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ОбложкаSeismic imaging, fault damage and heal / ed. by Yong-Gang Li. - Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter: Higher education press, 2014. - x, 377 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - ISBN 978-3-11-032991-9
Шифр: (И/Д21-S44) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Seismic Imaging, Fault Damage and Heal: An Overview ............. 1
References ..................................................... 10

1     Applications of Full-Wave Seismic Data Assimilation
     (FWSDA) ................................................... 15
1.1  Numerical Solutions of Seismic Wave Equations ............. 16
     1.1.1  Stable Finite-Difference Solutions on Non-Uniform,
            Discontinuous Meshes ............................... 18
     1.1.2  Accelerating Finite-Difference Methods Using GPUs .. 22
     1.1.3  The ADER-DG Method ................................. 26
     1.1.4  Accelerating the ADER-DG Method Using GPUs ......... 29
1.2  Automating the Waveform Selection Process for FWSDA ....... 41
     1.2.1  Seismogram Segmentation ............................ 42
     1.2.2  Waveform Selection ................................. 49
     1.2.3  Misfit Measurement Selection ....................... 50
     1.2.4  Frechet Kernels for Waveforms Selected in the
            Wavelet Domain ..................................... 51
1.3  Application of FWSDA in Southern California ............... 55
     1.3.1  Waveform Selection on Ambient-Noise Green's
            Functions .......................................... 57
     1.3.2  Waveform Selection on Earthquake Recordings ........ 59
     1.3.3  Inversion Results after 18 times Adjoint
            Iteration .......................................... 60
1.4  Summary and Discussion .................................... 63
     References ................................................ 65

2    Wavefield Representation, Propagation and Imaging Using
     Localized Waves: Beamlet, Curvelet and Dreamlet ........... 73
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 74
2.2  Phase-Space Localization and Wavelet Transform ............ 77
     2.2.1  Time-Frequency Localization ........................ 78
     2.2.2  Time-Scale Localization ............................ 81
     2.2.3  Extension and Generalization of Time-Frequency,
            Time-Scale Localizations ........................... 82
2.3  Localized Wave Propagators: From Beam to Beamlet .......... 85
     2.3.1  Frame Beamlets and Orthonormal Beamlets ............ 87
     2.3.2  Beamlet Spreading, Scattering and Wave
            Propagation in the Beamlet Domain .................. 90
     2.3.3  Beam Propagation in Smooth Media with
            High-Frequency Asymptotic Solutions ................ 96
     2.3.4  Beamlet Propagation in Heterogeneous Media by the
            Local Perturbation Approach ....................... 101
2.4  Curvelet and Wave Propagation ............................ 106
     2.4.1  Curvelet and Its Generalization ................... 106
     2.4.2  Fast Digital Transforms for Curvelets and Wave
            Atoms ............................................. 110
     2.4.3  Wave Propagation in Curvelet Domain and the
            Application to Seismic Imaging .................... 110
2.5  Wave Packet: Dreamlets and Gaussian Packets .............. 112
     2.5.1  Physical Wavelet and Wave-Packets ................. 112
     2.5.2  Dreamlet as a Type of Physical Wavelet ............ 116
     2.5.3  Seismic Data Decomposition and Imaging/Migration
            Using Dreamlets ................................... 119
     2.5.4  Gaussian Packet Migration and Paraxial
            Approximation of Dreamlet ......................... 123
2.6  Conclusions .............................................. 130
     Acknowledgement .......................................... 131
     References ............................................... 132

3    Two-way Coupling of Solid-fluid with Discrete Element
     Model and Lattice Boltzmann Model ........................ 143
3.1  Introduction ............................................. 143
3.2  Discrete Element Method and the ESyS-Particle Code ....... 146
     3.2.1  A Brief Introduction to the Open Source DEM
            Code: The ESyS-Particle ........................... 147
     3.2.2  The Basic Equations ............................... 147
     3.2.3  Contact Laws and Particle Interaction ............. 148
     3.2.4  Fracture Criterion ................................ 150
3.3  Lattice Boltzmann Method ................................. 151
     3.3.1  The Basic Principle of LBM ........................ 151
     3.3.2  Boundary Conditions of LBM ........................ 152
     3.3.3  A Brief Introduction to the Open Source LBM
            Code: OpenLB ...................................... 152
3.4  Two-way Coupling of DEM and LBM .......................... 156
     3.4.1  Moving Boundary Conditions ........................ 157
     3.4.2  Curved Boundary Conditions ........................ 157
     3.4.3  Implementation of Darcy Flow in LBM ............... 160
3.5  Preliminary Results ...................................... 161
     3.5.1  Bonded Particles Flow in Fluid .................... 161
     3.5.2  Fluid Flow in the Fractures ....................... 162
     3.5.3  Hydraulic Fracture Simulation ..................... 164
3.6  Discussion and Conclusions ............................... 166
     Acknowledgement .......................................... 167
     References ............................................... 167

