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ОбложкаThiriet M. Tissue functioning and remodeling in the circulatory and ventilatory systems. - New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2013. - xxi, 962 p.: ill., tab. - (Biomathematical and biomechanical modeling of the circulatory and ventilatory systems; vol.5). - Bibliogr.: p.813-902. - Ind.: p.949-962. - ISBN 978-1-4614-5965-1; ISSN 2193-1682
Шифр: (И/Е9-Т45) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1  Blood ........................................................ 1
   1.1  Blood Functions ......................................... 2
   1.2  Plasma .................................................. 3
   1.3  Plasma Constituents ..................................... 5
        1.3.1  Electrolytes ..................................... 5
        1.3.2  Glucids .......................................... 6
        1.3.3  Plasma Proteins .................................. 7
        1.3.4  Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins ................... 8
        1.3.5  Blood Gas ....................................... 15
   1.4  Blood Disorders ........................................ 15
        1.4.1  Blood Cell Disorders ............................ 16
   1.5  Blood Therapies ........................................ 17
        1.5.1  Blood Substitutes ............................... 17
        1.5.2  Plasmapheresis .................................. 18
2  Hematopoiesis ............................................... 19
   2.1  Hematopoietic Stem Cells ............................... 21
        2.1.1  LSK Hematopoietic Stem Cells .................... 23
        2.1.2  Hemangioblast ................................... 24
   2.2  Biological Models of Hematopoiesis ..................... 24
        2.2.1  Arborescence Models of Hematopoiesis ............ 25
        2.2.2  Lymphoid Progenitors ............................ 25
   2.3  Stem Cell Niches ....................................... 27
        2.3.1  Types of В one-Marrow Niches .................... 27
        2.3.2  Cells of Bone Marrow Niches ..................... 28
        2.3.3  Crosstalk between Niche-Resident Cells .......... 29
   2.4  Regulation of Hematopoiesis ............................ 31
        2.4.1  Transcription Factors of Hematopoiesis .......... 32
        2.4.2  Hormones, Growth Factors, and Morphogens ........ 42
        2.4.3  MicroRNAs ....................................... 49
        2.4.4  Other Regulators ................................ 50
   2.5  Mastocyte Formation .................................... 50
   2.6  Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Angiogenesis ............... 51
3  Blood Cells ................................................. 53
   3.1  Immunophenotyping of Leukocytes ........................ 53
   3.2  Vasculature as an Immunity Compartment ................. 54
   3.3  Proliferation and Mobilization of Blood Cells .......... 55
        3.3.1  Cytokines ....................................... 55
        3.3.2  Chemokines ...................................... 57
   3.4  Scaffold Proteins in Immunocytes ....................... 57
   3.5  Red Blood Capsules ..................................... 60
        3.5.1  Formation, Maturation, and Clearance ............ 60
        3.5.2  Shape ........................................... 62
        3.5.3  Plasma Membrane ................................. 63
        3.5.4  Influence of Oxygen Content in the Local
               Environment ..................................... 66
        3.5.5  Oxygen Sensor ................................... 67
        3.5.6  Blood Groups of the RBC Plasma Membrane ......... 67
        3.5.7  Hemoglobin Solution in Erythrocytic Capsule ..... 71
        3.5.8  Iron Acquisition and Storage .................... 81
   3.6  Platelets .............................................. 83
        3.6.1  Platelet Cytoskeleton ........................... 84
        3.6.2  Translational Machinery ......................... 84
        3.6.3  Platelet Granules ............................... 84
        3.6.4  Platelet Activation ............................. 86
        3.6.5  Non-Genomic Function of Transcription Factors ... 87
        3.6.6  Other Regulators of the PI atelet Functi on ..... 88
        3.6.7  Inflammatory Platelet ........................... 89
   3.7  Granulocytes ........................................... 89
        3.7.1  Basophils ....................................... 89
        3.7.2  Eosinophils ..................................... 92
        3.7.3  Neutrophils ..................................... 93
   3.8  Mastocytes ............................................. 97
        3.8.1  Mastocyte Origin and Maturation ................. 98
        3.8.2  Mastocyte Functions ............................. 99
        3.8.3  Mastocyte Production and Types ................. 100
   3.9  Lymphocytes ........................................... 106
        3.9.1  Selection between CD4 and CD8 Coreceptors ...... 106
        3.9.2  Sensing of Endo- and Exogenous Molecules ....... 107
        3.9.3  Resistance to Oxidizing Environment ............ 108
