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ОбложкаKoch E.-Ch. Metal-fluorocarbon based energetic materials / E.-C.Koch. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2012. - xviii, 342 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.337-342. - ISBN 978-3-527-32920-5
Шифр: (И/Л6-К66) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword ..................................................... XIII
Preface ........................................................ XV
Acknowledgment ............................................... XVII

1    Introduction to Pyrolants .................................. 1
     References ................................................. 3

2    History .................................................... 6
2.1  Organometallic Beginning ................................... 6
2.2  Explosive & Obscurant Properties ........................... 8
2.3  Rise of Fluorocarbons ..................................... 10
2.4  Rockets Fired Against Aircraft ............................ 13
2.5  Metal/Fluorocarbon Pyrolants .............................. 15
     References ................................................ 17
     Further Reading ........................................... 19

3    Properties of Fluorocarbons ............................... 20
3.1  Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ............................ 20
3.2  Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) ....................... 22
3.3  Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) ............................ 24
3.4  Polycarbon Monofiuoride (PMF) ............................. 25
3.5  Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropene Copolymer ........... 27
     3.5.1  LFC-1 .............................................. 28
3.6  Vinylidene Fluoride-Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer ..... 28
3.7  Copolymer of TFE and VDF .................................. 30
3.8  Terpolymers of TFE, HFP and VDF ........................... 31
3.9  Summary of chemical and physical properties of common
     fluoropolymers ............................................ 33
     References ................................................ 33

4    Thermochemical and Physical Properties of Metals and
     their Fluorides ........................................... 36
     References ................................................ 41

5    Reactivity and Thermochemistry of Selected Metal/
     Fluorocarbon Systems ...................................... 42
5.1  Lithium ................................................... 42
5.2  Magnesium ................................................. 45
5.3  Titanium .................................................. 47
5.4  Zirconium ................................................. 52
5.5  Hafnium ................................................... 53
5.6  Niob ...................................................... 53
5.7  Tantalum .................................................. 54
5.8  Zinc ...................................................... 55
5.9  Cadmium ................................................... 56
5.10 Boron ..................................................... 57
5.11 Aluminium ................................................. 59
5.12 Silicon ................................................... 63
5.13 Calcium Suicide ........................................... 64
5.14 Tin ....................................................... 65
     References ................................................ 66

6    Ignition and Combustion Mechanism of MTV .................. 68
6.1  Ignition and Pre-Ignition of Metal/Fluorocarbon
     Pyrolants ................................................. 68
6.2  Magnesium-Grignard Hypothesis ............................. 68
     References ................................................ 77

7    Ignition of MTV ........................................... 80
     References ................................................ 85

8    Combustion ................................................ 87
8.1  Magnesium/Teflon/Viton .................................... 87
     8.1.1  Pressure Effects on the Burn Rate .................. 87
     8.1.2  Particle Size Distribution and Surface Area
            Effects on the Burn Rate ........................... 88
8.2  Porosity .................................................. 95
8.3  Burn Rate Description ..................................... 96
8.4  Combustion of Metal-Fluorocarbon Pyrolants with Fuels
     Other than Magnesium ...................................... 97
     8.4.1  Magnesium Hydride .................................. 97
     8.4.2  Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal .................... 98
       8.4.2.1  Lithium ........................................ 98
       8.4.2.2  Magnesium-Aluminium Alloy ...................... 99
     8.4.3  Titan .............................................. 99
     8.4.4  Zirconium ......................................... 102
     8.4.5  Zinc .............................................. 203
     8.4.6  Boron ............................................. 104
     8.4.7  Magnesium Boride, MgB2 ............................ 105
     8.4.8  Aluminium ......................................... 105
     8.4.9  Silicon ........................................... 108
     8.4.10 Silicides ......................................... 220
       8.4.10.1 Dimagnesium Suicide, Mg2Si .................... 110
       8.4.10.2 Calcium Disilicide ............................ 111
       8.4.10.3 Zirconium Disilicide .......................... 113
       8.4.11 Tungsten-Zirconium Alloy ........................ 113
8.5  Underwater Combustion .................................... 114
     References ............................................... 115

9    Spectroscopy ............................................. 119
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 119
9.2  UV-VIS Spectra ........................................... 120
     9.2.1  Polytetrafluoroethylene Combustion ................ 121
     9.2.2  Magnesium/Fluorocarbon Pyrolants .................. 222
     9.2.3  MgH2, MgB2, Mg3N2, Mg2Si/Mg3Al2/Fluorocarbon
            Based pyrolants ................................... 128
     9.2.4  Silicon/PTFE Based Pyrolants ...................... 133
     9.2.5  Boron/PTFE/Viton Based Pyrolants .................. 134
9.3  MWIR Spectra ............................................. 135
     9.3.1  Polytetrafluoroethylene Combustion ................ 136
     9.3.2  Magnesium/Fluorocarbon Combustion ................. 236
     9.3.3  MgH2, MgB2, Mg3N2, Mg2Si/Fluorocarbon Based
            Pyrolants ......................................... 139
     9.3.4  Si/Fluorocarbon Based Pyrolants ................... 240
     9.3.5  Boron/PTFE/Viton Based Pyrolants .................. 142
9.4  Temperature Determination ................................ 242
     9.4.1  Condensed-Phase Temperature ....................... 242
     9.4.2  Gas-Phase Temperature ............................. 244
     References ............................................... 248

