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ОбложкаNarlikar A.V. Superconductors. - Oxford; New York: Oxford university press, 2014. - Bibliogr.: p.431-470. - Ind.: p.471-477.6 - ISBN 978-0-19-958411-6
Шифр: (И/В36-N23) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1  Onnes' discovery and one hundred years of superconductors .... 1
   1.1  Onnes' discovery ........................................ 2
   1.2  One hundred years of superconductors .................... 3
   1.3  Progress with LTS and HTS applications ................. 11
   1.4  This book .............................................. 13
   1.5  Summary ................................................ 13
2  The superconducting state ................................... 15
   2.1  Electrical conduction in metals and the origin of
        resistance ............................................. 15
   2.2  Microscopic nature of superconducting state ............ 18
   2.3  Summary ................................................ 27
   Appendix 2A: BCS ground state and the energy gap ............ 27
3  The superconducting transition and its basic
   phenomenology ............................................... 31
   3.1  Fundamental characteristics of the superconducting
        transition ............................................. 31
   3.2  The critical field Hc .................................. 32
   3.3  The critical current ................................... 33
   3.4  Resistive transition ................................... 33
   3.5  Implications of perfect conductivity ................... 35
   3.6  Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect ............................. 36
   3.7  London phenomenology ................................... 37
   3.8  Penetration depth ...................................... 38
   3.9  Depairing current density .............................. 39
   3.10 Shortcomings of the London phenomenology ............... 39
   3.11 Intermediate state ..................................... 40
   3.12 Filamentary superconductors and Mendelssohn's sponge ... 40
   3.13 Range of coherence and non-local theory ................ 41
   3.14 Interface boundary energy .............................. 43
   3.15 Summary ................................................ 43
   Appendix 3А: Electrodynamics of a perfect conductor and
   London phenomenology ........................................ 43
4  Thermodynamics and general properties ....................... 47
   4.1  Thermodynamic aspects of the transition ................ 47
   4.2  Thermal properties ..................................... 48
   4.3  Ultrasonic behaviour ................................... 53
   4.4  AC and optical properties .............................. 54
   4.5  Tunnelling in the superconducting state ................ 55
   4.6  Summary ................................................ 60
   Appendix 4A ................................................. 61
   4A.1 Condensation energy .................................... 61
   4A.2 Entropy ................................................ 62
   4A.3 Heat capacity .......................................... 62
5  Advent of type II superconductors ........................... 65
   5.1  Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology .......................... 65
   5.2  Sign of the surface energy and superconductor types .... 69
   5.3  Mixed state and other characteristics .................. 71
   5.4  Summary ................................................ 75
   Appendix 5A: Ginzburg-Landau equations ...................... 76
6  Critical current and flux pinning ........................... 79
   6.1  Transport current in the mixed state ................... 79
   6.2  Driving force and the critical state ................... 81
   6.3  Vortex motion .......................................... 83
   6.4  Stabilisation of superconductors ....................... 87
   6.5  Pinning centres ........................................ 89
   6.6  Pinning interactions ................................... 92
   6.7  AC losses .............................................. 94
   6.8  Summary ................................................ 95
7  Superconductors in abundance ................................ 97
   7.1  Low-temperature superconductors (LTS) .................. 98
   7.2  High-temperature superconductors (HTS) ................ 109
   7.3  Summary ............................................... 114
8  Niobium-zirconium and niobium-titanium alloys .............. 115
   8.1  The niobium-zirconium system .......................... 116
   8.2  The niobium-titanium system ........................... 119
   8.3  Summary ............................................... 125
9  A-15 superconductors ....................................... 127
   9.1  Crystal structure, stoichiometry and ordering ......... 128
   9.2  Long-range order and Tc ............................... 131
   9.3  Structural instability at low temperature ............. 132
   9.4  Potential binary systems .............................. 133
   9.5  Pseudo-binaries ....................................... 134
   9.6  A-15 phase formation .................................. 135
   9.7  Upper critical field and paramagnetic limitation ...... 136
   9.8  Critical current density and the nature of pinning
        centres in A-15s ...................................... 137
   9.9  Strain sensitivity .................................... 139
   9.10 Summary ............................................... 140
10 Conductor development of A-15 superconductors .............. 141
   10.1 Liquid-solute diffusion ............................... 141
   10.2 CVD process ........................................... 142
   10.3 The bronze process and formation of A-15 phase by
        solid state diffusion ................................. 143
   10.4 Thermodynamics and kinetics of compound-layer
        formation in the bronze process ....................... 147
   10.5 Modifications of the bronze process ................... 154
   10.6 Fabrication of Nb3Al conductor ........................ 157
   10.7 Summary ............................................... 161
11 Chevrel-phase superconductors .............................. 163
   11.1 Crystal structure and stoichiometry ................... 165
   11.2 Occurrence of superconductivity in Chevrel phases ..... 166
