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ОбложкаHosford W.F. Mechanical behavior of materials. - 2nd ed. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. - xv, 419 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.415-419. - ISBN 978-0-521-19569-0
Шифр: (И/Ж-Н81) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii
1  Stress and Strain ............................................ 1
   Introduction ................................................. 1
   Stress ....................................................... 2
   Sign Convention .............................................. 3
   Transformation of Axes ....................................... 4
   Principal Stresses ........................................... 6
   Mohr's Stress Circles ........................................ 6
   Strains ...................................................... 9
   Small Strains ............................................... 11
   Transformation of Axes ...................................... 12
   Mohr's Strain Circles ....................................... 13
   Force and Moment Balances ................................... 14
   Boundary Conditions ......................................... 16
   Note ........................................................ 17
   Problems .................................................... 17
2  Elasticity .................................................. 20
   Introduction ................................................ 20
   Isotropic Elasticity ........................................ 20
   Variation of Young's Modulus ................................ 22
   Isotropic Thermal Expansion ................................. 24
   Elastic Anisotropy .......................................... 25
   Orientation Dependence of Elastic Response .................. 27
   Orientation Dependence in Cubic Crystals .................... 28
   Orientation Dependence in Noncubic Crystals ................. 30
   Orientation Dependence in Materials Other Than Single
   Crystals .................................................... 31
   Anisotropic Thermal Expansion ............................... 31
   References .................................................. 32
   Notes ....................................................... 32
   Problems .................................................... 33
3  Mechanical Testing .......................................... 36
   Introduction ................................................ 36
   Tensile Specimens ........................................... 36
   Stress-Strain Curves ........................................ 37
   Ductility ................................................... 40
   True Stress and Strain ...................................... 41
   The Bridgman Correction ..................................... 43
   Temperature Rise ............................................ 43
   Sheet Anisotropy ............................................ 44
   Measurement of Force and Strain ............................. 45
   Axial Alignment ............................................. 46
   Special Problems ............................................ 47
   Compression Test ............................................ 47
   Plane-Strain Compression .................................... 50
   Plane-Strain Tension ........................................ 51
   Biaxial Tension (Hydraulic Bulge Test) ...................... 51
   Torsion Test ................................................ 53
   Bend Tests .................................................. 54
   Hardness Tests .............................................. 56
   Mutual Indentation Hardness ................................. 59
   References .................................................. 60
   Notes ....................................................... 60
   Problems .................................................... 61
4  Strain Hardening of Metals .................................. 65
   Introduction ................................................ 65
   Mathematical Approximations ................................. 65
   Power Law Approximation ..................................... 67
   Necking ..................................................... 68
   Work Per Volume ............................................. 70
   Localization of Strain at Defects ........................... 70
   Notes ....................................................... 71
   Problems .................................................... 72
5  Plasticity Theory ........................................... 74
   Introduction ................................................ 74
   Yield Criteria .............................................. 74
   Tresca (maximum shear stress criterion) ..................... 75
   Von Mises Criterion ......................................... 76
   Flow Rules .................................................. 78
   Principle of Normality ...................................... 79
   Effective Stress and Effective Strain ....................... 80
   Other Isotropic Yield Criteria .............................. 82
   Anisotropic Plasticity ...................................... 84
   Effect of Strain Hardening on the Yield Locus ............... 86
   References .................................................. 87
   Notes ....................................................... 87
   Problems .................................................... 88
6  Strain Rate and Temperature Dependence of Flow Stress ....... 92
   Introduction ................................................ 92
   Strain Rate Dependence of Flow Stress ....................... 92
   Superplasticity ............................................. 95
   Combined Strain and Strain Rate Effects ..................... 99
   Strain Rate Sensitivity of bcc Metals ...................... 100
   Temperature Dependence ..................................... 103
   Combined Temperature and Strain Rate Effects ............... 103
   Hot Working ................................................ 108
   References ................................................. 109
   Notes ...................................................... 109
   Problems ................................................... 110
7  Slip and Crystallographic Textures ......................... 113
   Introduction ............................................... 113
   Slip Systems ............................................... 113
   Schmid's Law ............................................... 113
   Strains Produced by Slip ................................... 116
   Strain Hardening of fee Single Crystals .................... 117
   Tensile Deformation of fee Crystals ........................ 118
   Slip in bcc Crystals ....................................... 120
   Slip in hep Crystals ....................................... 121
   Lattice Rotation in Tension ................................ 121
   Lattice Rotation in Compression ............................ 123
   Texture Formation in Polycrystals .......................... 124
   Approximate Calculations of R Values ....................... 125
   Deformation of Polycrystals ................................ 126
   Texture Strengthening ...................................... 127
   Effects of Texture on Microstructure ....................... 128
   References ................................................. 132
   Notes ...................................................... 132
   Problems ................................................... 133
