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ОбложкаMoore J.H. Building scientific apparatus / J.H.Moore, Ch.C.Davis, M.A.Coplan; with a chapter by S.C.Greer. - 4th ed. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009 (2013). - xiii, 647 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.625-647. - ISBN 978-0-521-87858-6
Шифр: (И/К9-М83)
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
 
     Preface ................................................. xiii

1    MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION .......................... l
1.1  Tools and Shop Processes ................................... 2
     1.1.1  Hand Tools .......................................... 2
     1.1.2  Machines for Making Holes ........................... 2
     1.1.3  The Lathe ........................................... 4
     1.1.4  Milling Machines .................................... 7
     1.1.5  Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) ................ 9
     1.1.6  Grinders ............................................ 9
     1.1.7  Tools for Working Sheet Metal ...................... 10
     1.1.8  Casting ............................................ 10
     1.1.9  Tolerance and Surface Quality for Shop Processes ... 12
1.2  Properties of Materials ................................... 12
     1.2.1  Parameters to Specify Properties of Materials ...... 13
     1.2.2  Heat Treating and Cold Working ..................... 14
     1.2.3  Effect of Stress Concentration ..................... 16
1.3  Materials ................................................. 18
     1.3.1  Iron and Steel ..................................... 18
     1.3.2  Nickel Alloys ...................................... 20
     1.3.3  Copper and Copper Alloys ........................... 21
     1.3.4  Aluminum Alloys .................................... 22
     1.3.5  Other Metals ....................................... 22
     1.3.6  Plastics ........................................... 23
     1.3.7  Glasses and Ceramics ............................... 24
1.4  Joining Materials ......................................... 25
     1.4.1  Threaded Fasteners ................................. 25
     1.4.2  Rivets ............................................. 28
     1.4.3  Pins ............................................... 29
     1.4.4  Retaining Rings .................................... 29
     1.4.5  Soldering .......................................... 30
     1.4.6  Brazing ............................................ 31
     1.4.7  Welding ............................................ 33
     1.4.8  Adhesives .......................................... 34
     1.4.9  Design of Joints ................................... 34
     1.4.10 Joints in Piping and Pressure Vessels .............. 37
1.5  Mechanical Drawing ........................................ 39
     1.5.1  Drawing Tools ...................................... 39
     1.5.2  Basic Principles of Mechanical Drawing ............. 40
     1.5.3  Dimensions ......................................... 44
     1.5.4  Tolerances ......................................... 46
     1.5.5  From Design to Working Drawings .................... 48
1.6  Physical Principles of Mechanical Design .................. 49
     1.6.1  Bending of a Beam or Shaft ......................... 50
     1.6.2  Twisting of a Shaft ................................ 52
     1.6.3  Internal Pressure .................................. 52
     1.6.4  Vibration of Beams and Shafts ...................... 54
     1.6.5  Shaft Whirl and Vibration .......................... 55
1.7  Constrained Motion ........................................ 57
     1.7.1  Kinematic Design ................................... 57
     1.7.2  Plain Bearings ..................................... 59
     1.7.3  Ball Bearings ...................................... 60
     1.7.4  Linear-Motion Bearings ............................. 61
     1.7.5  Springs ............................................ 62
     1.7.6  Flexures ........................................... 63
     Cited References .......................................... 66
     General References ........................................ 66
     Chapter 1 Appendix ........................................ 68

2    WORKING WITH GLASS ........................................ 76
2.1  Properties of Glasses ..................................... 76
     2.1.1  Chemical Composition and Chemical Properties of
            Some Laboratory Glasses ............................ 76
     2.1.2  Thermal Properties of Laboratory Glasses ........... 77
     2.1.3  Optical Properties of Laboratory Glassware ......... 78
     2.1.4  Mechanical Properties of Glass ..................... 78
2.2  Laboratory Components Available in Glass .................. 78
     2.2.1  Tubing and Rod ..................................... 78
     2.2.2  Demountable Joints ................................. 79
     2.2.3  Valves and Stopcocks ............................... 80
     2.2.4  Graded Glass Seals and Glass-to-Metal Seals ........ 81
2.3  Laboratory Glassblowing Skills ............................ 81
     2.3.1  The Glassblower's Tools ............................ 81
     2.3.2  Cutting Glass Tubing ............................... 82
     2.3.3  Pulling Points ..................................... 83
     2.3.4  Sealing Off a Tube: The Test-Tube End .............. 84
     2.3.5  Making a T-Seal .................................... 85
     2.3.6  Making a Straight Seal ............................. 87
     2.3.7  Making a Ring Seal ................................. 87
     2.3.8  Bending Glass Tubing ............................... 88
     2.3.9  Annealing .......................................... 88
     2.3.10 Sealing Glass to Metal ............................. 89
     2.3.11 Grinding and Drilling Glass ........................ 91
     Cited References .......................................... 92
     General References ........................................ 92