   11.3 Synthesis of bulk samples ............................. 170
   11.4 Upper critical field .................................. 171
   11.5 Critical current density: inherent problems and
        progress in raising Jc ................................ 171
   11.6 Conductor development of Chevrel-phase compounds ...... 175
   11.7 Nature of superconductivity of Chevrel-phase
        compounds ............................................. 176
   11.8 Summary ............................................... 178
12 Rare-earth-based ternary superconductors and quaternary
   borocarbides ............................................... 181
   12.1 LTS systems with magnetic order ....................... 182
   12.2 The interplay ......................................... 183
   12.3 Various ternary materials and their interplay
        behaviour ............................................. 183
   12.4 Quaternary borocarbides ............................... 189
   12.5 Crystal structure and related aspects ................. 190
   12.6 Coexistence and interplay of Tc and Tm ................ 191
   12.7 Summary ............................................... 198
13 Heavy fermion superconductors .............................. 201
   13.1 Discovery of HF superconductors ....................... 201
   13.2 Quantum phase transition and quantum critical point ... 202
   13.3 General features of anomalous normal state and
        unusual superconductivity ............................. 204
   13.4 Short description of various HF superconductors ....... 207
   13.5 Special features of HF superconductors ................ 220
   13.6 Summary ............................................... 226
14 Organic superconductors .................................... 227
   14.1 Evolution of organic superconducting salts ............ 227
   14.2 The (TM)2 family of quasi-one-dimensional
        superconductors ....................................... 231
   14.3 The (ET)2 family of quasi-two-dimensional
        superconductors ....................................... 236
   14.4 Superconducting fullerides ............................ 245
   14.5 Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) ............... 251
   14.6 Summary ............................................... 253
15 Superconducting magnesium diboride ......................... 255
   15.1 Crystal structure and Tc .............................. 256
   15.2 Conventional superconductivity of MgB2 ................ 259
   15.3 Band structure and two superconducting gaps ........... 261
   15.4 Implications of two gaps .............................. 262
   15.5 MgB2 for practical applications ....................... 263
   15.6 Material synthesis .................................... 265
   15.7 Nanoparticle doping for enhancing Jc .................. 266
   15.4 Conductor development: wires and tapes of MgB2 ........ 269
   15.9 Summary ............................................... 271
16 High-temperature cuprate superconductors ................... 273
   16.1 Genesis of HTS cuprates ............................... 274
   16.2 General features of HTS cuprates ...................... 277
   16.3 Prominent HTS cuprate systems ......................... 289
   16.4 Substitution studies in HTS ........................... 293
   16.5 Summary ............................................... 295
17 Thin-film technology and conductor development of HTS
   cuprates ................................................... 297
   17.1 Microstructural aspects ............................... 297
   17.2 Prominent techniques for depositing HTS films ......... 301
   17.3 Conductor development ................................. 310
   17.4 Summary ............................................... 323
18 Bulk HTS cuprates .......................................... 325
   18.1 General considerations ................................ 326
   18.2 Melt processing ofbulkYBCO samples .................... 326
   18.3 Effective pinning centres in bulk HTS ................. 332
   18.4 Ternary 123 bulk compounds ............................ 334
   18.5 Trapped field ......................................... 335
   18.6 Mechanical strengthening .............................. 336
   18.7 Summary ............................................... 338
19 Ruthenates and ruthenocuprates ............................. 339
   19.1 A superconductor in the ruthenate family: Sr2Ru04 ..... 339
   19.2 Unconventional superconductivity ...................... 344
   19.3 Summary of the current status of ruthenate
        superconductors ....................................... 346
   19.4 Superconducting ruthenocuprates ....................... 347
   19.5 Superconductivity, general features ................... 352
   19.6 Magnetic states and coexistence of Тм and Tc .......... 358
   19.7 Cationic substitutions in Ru-1212 and Ru-1222,
        effect on Tc and TM ................................... 363
   19.8 Summary ............................................... 365
20 Iron-based superconductors ................................. 367
   20.1 Different FBS families, their crystal structures,
        and their general features ............................ 367
   20.2 Electronic structure .................................. 376
   20.3 Phase diagrams ........................................ 377
   20.4 Unconventional superconductivity of FBS ............... 379
   20.5 Materials synthesis ................................... 383
   20.6 Upper critical field, anisotropy, and potential for
        applications .......................................... 384
   20.7 Summary ............................................... 389
21 Miscellaneous superconductors .............................. 391
   21.1 Superconducting bismuthates ........................... 391
   21.2 Cobalt oxide hydrate .................................. 398
   21.3 Intermetallic perovskites free from oxygen: MgCNi3
        and related superconducting compounds ................. 406
   21.4 Metallonitride halides ................................ 410
   21.5 Pyrochlore oxides ..................................... 414
   21.6 Layered transition metal chalcogenides ................ 420
   21.7 BiS2-based superconductors ............................ 426

References .................................................... 431
Index ......................................................... 471

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