        3.9.4  PIP3 and IP4 Signals in Lymphocytes ............ 109
        3.9.5  Immunological Memory ........................... 109
   3.10 T Lymphocytes ......................................... 111
        3.10.1 T-Lymphocyte Development ....................... 111
        3.10.2 Antigen Presentation ........................... 113
        3.10.3 T-Lymphocyte Maintenance ....................... 116
        3.10.4 T-Lymphocyte Subpopulations .................... 117
   3.11 Innate Lymphocytes .................................... 143
        3.11.1 Lymphoid Tissue-Inducer Cells .................. 145
        3.11.2 ILC17 Cells .................................... 146
        3.11.3 NKR + LTi-like Cells - ILC22 Cells ............. 147
        3.11.4 Nuocytes ....................................... 147
        3.11.5 Natural Killer Cells ........................... 148
   3.12 В Lymphocytes ......................................... 154
        3.12.1 B-Lymphocyte Subpopulations .................... 155
        3.12.2 B-Lymphocyte Maturation Stages ................. 155
        3.12.3 Antibodies and B-Cell Receptors ................ 156
        3.12.4 B-Cell Activation and Signaling ................ 159
        3.12.5 Main Regulators of B-Cell Proliferation
               in Germinal Centers ............................ 160
        3.12.6 В Cell - T Cell Interactions ................... 160
        3.12.7 Plasmocytes .................................... 160
   3.13 Monocytes and Macrophages ............................. 161
        3.13.1 Monocytes ...................................... 162
        3.13.2 Macrophages .................................... 165
   3.14 Dendritic Cells ....................................... 170
        3.14.1 Myeloid and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells ....... 172
        3.14.2 Thymic Dendritic Cells ......................... 173
   3.15 Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells ...................... 174
4  Lymph Drainage ............................................. 177
   4.1  Lymphatics ............................................ 179
   4.2  Lymphoid Tissues ...................................... 179
        4.2.1  Thymus ......................................... 180
        4.2.2  Spleen ......................................... 180
        4.2.3  Other Secondary Lymphoid Tissues ............... 181
        4.2.4  Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue - Mucosa-Associated
               Lymphoid Tissues ............................... 182
        4.2.5  Lymph Nodes .................................... 185
   4.3  Lymph ................................................. 187
5  Cardiomyocytes ............................................. 189
   5.1  External Organization of Cardiomyocytes ............... 189
   5.2  Internal Organization of Cardiomyocytes ............... 190
        5.2.1  Sarcolemma ..................................... 190
        5.2.2  Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ......................... 194
        5.2.3  Mitochondria ................................... 196
        5.2.4  Nuclear GPCRs .................................. 204
   5.3  Sarcomere ............................................. 206
        5.3.1  Myofibrils ..................................... 208
        5.3.2  Myosin Thick Filaments ......................... 209
        5.3.3  Actin Thin Filaments ........................... 210
        5.3.4  Z Disc, a Stretch-Sensing Structure ............ 216
        5.3.5  Main Sarcomeric Constituents ................... 216
   5.4  Cardiac Adenylate Cyclases and the с AMP Pathway ...... 226
   5.5  Calcium Signals ....................................... 227
        5.5.1  Calcium-Dependent Ion Carriers ................. 227
        5.5.2  Inositol Polyphosphate Messengers -
               Phosphoinositide Sources ....................... 228
        5.5.3  Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter ................ 229
        5.5.4  Mechanotransduction ............................ 229
        5.5.5  Sodium-Calcium Exchangers and Sodium-
               Potassium Pumps ................................ 230
        5.5.6  Normal and Impaired Calcium Signaling .......... 230
   5.6  Endocrine Function .................................... 232
        5.6.1  Natriuretic Peptides ........................... 233
        5.6.2  Hemojuvelin-Hepcidin Regulation ................ 240
   5.7  Energy Supply and Reserve ............................. 240
   5.8  Cardiomyocyte Adaptive Growth ......................... 242
        5.8.1  Mechanotransduction in CMC Hypertrophy ......... 243
        5.8.2  Chemical Regulators of CMC Hypertrophy ......... 244
   5.9  Cardiomyocyte Orientation ............................. 252
   5.10 Ion Carriers .......................................... 254
        5.10.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels .................. 256
        5.10.2 Sodium-Calcium Exchangers ...................... 257
        5.10.3 Myocardial Calcium Channels .................... 258
        5.10.4 Myocardial Potassium Channels .................. 262
        5.10.5 Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels ............ 268