4    Co-seismic Damage and Post-Mainshock Healing of
     Fault Rocks at Landers, Hector Mine and Parkfield,
     California Viewed by Fault-Zone Trapped Waves ............ 173
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 173
4.2  Rock Damage and Healing on the Rupture Zone of the
     1992 M7.4 Landers Earthquake ............................. 176
     4.2.1  Landers Rupture Zone Viewed with Fault-Zone
            Trapped Waves ..................................... 176
     4.2.2  Fault Healing at Landers Rupture Zone ............. 183
     4.2.3  Additional Damage on the Landers Rupture Zone by
            the Nearby Hector Mine Earthquake ................. 192
4.3  Rock Damage and Healing on the Rupture Zone of the
     1999 M7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake ......................... 194
     4.3.1  Hector Mine Rupture Zone Viewed with FZTWs ........ 194
     4.3.2  Fault Healing at Hector Mine Rupture Zone ......... 204
4.4  Rock Damage and Healing on the San Andreas Fault
     Associated with the 2004 M6 Parkfield Earthquake ......... 208
     4.4.1  Low-Velocity Damaged Structure of the San
            Andreas Fault at Parkfield from Fault Zone
            Trapped Waves ..................................... 209
     4.4.2  Seismic Velocity Variations on the San Andreas
            Fault Caused by the 2004 M6 Parkfield Earthquake .. 218
     4.4.3  Discussion ........................................ 237
4.5  Conclusion ............................................... 239
     Acknowledgment ........................................... 242
     References ............................................... 242

5    Subsurface Rupture Structure of the M7.1 Darfleld and
     M6.3 Christchurch Earthquake Sequence Viewed with
     Fault-Zone Trapped Waves ................................. 249
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 250
5.2  The Data and Waveform Analyses ........................... 256
     5.2.1  The FZTWs Recorded for Aftershocks along
            Darfield/Greendale Rupture Zone ................... 264
     5.2.2  The FZTWs Recorded for Aftershocks along
            Christchurch/Port Hills Rupture Zone .............. 277
5.3  Subsurface Damage Structure Viewed with FZTWs ............ 288
     5.4  3-D Finite-Difference Simulations of Observed
          FZTWs ............................................... 294
     5.5  Conclusion and Discussion ........................... 306
     Acknowledgment ........................................... 314
     References ............................................... 314

6    Characterizing Pre-shock (Accelerating) Moment Release:
     A Few Notes on the Analysis of Seismicity ................ 323
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 323
6.2  The 'Interfering Events' and the 'Eclipse Method' ........ 325
6.3  Comparing with Linear Increase: The BIC Criterion ........ 327
6.4  The Time-Space-Mc Mapping of the Scaling Coefficient,
     m(T,R,MC) ................................................ 328
6.5  Removal of Aftershocks and the 'De-clustered Benioff
     Strain' .................................................. 331
6.6  'Crack-like' Spatial Window for Great Earthquakes:
     The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake ............................. 335
6.7  Looking into a Finite Earthquake Rupture: The 2004
     Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake ............................... 338
6.8  Using Seismic Moment Tensors to Investigate the Moment
     Release: AMijR before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake? ........ 340
6.9  Concluding Remarks and Discussion ........................ 344
6.10 Appendix: The Magnitude Conversion Problem, and the
     Completeness of an Earthquake Catalogue .................. 345
     6.10.1 Magnitudes ........................................ 345
     6.10.2 Conversion of Magnitudes .......................... 346
     6.10.3 Completeness of an Earthquake Catalogue ........... 347
     References ............................................... 347

7    Statistical Modeling of Earthquake Occurrences Based on
     External Geophysical Observations: With an Illustrative
     Application to the Ultra-low Frequency Ground Electric
     Signals Observed in the Beijing Region ................... 351
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 352
7.2  The Data ................................................. 354
7.3  Model Description ........................................ 357
7.4  Results for Circles around the Individual Stations ....... 359
7.5  Results for the 300 km Circle around Beijing ............. 364
7.6  Results from the Tangshan Region ......................... 369
7.7  Probability Gains from Forecasts Based on Electrical
     Signals .................................................. 371
7.8  Effect of Changes in the Background Seismicity ........... 373
7.9  Conclusions .............................................. 374
     References ............................................... 375

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