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ОбложкаNanocomposite particles for bio-applications: materials and bio-interfaces / ed. by T.Trindade, A.L.Daniel da Silva. - Singapore: Pan Stanford publishing, 2011. - xxii, 289,4 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.283-289. - ISBN 978-981-4267-78-6
Шифр: (И/E-N21) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
List of Figures ................................................ xi
List of Tables ................................................ xix
Preface ....................................................... xxi

1    From Nanoparticles to Nanocomposites: A Brief Overview ..... 1
1.1  Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: An introduction ............ 1
1.2  Nanoparticles' Diversity ................................... 3
     1.2.1  Quantum dots ........................................ 4
     1.2.2  Iron oxides ......................................... 4
     1.2.3  Metal nanoparticles ................................. 5
1.3  Surface Modification of Nanoparticles ...................... 7
     1.3.1  Ligand exchange reactions ........................... 8
     1.3.2  Inorganic nanocoating ............................... 8
     1.3.3  Encapsulation in polymers .......................... 10
1.4  Designing Biointerfaces over Nanoparticles ................ 11
1.5  Challenges for the Future ... Nanosafety for Today ........ 14


2    Polymers for Biomedical Applications: Chemical
     Modification and Biofunctionalization ..................... 21
2.1  Drug Delivery Systems ..................................... 21
2.2  Hydrogels ч. .............................................. 23
     2.2.1  Application of hydrogels ........................... 24
     2.2.2  Types of hydrogels ................................. 25
2.3  Bioadhesives .............................................. 30
2.4  Surface Modification ...................................... 34
     2.4.1  Surface modification by ultra-violet radiation ..... 36
     2.4.2  Plasma treatment ................................... 37
       2.4.2.1  Plasma generation .............................. 37
       2.4.2.2  Plasma polymerization and surface
                 modification of polymers ...................... 38
2.5  Concluding Remarks ........................................ 39

3    Nanocapsules as Carriers for the Transport and Targeted
     Delivery of Bioactive Molecules ........................... 45
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 45
3.2  Polymeric Nanocapsules: Production and Characterization ... 45
     3.2.1  Nanocapsules made of synthetic polymers ............ 47
       3.2.1.1  Polyacrylate nanocapsules ...................... 47
       3.2.1.2  Polyester nanocapsules ......................... 49
     3.2.2  Nanocapsules made of natural polymers .............. 50
     3.2.3  Lipid nanocapsules ................................. 51
3.3  Therapeutical Applications of Nanocapsules ................ 52
     3.3.1  Nanocapsules for oral drug delivery ................ 52
       3.3.1.1  Nanocapsules for oral peptide delivery ......... 52
       3.3.1.2  Nanocapsules for oral delivery of lipophilic
                low molecular weight drugs ..................... 54
     3.3.2  Nanocapsules as nasal drug carriers ................ 55
     3.3.3  Nanocapsules as ocular drug carriers ............... 56
     3.3.4  Nanocapsules in cancer therapy ..................... 58
     3.3.5  Nanocapsules as carriers for gene therapy .......... 59
3.4  Conclusions ............................................... 60

4    Inorganic Nanoparticles Biofunctionalization .............. 69
4.1  Bioconjugation of Nanoparticles ........................... 69
4.2  Nanoparticles and Their Surface Properties ................ 70
     4.2.1  Surface capping of nanoparticles ................... 70
     4.2.2  Semiconductor quantum dots and metallic
            nanoparticles ...................................... 71
     4.2.3  Silica nanoparticles and silica encapsulation ...... 72
4.3  Attachment Schemes ........................................ 74
     4.3.1  Covalent attachment ................................ 74
     4.3.2  Non-covalent attachment ............................ 75
     4.3.3  Affinity binding ................................... 76
4.4  Specific Cases ............................................ 76
     4.4.1  Proteins ........................................... 76
     4.4.2  DNA ................................................ 78
     4.4.3  Avidin ............................................. 79
     4.4.4  Phospholipid encapsulation and functionalization ... 81
4.5  Applications .............................................. 83
     4.5.1  Cellular imaging ................................... 83
     4.5.2  Drug delivery ...................................... 84
     4.5.3  Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer .......... 86
     4.5.4  Hyperthermia ....................................... 87
4.6  Conclusion ................................................ 88