10   Infrared Emitters ........................................ 252
10.1 Decoy Flares ............................................. 252
10.2 Nonexpendable Flares ..................................... 253
     10.2.1 Target Augmentation ............................... 253
     10.2.2 Missile Tracking Flares ........................... 156
10.3 Metal-Fluorocarbon Flare Combustion Flames as Sources
     of Radiation ............................................. 158
     10.3.1 Flame Structure and Morphology .................... 160
     10.3.2 Radiation of MTV .................................. 162
10.4 Infrared Compositions .................................... 265
     10.4.1 Inherent Effects .................................. 266
       10.4.1.1 Influence of Stoichiometry .................... 166
     10.4.2 Spectral Flare Compositions ....................... 280
     10.4.3 Particle Size Issues .............................. 182
     10.4.4 Geometrical Aspects ............................... 182
10.5 Operational Effects ...................................... 184
     10.5.1 Altitude Effects .................................. 184
     10.5.2 Windspeed Effects ................................. 186
10.6 Outlook .................................................. 191
     References ............................................... 193

11   Obscurants ............................................... 197
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 197
11.2 Metal-Fluorocarbon Reactions in Aerosol Generation ....... 199
     11.2.1 Metal-Fluorocarbon Reactions as an Exclusive
            Aerosol Source .................................... 200
     11.2.2 Metal-Fluorocarbon Reactions to Trigger Aerosol
            Release ........................................... 201
       11.2.2.1 Metal-Fluorocarbon Reactions to Trigger Soot
                Formation ..................................... 201
       11.2.2.2 Metal-Fluorocarbon Reactions to Trigger
                Phosphorus Vaporisation ....................... 204
     References ............................................... 208

12   Igniters ................................................. 210
     References ............................................... 214

13   Incendiaries, Agent Defeat, Reactive Fragments and
     Detonation. Phenomena .................................... 216
13.1 Incendiaries ............................................. 216
13.2 Curable Fluorocarbon Resin-Based Compositions ............ 217
13.3 Document Destruction ..................................... 218
13.4 Agent Defeat ............................................. 221
13.5 Reactive Fragments ....................................... 223
13.6 Shockwave Loading of Metal-Fluorocarbons and
     Detonation-Like Phenomena ................................ 229
     References ............................................... 232
     Further Reading .......................................... 234

14   Miscellaneous Applications ............................... 235
14.1 Submerged Applications ................................... 235
     14.1.1 Underwater Explosives ............................. 235
     14.1.2 Underwater Flares ................................. 235
     14.1.3 Underwater Cutting Torch .......................... 236
14.2 Mine-Disposal Torch ...................................... 238
14.3 Stored Chemical Energy ................................... 240
     14.3.1 Heating Device .................................... 240
     14.3.2 Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion ................. 240
14.4 Tracers .................................................. 240
14.5 Propellants .............................................. 241
     References ............................................... 244

15   Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis .............. 247
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 247
15.2 Magnesium ................................................ 249
15.3 Silicon and Suicides ..................................... 252
     References ............................................... 256

16   Vapour-Deposited Materials ............................... 258
     References ............................................... 262

17   Ageing ................................................... 264
     References ............................................... 270

18   Manufacture .............................................. 271
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 271
18.2 Treatment of Metal Powder ................................ 271
18.3 Mixing ................................................... 273
     18.3.1 Shock Gel Process ................................. 273
       18.3.1.1 Procedure A ................................... 273
       18.3.1.2 Procedure В ................................... 275
     18.3.2 Conventional Mixing ............................... 276
     18.3.3 Experimental Super Shock Gel Process .............. 276
     18.3.4 Experimental Dry Mixing Technique ................. 280
     18.3.5 Experimental Cryo-N2 Process ...................... 282
     18.3.6 Extrusion ......................................... 282
       18.3.6.1 Twin Screw Extrusion .......................... 282
18.4 Pressing ................................................. 286
18.5 Cutting .................................................. 289
18.6 Priming .................................................. 289
18.7 Miscellaneous ............................................ 289
18.8 Accidents and Process Safety ............................. 290
     18.8.1 Mixing ............................................ 290
     18.8.2 Pressing .......................................... 293
     18.8.3 Process Analysis .................................. 294
     18.8.4 Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) ............... 294
            References ........................................ 296

19   Sensitivity .............................................. 299
19.1 Introduction ............................................. 299
19.2 Impact Sensitivity ....................................... 300
     19.2.1 MTV ............................................... 300
     19.2.2 Titanium/PTFE/VitonandZirconium/PTFE/Viton ........ 300
     19.2.3 Metal-Fluorocarbon Solvents ....................... 301
     19.2.4 Viton as Binder in Mg/NaN03 ....................... 301
19.3 Friction and Shear Sensitivity ........................... 301
     19.3.1 Metal/Fluorocarbon ................................ 303
     19.4 Thermal Sensitivity ................................. 304
     19.4.1 MTV ............................................... 304
19.5 ESD Sensitivity .......................................... 305
19.6 Insensitive Munitions Testing ............................ 310
     19.6.1 Introduction ...................................... 310
     19.6.2 Cookoff ........................................... 314
     19.6.3 Bullet Impact ..................................... 316
     19.6.4 Sympathetic Reaction .............................. 319
     19.6.5 IM Signature Summary .............................. 320
19.7 Hazards Posed by Loose In-Process MTV Crumb and TNT
     Equivalent ............................................... 321
     References ............................................... 323

20   Toxic Combustion Products ................................ 326
20.1 MTV Flare Composition .................................... 326
20.2 Obscurant Formulations ................................... 330
20.3 Fluorine Compounds ....................................... 331
     20.3.1 Hydrogen Fluoride ................................. 332
     20.3.2 Aluminium Fluoride ................................ 332
     20.3.3 Magnesium Fluoride ................................ 332
     References ............................................... 332
21   Outlook .................................................. 334
     References ............................................... 335

Index ......................................................... 337

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