ME,
Motor Neurone Disease, Muscular Dystrophy ..................... 292
14.1 The skeleton; rib diversity .............................. 292
14.2 Brittle bone disease and osteoporosis .................... 293
14.3 Muscles .................................................. 294

Chapter 15. Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Sight, Hearing, Smell,
Taste ......................................................... 299
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 299
15.2 Head size and shape ...................................... 300
15.3 Head and spinal cord defects, including spina bifida ..... 301
15.4 The face ................................................. 304
15.5 The eyes; sight, colour blindness, cataracts. and other
     eye problems ............................................. 305
15.6 The nose and sense of smell .............................. 317
15.7 Jaws, teeth, lips, tongues, chins, taste ................. 318
15.8 The ears and hearing problems ............................ 321
15.9 Hair ..................................................... 325
References .................................................... 328

Chapter 16. The Heart; Heart Attacks, Strokes, High Blood
Pressure ...................................................... 329
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 329
16.2 The heart and circulatory system; congenital heart
     diseases ................................................. 330
16.3 Heart attacks, artery diseases, strokes, TIAs, heart
     murmurs and deep-vein thrombosis ......................... 333
16.4 High and low blood pressure; varicose veins; fainting .... 344
     Reference ................................................ 348

Chapter 17. Blood, Blood Groups; Anaemia, Haemophilia,
Leukaemia and Other Blood Disorders ........................... 349
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 349
17.2 The ABO and Rhesus blood groups .......................... 352
17.3 Problems from Rhesus negative mothers .................... 353
17.4 Other blood groups ....................................... 354
17.5 Blood group frequencies .................................. 354
17.6 Blood groups and disease susceptibility .................. 355
17.7 Sickle-cell anaemia and thalassaemias — inherited
     disorders maintained by selection for malaria-
     resistance ............................................... 355
17.8 Haemophilia, which affected European royal families ...... 359
17.9 Other anaemias and polycythaemia ......................... 360
17.10 Leukaemias and lymphomas ................................ 362
17.11 Too much iron — haemochromatosis ........................ 364
17.12 Blood analysis results and human diversity .............. 365
      Recommended reading ..................................... 367

Chapter 18. Arms, Legs, Giants, Dwarfs, Arthritis, Left-
handedness .................................................... 368
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 368
18.2 Giants, dwarfs and midgets (see also Chapter 3.3) ........ 370
18.3 Extra fingers or toes — Polydactyly ...................... 372
18.4 Lobster-claw feet and hands .............................. 372
18.5 'Flipper arms' (phocomelia), natural or from
     thalidomide .............................................. 373
18.6 Other disorders affecting the limbs ...................... 373
18.7 High heels ............................................... 375
18.8 Short fingers and toes ................................... 375
18.9 Miscellaneous finger and toe conditions; webbed fingers
     or toes .................................................. 375
18.10 Nails ................................................... 376
18.11 Fingerprints ............................................ 377
18.12 Joint flexibility, Marfan syndrome, spondylitis,
      double-jointedness ...................................... 377
18.13 Arthritis ............................................... 379
18.14 Clubfoot ................................................ 380
18.15 Foot-binding of girls ................................... 381
18.16 Left-and right-handedness;'laterality' .................. 381
Reference ..................................................... 383

Chapter 19. Kidneys, Urine, Bladder, Cystitis, Police
Alcohol Tests ................................................. 384
19.1 Kidney structure and function ............................ 384
19.2 Water balance and urine .................................. 386
19.3 The bladder .............................................. 386
19.4 Kidney and bladder problems; dialysis, stones and
     cystitis ................................................. 387
19.5 Police tests for alcohol ................................. 389

Chapter 20. Lungs, Breathing, Asthma .......................... 391
20.1 Lung structure and function .............................. 391
20.2 Lung problems ............................................ 391
20.3 Air pollution, emphysema, particulates and deaths ........ 393
     Reference ................................................ 394

Chapter 21. Development From the Fertilised Egg; Sexual
and Later Development ......................................... 395
21.1 Development from the fertilised egg ...................... 395
21.2 Sexual development before birth .......................... 397
21.3 Later development ........................................ 397
     Reference ................................................ 398

Chapter 22. Longevity, Ageing, Birth and Death Rates,
Immigration, Population Structure ............................. 399
22.1 Longevity, ageing and death .............................. 399
22.2 Births, immigration, population structure ................ 403
     Recommended reading ...................................... 404

Chapter 23. Abnormalities of Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes,
Down Syndrome, Barr Bodies .................................... 405
23.1 Introduction; Barr bodies ................................ 405
23.2 Differences in sex chromosomes ........................... 405
23.3 Differences in autosomal chromosome number ............... 408
23.4 Aberrations in chromosome structure ...................... 409
     Reference ................................................ 409

Chapter 24. Opinions on the Characteristics
of the Chinese, Japanese and English .......................... 410

Index ......................................................... 418

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