8  Dislocation Geometry and Energy ............................ 137
   Introduction ............................................... 137
   Theoretical Strength of Crystals ........................... 137
   The Nature of Dislocations ................................. 139
   Burgers Vectors ............................................ 141
   Energy of a Screw Dislocation .............................. 142
   Reactions between Parallel Dislocations and Frank's Rule ... 144
   Stress Fields around Dislocations .......................... 144
   Forces on Dislocations ..................................... 146
   Partial Dislocations in fee Crystals ....................... 147
   Stacking Faults ............................................ 149
   References ................................................. 152
   Notes ...................................................... 152
   Problems ................................................... 153
9  Dislocation Mechanics ...................................... 155
   Introduction ............................................... 155
   Frank-Read Sources ......................................... 155
   Dislocation Pile-Ups ....................................... 158
   Cross-Slip ................................................. 158
   Dislocation Intersections .................................. 159
   Climb ...................................................... 163
   References ................................................. 163
   Note ....................................................... 163
   Problems ................................................... 164
10 Mechanical Twinning and Martenitic Shear ................... 166
   Introduction ............................................... 166
   Formal Notation ............................................ 167
   Twinning Shear ............................................. 167
   Twinning in fee Metals ..................................... 169
   Twinning in bcc Metals ..................................... 169
   Twinning in hep Metals ..................................... 171
   Shapes of Twins ............................................ 173
   Mechanism of Twinning ...................................... 175
   Martensite Transformation .................................. 178
   Shape Memory and Superelasticity ........................... 178
   References ................................................. 181
   Note ....................................................... 181
   Problems ................................................... 181
11 Hardening Mechanisms in Metals ............................. 184
   Introduction ............................................... 184
   Crystal Structure .......................................... 184
   Grain Size ................................................. 184
   Strain Hardening ........................................... 186
   Solid. Solution Strengthening .............................. 187
   Dispersion Strengthening ................................... 188
   Yield Points and Strain Aging .............................. 191
   Combined Effects ........................................... 192
   References ................................................. 195
   Notes ...................................................... 195
   Problems ................................................... 196
12 Discontinuous and Inhomogeneous Deformation ................ 199
   Stick-Slip Phenomena ....................................... 199
   Dynamic Strain Aging ....................................... 200
   Other Causes of Serrated Stress-Strain Curves .............. 205
   Strain Localization ........................................ 205
   Reference .................................................. 206
   Notes ...................................................... 206
   Problems ................................................... 206
13 Ductility and Fracture ..................................... 208
   Introduction ............................................... 208
   Ductile Fracture ........................................... 210
   Brittle Fracture ........................................... 216
   Impact Energy .............................................. 218
   References ................................................. 221
   Notes ...................................................... 221
   Problems ................................................... 223
14 Fracture Mechanics ......................................... 225
   Introduction ............................................... 225
   Theoretical Fracture Strength .............................. 225
   Stress Concentration ....................................... 227
   Griffith Theory ............................................ 227
   Orowan Theory .............................................. 229
   Fracture Modes ............................................. 229
   Irwin's Fracture Analysis .................................. 229
   Plastic Zone Size .......................................... 231
   Thin Sheets ................................................ 233
   Temperature and Loading Rate ............................... 234
   Metallurgical Variables .................................... 235
   Fracture Mechanics in Design ............................... 235
   Compact Tensile Specimens .................................. 236
   Strain-Energy Release ...................................... 237
   The J Integral ............................................. 238
   References ................................................. 240
   Notes ...................................................... 240
   Problems ................................................... 241
   Appendix. Size and Shape of the Plastic Zone at the Crack
   Tip ........................................................ 243
15 Viscoelasticity ............................................ 244
   Introduction ............................................... 244
   Rheological Models ......................................... 244
   Series Combination of Spring and Dashpot ................... 245
   Parallel Combination of Spring and Dashpot ................. 246
   Combined Series Parallel Model ............................. 246
   More Complex Models ........................................ 248
   Damping .................................................... 248
   Natural Decay .............................................. 249
   Elastic Modulus - Relaxed versus Unrelaxed ................. 250
   Thermoelastic Effect ....................................... 251
   Snoek Effect in bcc Metals ................................. 253
   Other Damping Mechanisms ................................... 254
   References ................................................. 255
   Notes ...................................................... 255
   Problems ................................................... 256
16 Creep and Stress Rupture ................................... 259
   Introduction ............................................... 259
   Creep Mechanisms ........................................... 259
   Temperature Dependence of Creep ............................ 263
   Deformation Mechanism Maps ................................. 264
   Cavitation ................................................. 265
   Rupture versus Creep ....................................... 266
   Extrapolation Schemes ...................................... 266
   Alloys for High-Temperature Use ............................ 269
   References ................................................. 271