3    VACUUM TECHNOLOGY ......................................... 93
3.1  Gases ..................................................... 93
     3.1.1  The Nature of the Residual Gases in a Vacuum
            System ............................................. 93
     3.1.2  Gas Kinetic Theory ................................. 93
     3.1.3  Surface Collisions ................................. 95
     3.1.4  Bulk Behavior versus Molecular Behavior ............ 95
3.2  Gas Flow .................................................. 95
     3.2.1  Parameters for Specifying Gas Row .................. 95
     3.2.2  Network Equations .................................. 96
     3.2.3  The Master Equation ................................ 96
     3.2.4  Conductance Formulae ............................... 97
     3.2.5  Pumpdown Time ...................................... 98
     3.2.6  Outgassing ......................................... 98
     3.2.6  Outgassing ......................................... 98
3.3  Pressure and Flow Measurement ............................. 98
     3.3.1  Mechanical Gauges .................................. 98
     3.3.2  Thermal-Conductivity Gauges ....................... 100
     3.3.3  Viscous-Drag Gauges ............................... 101
     3.3.4  Ionization Gauges ................................. 101
     3.3.5  Mass Spectrometers ................................ 103
     3.3.6  Flowmeters ........................................ 103
3.4  Vacuum Pumps ............................................. 104
     3.4.1  Mechanical Pumps .................................. 105
     3.4.2  Vapor Diffusion Pumps ............................. 109
     3.4.3  Entrainment Pumps ................................. 112
3.5  Vacuum Hardware .......................................... 115
     3.5.1  Materials ......................................... 115
     3.5.2  Demountable Vacuum Connections .................... 118
     3.5.3  Valves ............................................ 120
     3.5.4  Mechanical Motion in the Vacuum System ............ 123
     3.5.5  Traps and Baffles ................................. 124
     3.5.6  Molecular Beams and Gas Jets ...................... 127
     3.5.7  Electronics and Electricity in Vacuo .............. 130
3.6  Vacuum-System Design and Construction .................... 131
     3.6.1  Some Typical Vacuum Systems ....................... 132
     3.6.2  Differential Pumping .............................. 138
     3.6.3  The Construction of Metal Vacuum Apparatus ........ 139
     3.6.4  Surface Preparation ............................... 142
     3.6.5  Leak Detection .................................... 143
     3.6.6  Ultrahigh Vacuum .................................. 144
     Cited References ......................................... 145
     General References ....................................... 145

4    OPTICAL SYSTEMS .......................................... 147
4.1  Optical Terminology ...................................... 147
4.2  Characterization and Analysis of Optical Systems ......... 150
     4.2.1  Simple Reflection and Refraction Analysis ......... 150
     4.2.2  Paraxial-Ray Analysis ............................. 151
     4.2.3  Nonimaging Light Collectors ....................... 162
     4.2.4  Imaging Systems ................................... 162
     4.2.5  Exact Ray Tracing and Aberrations ................. 166
     4.2.6  The Use of Impedances in Optics ................... 174
     4.2.7  Gaussian Beams .................................... 179
4.3  Optical Components ....................................... 182
     4.3.1  Mirrors ........................................... 182
     4.3.2  Windows ........................................... 187
     4.3.3  Lenses and Lens Systems ........................... 187
     4.3.4  Prisms ............................................ 196
     4.3.5  Diffraction Gratings .............................. 201
     4.3.6  Polarizers ........................................ 204
     4.3.7  Optical Isolators ................................. 211
     4.3.8  Filters ........................................... 212
     4.3.9  Fiber Optics ...................................... 217
     4.3.10 Precision Mechanical Movement Systems ............. 219
     4.3.11 Devices for Positional and Orientational
            Adjustment of Optical Components .................. 222
     4.3.12 Optical Tables and Vibration Isolation ............ 229
     4.3.13 Alignment of Optical Systems ...................... 229
     4.3.14 Mounting Optical Components ....................... 230
     4.3.15 Cleaning Optical Components ....................... 232
4.4  Optical Materials ........................................ 236
     4.4.1  Materials for Windows, Lenses, and Prisms ......... 236
     4.4.2  Materials for Mirrors and Diffraction Gratings .... 245
4.5  Optical Sources .......................................... 247
     4.5.1  Coherence ......................................... 248
     4.5.2  Radiometry: Units and Definitions ................. 248
     4.5.3  Photometry ........................................ 249
     4.5.4  Line Sources ...................................... 250
     4.5.5  Continuum Sources ................................. 252
4.6  Lasers ................................................... 261
     4.6.1  General Principles of Laser Operation ............. 267
     4.6.2  General Features of Laser Design .................. 268
     4.6.3  Specific Laser Systems ............................ 270
     4.6.4  Laser Radiation ................................... 283
     4.6.5  Coupling Light from a Source to an Aperture ....... 284
     4.6.6  Optical Modulators ................................ 287
     4.6.7  How to Work Safely with Light Sources ............. 289
4.7  Optical Dispersing Instruments ........................... 291
     4.7.1  Comparison of Prism and Grating Spectrometers ..... 293
     4.7.2  Design of Spectrometers and Spectrographs ......... 295
     4.7.3  Calibration of Spectrometers and Spectrographs .... 299
     4.7.4  Fabry-Perot Interferometers and Etalons ........... 299
     4.7.5  Design Considerations for Fabry-Perot Systems ..... 308
     4.7.6  Double-Beam Interferometers ....................... 309
     Endnotes ................................................. 314
     Cited References ......................................... 314
     General References ....................................... 318