5    Silica-Based Materials: Bioprocesses and Nanocomposites ... 97
5.1  Natural Silica Nanocomposites ............................. 97
     5.1.1  Introduction ....................................... 97
     5.1.2  Diatom biosilica ................................... 98
     5.1.3  Sponge biosilica ................................... 99
     5.1.4  (Bio)-technological applications of biosilica ..... 100
5.2  Biomimetic Silica Nanocomposites ......................... 102
     5.2.1  Introduction ...................................... 102
     5.2.2  Silica nanocomposites based on natural templates .. 102
     5.2.3  Silica nanocomposites based on model templates .... 103
       5.2.3.1  Synthetic peptides ............................ 103
       5.2.3.2  Synthetic polyamines .......................... 103
       5.2.3.3  Biological templates .......................... 105
     5.2.4  Biomimetism: How far can we go? ................... 106
5.3  Bio-Inspired Silica Nanocomposites ....................... 107
     5.3.1  Introduction ...................................... 107
     5.3.2  Biotechnological and medical applications ......... 107
     5.3.3  Perspectives ...................................... 109

6    Synthetic Strategies for Polymer-Based Nanocomposite
     Particles ................................................ 115
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 115
6.2  Surfaces and Interfaces: Chemical Modification of
     Nanoparticles ............................................ 117
6.3  In situ Synthetic Strategies for Polymer-Based Colloidal
     Nanocomposites ........................................... 120
     6.3.1  In situ preparation of the fillers ................ 121
       6.3.1.1  Sol-gel methods ............................... 121
     6.3.2  In situ polymerization of the matrix .............. 123
       6.3.2.1  Organic solvent-based methods: Dispersion
                polymerization ................................ 124
       6.3.2.2  Water-based methods: Emulsion and
                miniemulsion polymerization ................... 125
     6.3.3  Controlled polymerization:  Surface initiated
            polymerization (SIP) .............................. 128
       6.3.3.1  Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization—ATRP ..... 128
       6.3.3.2  Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain
                transfer (RAFT) polymerization ................ 130
       6.3.3.3  Combined controlled polymerization
                mechanisms .................................... 132
6.4  Functionalization of Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for
     Bio-Applications ......................................... 132
6.5  Final Remarks ............................................ 134

7    Synthesis of Nanocomposite Particles Using Supercritical
     Fluids: A Bridge with Bio-applications ................... 145
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 145
7.2  Supercritical Fluids: Definition and Current use in
     Bio-Applications ......................................... 146
     7.2.1  Definition ........................................ 146
     7.2.2  SCFs in biomedical applications ................... 148
       7.2.2.1  Development of drag delivery systems .......... 148
       7.2.2.2  scCCb for purification and sterilization ...... 150
7.3  Can SCFs be Used to Introduce Inorganic NPs into
     Polymers? ................................................ 150
     7.3.1  Formation of hybrid organic-inorganic NPs in SCFs
            (route 1) ......................................... 152
     7.3.2  Encapsulation of inorganic NPs into a polymer
            shell (route 2) ................................... 153
     7.3.3  Polymer swelling and in situ growth of inorganic
            NPs (route 3) ..................................... 154
       7.3.3.1  Polymer swelling by scC02 ..................... 155
       7.3.3.2  Chemical transformation of impregnated metal
                precursor ..................................... 155
7.4  Conclusions .............................................. 157

8    Biocomposites Containing Magnetic Nanoparticles .......... 165
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 165
8.2  Magnetic Properties ...................................... 167
     8.2.1  Magnetism at nanoscale level: Concepts and main
            phenomena ......................................... 167
       8.2.1.1  Basic concepts ................................ 167
       8.2.1.2  Systems with interactions between magnetic
                centers ....................................... 168
       8.2.1.3  Superparamagnetism ............................ 169
     8.2.2  Magnetism concepts subjacent to bio-applicatons ... 172
       8.2.2.1  Magnetic separation and drug delivery ......... 172
       8.2.2.2  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) .............. 172
       8.2.2.3  Magnetic hyperthermia ......................... 173
8.3  Magnetic Nanoparticles for Bio-Applications .............. 175
     8.3.1  Iron oxide nanoparticles .......................... 175
     8.3.2  Metallic nanoparticles ............................ 176
     8.3.3  Metal alloy nanoparticles ......................... 177
     8.3.4  Bimagnetic nanoparticles .......................... 177
8.4  Strategies of Synthesis of Magnetic Biocomposite
     Nanoparticles ............................................ 178
     8.4.1  In situ formation of magnetic nanoparticles ....... 179
       8.4.1.1  Iron oxide nanoparticles ...................... 180
       8.4.1.2  Other magnetic nanoparticles .................. 183
     8.4.2  Encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles within
            biopolymers ....................................... 185
8.5  Conclusions and Future Outlook ........................... 186