6  Heart Wall ................................................. 271
   6.1  Cardiogenesis and Cardiac Remodeling .................. 272
        6.1.1  First and Second Heart Fields .................. 274
        6.1.2  Heart Growth Patterns .......................... 276
        6.1.3  Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition .............. 276
        6.1.4  Vasculo-and Angiogenesis ....................... 277
        6.1.5  Neurogenesis ................................... 278
        6.1.6  Valvulogenesis ................................. 279
        6.1.7  Postnatal Growth ............................... 281
        6.1.8  Regulators ..................................... 282
        6.1.9  Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Precursors ........ 294
   6.2  Wall Structure ........................................ 299
        6.2.1  Cardiofibroblasts .............................. 300
        6.2.2  Telocytes ...................................... 303
        6.2.3  Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Adipokines ....... 303
        6.2.4  Heart Valves ................................... 306
        6.2.5  Conduction Paths of the Depolarization Wave .... 308
   6.3  Cardiac Regulation of Energy Homeostasis .............. 313
   6.4  Main Ion Currents ..................................... 314
        6.4.1  Pacemaker Cells ................................ 315
        6.4.2  Ventriculomyocytes ............................. 322
   6.5  Action Potential ...................................... 324
        6.5.1  Sinoatrial Node Action Potential ............... 325
        6.5.2  Ventricular Action Potential ................... 328
        6.5.3  Electrophysiological Myocyte Types ............. 329
        6.5.4  Repolarization ................................. 331
        6.5.5  Electrophysiology and Contraction Kinetics ..... 331
   6.6  Excitation-Contraction Coupling ....................... 332
        6.6.1  Intercellular and Cell-Matrix Adhesions ........ 334
        6.6.2  Troponins and Tropomyosin ...................... 334
        6.6.3  Calcium Ion and Its Partners ................... 334
        6.6.4  Zinc Ion and Its Partners ...................... 337
        6.6.5  Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate ................. 338
        6.6.6  S100 Protein ................................... 339
        6.6.7  Nervous Influences ............................. 339
        6.6.8  Cell Excitability Adjustment ................... 342
        6.6.9  Electromechanical Modeling ..................... 343
   6.7  Nervous Inputs ........................................ 344
7  Vessel Wall ................................................ 349
   7.1  Physical Environment .................................. 349
   7.2  Vasculature Development ............................... 350
   7.3  Wall Structure ........................................ 351
        7.3.1  Large Vessels .................................. 353
        7.3.2  Small Vessels .................................. 359
   7.4  Blood-Brain Barrier ................................... 361
        7.4.1  BBB Restricted Permeability .................... 362
        7.4.2  Neurovascular Units ............................ 364
        7.4.3  Functional Hyperemia ........................... 366
        7.4.4  Drug Delivery .................................. 367
        7.4.5  BBB Formation .................................. 368
   7.5  Other Cerebral Epithelial Barriers - Choroid Plexi .... 368
   7.6  Perivascular Nerves ................................... 369
   7.7  Pericytes ............................................. 369
   7.8  Nervous Inputs ........................................ 371
   7.9  ATP Signaling in Blood Vessel Walls ................... 373
        7.9.1  Extracellular ATP Processing ................... 374
        7.9.2  Nucleotide Receptors ........................... 375
        7.9.3  ATP Release .................................... 375
   7.10 Vascular Oxygen Sensing ............................... 378
   7.11 Wall Adaptability ..................................... 379
8  Smooth Myocytes ............................................ 381
   8.1  Markers of Smooth Myocytes ............................ 382
        8.1.1  Actin .......................................... 383
        8.1.2  Tropomyosin .................................... 383
        8.1.3  Myosin ......................................... 383
        8.1.4  Calmodulin ..................................... 384
        8.1.5  Caldesmon ...................................... 386
        8.1.6  Calponin ....................................... 386
   8.2  Glycocalyx ............................................ 386
   8.3  Intrinsic Regulators of Smooth Myocyte Tone ........... 387
        8.3.1  Caldesmon and Calmodulin ....................... 387
        8.3.2  Arachidonic Acid ............................... 388
        8.3.3  G-Protein-Coupled Receptors .................... 388
        8.3.4  Guanylate Cyclases, Nitric Oxide, and
               Natriuretic Peptides ........................... 388
        8.3.5  Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors and Calcium