   Notes ...................................................... 271
   Problems ................................................... 272
17 Fatigue .................................................... 275
   Introduction ............................................... 275
   Surface Observations ....................................... 275
   Nomenclature ............................................... 276
   S-N Curves ................................................. 278
   Effect of Mean Stress ...................................... 279
   The Palmgren-Miner Rule .................................... 281
   Stress Concentration ....................................... 282
   Surfaces ................................................... 284
   Design Estimates ........................................... 285
   Metallurgical Variables .................................... 286
   Strains to Failure ......................................... 286
   Crack Propagation .......................................... 289
   Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior .............................. 292
   Temperature and Cycling Rate Effects ....................... 292
   Fatigue of Polymers ........................................ 295
   Fatigue Testing ............................................ 297
   Design Considerations ...................................... 297
   Summary .................................................... 298
   References ................................................. 298
   Notes ...................................................... 298
   Problems ................................................... 299
18 Residual Stresses .......................................... 302

   Introduction ............................................... 302
   Small-Scale Stresses ....................................... 302
   Bauschinger Effect ......................................... 305
   Nonuniform Cooling ......................................... 306
   Nonuniform Material ........................................ 307
   Stresses from Welding ...................................... 307
   Stresses from Mechanical Working ........................... 308
   Consequences of Residual Stresses .......................... 310
   Measurement of Residual Stresses ........................... 311
   Relief of Residual Stresses ................................ 313
   References ................................................. 314
   Notes ...................................................... 314
   Problems ................................................... 315
19 Ceramics and Glasses ....................................... 318
   Introduction ............................................... 318
   Elastic Properties ......................................... 318
   Slip Systems ............................................... 319
   Hardness ................................................... 319
   Weibull Analysis ........................................... 321
   Testing .................................................... 322
   Porosity ................................................... 323
   High-Temperature Behavior .................................. 324
   Fracture Toughness ......................................... 324
   Toughening of Ceramics ..................................... 326
   Fatigue .................................................... 329
   Silicate Glasses ........................................... 329
   Strength of Glasses ........................................ 332
   Thermally Induced Stresses ................................. 333
   Delayed Fracture ........................................... 334
   Glassy Metals .............................................. 334
   References ................................................. 336
   Notes ...................................................... 336
   Problems ................................................... 337
20 Polymers ................................................... 339
   Introduction ............................................... 339
   Elastic Behavior ........................................... 339
   Rubber Elasticity .......................................... 344
   Damping .................................................... 345
   Yielding ................................................... 347
   Effect of Strain Rate ...................................... 348
   Effect of Pressure ......................................... 350
   Crazing .................................................... 354
   Yielding of Fibers in Compression .......................... 356
   Fracture ................................................... 356
   Deformation Mechanism Maps ................................. 357
   Shape-Memory Effect ........................................ 357
   References ................................................. 360
   Notes ...................................................... 360
   Problems ................................................... 361
21 Composites ................................................. 363
   Introduction ............................................... 363
   Fiber-Reinforced Composites ................................ 363
   Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites .......... 363
   Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Composites .................... 367
   Volume Fraction of Fibers .................................. 368
   Orientation Dependence of Strength ......................... 369
   Fiber Length ............................................... 369
   Failure with Discontinuous Fibers .......................... 372
   Failure under Compression .................................. 373
   Typical Properties ......................................... 374
   Particulate Composites ..................................... 375
   Brick Wall Model ........................................... 376
   Lamellar Composites ........................................ 378
   Morphology of Foams ........................................ 379
   Mechanical Properties of Foams ............................. 379
   Metal Foams ................................................ 379
   Flexible Foams - Open Cell ................................. 381
   Flexible Foams - Closed Cell ............................... 381
   References ................................................. 381
   Notes ...................................................... 382
   Problems ................................................... 382
22 Mechanical Working ......................................... 385
   Introduction ............................................... 385
   Bulk-Forming Energy Balance ................................ 385
   Deformation Zone Geometry .................................. 389
   Friction in Bulk Forming ................................... 392
   Formability ................................................ 393
   Deep Drawing ............................................... 394
   Stamping ................................................... 396
   References ................................................. 401
   Notes ...................................................... 401
   Problems ................................................... 402
APPENDIX I:  Miller Indices ................................... 407
APPENDIX II: Stereographic Representation of Orientations ..... 412

Index ......................................................... 415


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