9    Multifunctional Nanocomposite Particles for Biomedical
     Applications ............................................. 193
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 193
9.2  Types of Multifunctional Magnetic-Fluorescent
     Nanocomposites ........................................... 194
9.3  Main Approaches to the Preparation of Multifunctional
     Magnetic-Fluorescent Nanocomposites ...................... 195
     9.3.1  Silica coated magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles .. 196
     9.3.2  Organic polymer coated magnetic cores treated
            with fluorescent entities ......................... 198
     9.3.3  Ionic assemblies of magnetic cores and
            fluorescent entities .............................. 199
     9.3.4  Fluorescently-labeled lipid coated magnetic
            nanoparticles ..................................... 200
     9.3.5  Magnetic core directly linked to fluorescent
            entity via a molecular spacer ..................... 201
     9.3.6  Magnetic cores coated by fluorescent
            semiconducting shells ............................. 201
     9.3.7  Magnetically-doped QDs ............................ 202
     9.3.8  Magnetic nanoparticles and QDs embedded within
            a polymer or silica matrix ........................ 203
9.4  Biomedical Applications .................................. 204
     9.4.1  Bio-imaging probes ................................ 204
     9.4.2  Cell tracking, sorting and bioseparation .......... 206
     9.4.3  Applications in nanomedicine ...................... 208
9.5  Conclusions and Future Outlook ........................... 210

10   Bio-Applications of Functionalized Magnetic
     Nanoparticles and Their Nanocomposites ................... 217
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 217
10.2 Fundaments of Nanomagnetism .............................. 220
     10.2.1 Single-domain particles ........................... 220
     10.2.2 Magnetic anisotropy energy ........................ 220
     10.2.3 Superparamagnetisin ............................... 221
10.3 Fundaments of Colloidal Stability ........................ 223
10.4 Bio-Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles ............... 224
     10.4.1 Magnetic separation ............................... 224
     10.4.2 Drug delivery ..................................... 225
     10.4.3 Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) .......... 227
       10.4.3.1 Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic
                nanomagnets ................................... 228
     10.4.4 Magnetobiosensors ................................. 231
       10.4.4.1 Magnetobiosensors based on
                magnetorelaxometry ............................ 232
       10.4.4.2 Magnetobiosensors based on magnetoresistance .. 233
       10.4.4.3 Magnetosensors based on Hall effect ........... 234
       10.4.4.4 Magnetoplasmonics ............................. 234
     10.4.5 Magnetic hyperthermia ............................. 235
10.5 Summary and Outlook ...................................... 238

11   Anti-Microbial Polymer Nanocomposites .................... 249
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 249
     11.1.1 Packaging ......................................... 250
     11.1.2 Textiles .......................................... 250
     11.1.3 Coatings .......................................... 252
       11.1.3.1 Antimicrobial coatings ........................ 252
       11.1.3.2 Medicine,  pathology and surgical implants/
                biomedical coatings ........................... 253
11.2 Anti-Microbial Polymer-Based Nanocomposites .............. 253
11.3 Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action ....................... 256
     11.3.1 Detection of microbes ............................. 256
     11.3.2 Control of microbial growth ....................... 257
11.4 Environmental and Health Concerns ........................ 260

12   Biosensing Applications Using Nanoparticles .............. 265
12.1 Biosensors: A Definition ................................. 265
12.2 Uses of Gold Nanoparticles ............................... 266
     12.2.1 Tailoring biointerfaces over gold nanoparticles ... 267
     12.2.2 Biosensing applications of gold nanoparticles ..... 268
       12.2.2.1 Crosslinking-based biosensing ................. 269
       12.2.2.2 Non-crosslinking-based biosensing ............. 272
12.3 Semiconductor Quantum Dots ............................... 273
     12.3.1 Properties of quantum dots ........................ 273
     12.3.2 Biosensing with quantum dots ...................... 273
       12.3.2.1 Immunosensing ................................. 274
       12.3.2.2 DNA assays .................................... 274
       12.3.2.3 Resonance energy transfer-based assays ........ 275
12.4 Outlook Remarks .......................................... 277

Index ......................................................... 283

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