               Release ........................................ 389
   8.4  Airway Smooth Myocytes ................................ 393
        8.4.1  Mechanical Loading-Induced Cytoskeleton
               Remodeling ..................................... 393
        8.4.2  Contractile and Proliferative Phenotype ........ 393
        8.4.3  Calcium Influx ................................. 393
        8.4.4  Airway Smooth Myocyte Products ................. 394
        8.4.5  Hyperresponsiveness and Hypersensitivity ....... 402
        8.4.6  Deep Inspiration as Bronchodilation Inducer .... 402
   8.5  Vascular Smooth Myocytes .............................. 405
        8.5.1  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Subtypes ............... 407
        8.5.2  Mesangial and Juxtaglomerular Cells ............ 407
        8.5.3  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Phenotypes ............. 408
        8.5.4  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Uptake ................. 417
        8.5.5  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Activity ............... 417
        8.5.6  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Production ............. 423
        8.5.7  Vascular Smooth Myocyte Migration .............. 425
        8.5.8  Vasomotor Tone ................................. 429
9  Vascular Endothelium ....................................... 453
   9.1  Endothelial Cell ...................................... 454
        9.1.1  Glycocalyx ..................................... 456
        9.1.2  Endothelial Cell Adhesions ..................... 457
        9.1.3  Vascular Permeability .......................... 467
   9.2  Endothelium Types ..................................... 468
        9.2.1  High Endothelial Venules ....................... 468
        9.2.2  Lymphatic Endothelium .......................... 469
        9.2.3  Endothelial Fenestrae .......................... 469
   9.3  Endothelial Progenitor Cells .......................... 469
        9.3.1  Hemangioblast .................................. 470
        9.3.2  Endothelial Progenitor Cell - Circulating
               Angiogenic Cell ................................ 472
   9.4  Endothelial Cell Migration ............................ 474
   9.5  Molecular Expression in the Vascular Endothelium ...... 474
        9.5.1  Caveolae ....................................... 477
        9.5.2  Nuclear Receptors .............................. 479
        9.5.3  Examples of Endothelial Receptors .............. 479
        9.5.4  Ion Carriers of Endothelial Cell ............... 485
        9.5.5  Hormones and Vasoactive Substances ............. 492
        9.5.6  Adhesion Molecules ............................. 498
        9.5.7  Miscellaneous .................................. 499
        9.5.8  Vessel Wall Homeostasis ........................ 499
        9.5.9  Growth Factors and Regulators of Growth
               Factor Signaling ............................... 504
        9.5.10 MicroRNAs ...................................... 507
        9.5.11 Angiogenesis Guidance Molecules ................ 510
        9.5.12 Blood Group Antigens ........................... 512
   9.6  Transendothelial Mass Transfer ........................ 512
        9.6.1  Flow-Dependent Transendothelial Transport ...... 513
        9.6.2  Transport Mechanisms ........................... 514
        9.6.3  Endothelial Permeability and Vascular
               Compartments ................................... 522
        9.6.4  Endothelial Permeability Regulation ............ 522
   9.7  Extravasation ......................................... 535
        9.7.1  Flowing Cell Adhesion to Endothelium ........... 536
        9.7.2  Cell Movement over the Wetted Endothelial
               Surface ........................................ 537
        9.7.3  Integrin-Based Cell Adhesion ................... 538
        9.7.4  Intracellular Signaling in Endothelial Cells ... 538
        9.7.5  Intracellular Signaling in Leukocytes .......... 539
        9.7.6  Extravasation Steps ............................ 540
        9.7.7  Extravasation Modes ............................ 543
        9.7.8  Migration across Pericyte Sheath and Basement
               Membrane ....................................... 544
        9.7.9  Migration through Subendothelial Layer
               and Interstitium ............................... 545
        9.7.10 Regulation of Inflammation ..................... 546
   9.8  Hemostasis ............................................ 548
        9.8.1  Blood Coagulation .............................. 553
        9.8.2  Fibrinolysis ................................... 561
        9.8.3  Embolus Extravasation .......................... 562
        9.8.4  Thrombosis ..................................... 562
        9.8.5  Mathematical Modeling and Numerical
               Simulations .................................... 564
   9.9  Effects of High-Density Lipoproteins on Endothelium ... 565
   9.10 Chemical and Mechanical Regulation of the Vasomotor
        Tone .................................................. 566
        9.10.1 Transducers of Mechanical Stresses ............. 570
        9.10.2 Flow Chambers .................................. 575
        9.10.3 Nitric Oxide ................................... 578
        9.10.4 Endothelin ..................................... 582
        9.10.5 Calcium Signaling in Vasomotor Tone
               Regulation ..................................... 583
        9.10.6 Other Mechanotransduction Effects .............. 585
        9.10.7 Other Aspects of the Regulation of the
               Vasomotor Tone ................................. 588
        9.10.8 Hypoxic Vasoconstriction of Pulmonary
               Arteries ....................................... 594
        9.10.9 Hypoxic Vasodilation of Cerebral Arterioles .... 594
        9.10.10 Vasomotor Tone during Pregnancy ............... 596
        9.10.11 Modeling of Mechanotransduction in Arteries ... 596
10 Vasculature Growth ......................................... 605
   10.1 Vasculogenesis ........................................ 606
   10.2 Angiogenesis .......................................... 606
        10.2.1 Stem, Progenitor, and Precursor Cells
               in Angiogenesis and Neovascularization ......... 607
        10.2.2 Involved Factors in Angiogenesis ............... 609
        10.2.3 Endothelial Sprouting: Tip and Stalk Cells ..... 609
        10.2.4 Other Modes of Vessel Formation and
               Remodeling ..................................... 613
        10.2.5 Lumenogenesis .................................. 614
   10.3 Arteriogenesis ........................................ 615
   10.4 Vasculature Compartments .............................. 616
        10.4.1 Lumen Size and Vessel Architecture ............. 616
        10.4.2 Cost Functions ................................. 616
        10.4.3 Arteriovenous Differentiation .................. 616
   10.5 Extracellular Matrix in Vessel Formation .............. 618
        10.5.1 Growth Factors ................................. 618
        10.5.2 Protein Fragments and Peptidases of the
               Extracellular Matrix ........................... 620
        10.5.3 Cell Adhesion Molecules ........................ 622
        10.5.4 Fibulins ....................................... 624
        10.5.5 Thrombospondins ................................ 625
        10.5.6 Matrix Metallopeptidases ....................... 625
        10.5.7 Transglutaminase and Carboxypeptidases ......... 625
        10.5.8 Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase .................. 626
   10.6 Mediators of Vascular Formation ....................... 626
        10.6.1 Navigation Signals ............................. 626
        10.6.2 Transcriptional Regulators ..................... 630
        10.6.3 MicroRNAs ...................................... 634
        10.6.4 Morphogens ..................................... 636
        10.6.5 Growth Factors ................................. 639
        10.6.6 Hormones and Cytokines ......................... 647
        10.6.7 G-Protein-Coupled Receptors .................... 653
        10.6.8 Regulators of Small GTPases .................... 654
        10.6.9 Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Phospholipase-C .. 654
        10.6.10 Protein Kinase-B .............................. 655
        10.6.11 Cyclooxygenases and Prostaglandins ............ 656
        10.6.12 Tissue Factor ................................. 657
        10.6.13 Tissue Kallikrein and Kininogen ............... 657
        10.6.14 Gasotransmitters Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitric
                Oxide ......................................... 658
        10.6.15 Oxidative Stress and Inflammation ............. 660
        10.6.16 Mechanical Signals ............................ 661
   10.7 Angiogenesis-Targeted Therapies ....................... 662
        10.7.1 Angiogenesis Promotion ......................... 662
        10.7.2 Angiogenesis Inhibition ........................ 664
   10.8 Lymphangiogenesis ..................................... 668
        10.8.1 Transcription Factors in Lymphangiogenesis ..... 669
        10.8.2 Growth Factors and Guidance Molecules .......... 670
        10.8.3 Other Mediators ................................ 671
   10.9 Modeling of Angiogenesis .............................. 671
11 Tissue Development, Repair, and Remodeling ................. 675
   11.1 Organogenesis ......................................... 676
        11.1.1 Ecto-, Endo-, and Mesoderm ..................... 676
        11.1.2 Precursor Cells ................................ 678
        11.1.3 Organogenesis, Vascularization, and
               Innervation .................................... 679
        11.1.4 Regulation of Organogenesis .................... 680
   11.2 Cell Differentiation .................................. 682
   11.3 Branching Morphogenesis ............................... 682
        11.3.1 Airway Morphogenesis ........................... 683
        11.3.2 Airway Morphogenesis Mediators ................. 684
        11.3.3 Mechanical Basis of Branching .................. 688
        11.3.4 Molecular Basis of Branching ................... 688
   11.4 Therapeutic Repair .................................... 692
        11.4.1 Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy ............ 692
        11.4.2 Gene Therapy ................................... 697
        11.4.3 Tissue Engineering ............................. 699
   11.5 Inflammation .......................................... 703
        11.5.1 Extravasation .................................. 703
        11.5.2 Molecular Basis of Extravasation ............... 704
        11.5.3 Crossing of the Vascular Basement Membrane ..... 713
        11.5.4 Interstitial Migration of Leukocytes ........... 713
        11.5.5 Molecular Mechanisms of Leukocyte Chemotaxis ... 713
        11.5.6 Inflammatory Mediators ......................... 715
        11.5.7 Angiogenesis and Inflammation .................. 728
        11.5.8 Inflammatory Diseases .......................... 730
   11.6 Healing ............................................... 731
        11.6.1 Plasma Enzymatic Systems ....................... 732
        11.6.2 Involved Cells ................................. 732
        11.6.3 Myofibroblasts ................................. 733
        11.6.4 Healing Phases ................................. 735
        11.6.5 Modeling of Healing ............................ 737
   11.7 Respiratory Epithelium Repair ......................... 739
   11.8 Vascular Tissue Remodeling ............................ 740
        11.8.1 Myocardium Remodeling .......................... 741
        11.8.2 Vessel Wall Remodeling ......................... 742
   11.9 Growth Modeling ....................................... 745
12 Airway Surface Liquid and Respiratory Mucus ................ 749
   12.1 Double-Layered Airway Surface Fluid ................... 751
        12.1.1  Control of the Quantity and Composition
                of the Airway Surface Fluid ................... 752
   12.2 Mucociliary Clearance ................................. 754
        12.2.1 Factors of the Mucociliary Clearance ........... 755
        12.2.2 Cough Clearance ................................ 755
        12.2.3 Mucociliary Clearance and Infection ............ 756
        12.2.4 Alterations in Mucociliary Clearance ........... 756
   12.3 Mucus Delivery ........................................ 758
        12.3.1 Secretory Cells ................................ 758
        12.3.2 Mucus Release .................................. 766
        12.3.3 Regulation of Mucus Secretion .................. 767
   12.4 Mucus Composition ..................................... 769
        12.4.1 Mucin .......................................... 770
        12.4.2 Other Proteic Constituents of Mucus ............ 772
        12.4.3 Lipids ......................................... 773
        12.4.4 Surfactant ..................................... 773
        12.4.5 Minerals ....................................... 773
   12.5 Mucus Properties ...................................... 774
        12.5.1 Mucus Permeability ............................. 774
        12.5.2 Mucus Contact Properties ....................... 775
        12.5.3 Mucus Rheology ................................. 775
   12.6 Mucus Motility ........................................ 778
        12.6.1 Respiratory Cilium ............................. 778
        12.6.2 Cilium Beats ................................... 780
        12.6.3 Ciliogenesis ................................... 785
   12.7 Mucus Transport Modeling .............................. 786
   12.7.1 Governing Equations ................................. 787
13 Surfactant ................................................. 789
   13.1 Surface Tension ....................................... 789
   13.2 Alveolar Surfactant ................................... 794
        13.2.1 Formation of the Alveolar Surface Film ......... 794
        13.2.2 Alveolar Liquid Film Homeostasis ............... 795
        13.2.3 Secretion and Role of Alveolar Surfactant ...... 796
   13.3 Surfactant Composition ................................ 797
        13.3.1 Surfactant Proteins ............................ 797
        13.3.2 Surfactant Lipids .............................. 799
        13.3.3 Calcium ........................................ 800
   13.4 Immune Function of Surfactant ......................... 800
   13.5 Governing Equations and Surfactant Transport
        Modeling .............................................. 800
        13.5.1 Interfacial Tension and Marangoni Stress ....... 801
        13.5.2 Dimensionless Governing Parameters ............. 801
        13.5.3 Surfactant and Marangoni Flows ................. 802
14 Conclusion ................................................. 805

References .................................................... 813
Notation Rules: Aliases and Symbols ........................... 903
List of Currently Used Prefixes and Suffixes .................. 909
List of Aliases ............................................... 913
Complementary Lists of Notations .............................. 943
Index ......................................................... 949

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Посещение N 142 c 29.05.2016