5    CHARGED-PARTICLE OPTICS .................................. 324
5.1  Basic Concepts of Charged-Particle Optics ................ 324
     5.1.1  Brightness ........................................ 324
     5.1.2  Snell'sLaw ........................................ 325
     5.1.3  The Helmholtz-Lagrange Law ........................ 325
     5.1.4  Vignetting ........................................ 326
5.2  Electrostatic Lenses ..................................... 327
     5.2.1  Geometrical Optics of Thick Lenses ................ 327
     5.2.2  Cylinder Lenses ................................... 329
     5.2.3  Aperture Lenses ................................... 331
     5.2.4  Matrix Methods .................................... 332
     5.2.5  Aberrations ....................................... 333
     5.2.6  Lens Design Example ............................... 336
     5.2.7  Computer Simulations .............................. 338
5.3  Charged-Particle Sources ................................. 338
     5.3.1  Electron Guns ..................................... 338
     5.3.2  Electron-Gun Design Example ....................... 341
     5.3.3  Ion Sources ....................................... 343
5.4  Energy Analyzers ......................................... 345
     5.4.1  Parallel-Plate Analyzers .......................... 346
     5.4.2  Cylindrical Analyzers ............................. 347
     5.4.3  Spherical Analyzers ............................... 348
     5.4.4  Preretardation .................................... 350
     5.4.5  The Energy-Add Lens ............................... 350
     5.4.6  Fringing-Field Correction ......................... 352
     5.4.7  Magnetic Energy Analyzers ......................... 353
5.5  Mass Analyzers ........................................... 354
     5.5.1  Magnetic Sector Mass Analyzers .................... 354
     5.5.2  Wien Filter ....................................... 354
     5.5.3  Dynamic Mass Spectrometers ........................ 355
5.6  Electron- and Ion-Beam Devices: Construction ............. 355
     5.6.1  Vacuum Requirements ............................... 355
     5.6.2  Materials ......................................... 356
     5.6.3  Lens and Lens-Mount Design ........................ 357
     5.6.4  Charged-Particle Detection ........................ 358
     5.6.5  Magnetic-Field Control ............................ 358
     Cited References ......................................... 360

6    ELECTRONICS .............................................. 362
6.1  Preliminaries ............................................ 362
     6.1.1  Circuit Theory .................................... 362
     6.1.2  Circuit Analysis .................................. 365
     6.1.3  High-Pass and Low-Pass Circuits ................... 369
     6.1.4  Resonant Circuits ................................. 372
     6.1.5  The Laplace-Transform Method ...................... 374
     6.1.6  RLC Circuits ...................................... 377
     6.1.7  Transient Response of Resonant Circuits ........... 378
     6.1.8  Transformers and Mutual Inductance ................ 379
     6.1.9  Compensation ...................................... 380
     6.1.10 Filters ........................................... 380
     6.1.11 Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis ................... 381
6.2  Passive Components ....................................... 382
     6.2.1  Fixed Resistors and Capacitors .................... 383
     6.2.2  Variable Resistors ................................ 384
     6.2.3  Transmission Lines ................................ 389
     6.2.4  Coaxial Connectors ................................ 398
     6.2.5  Relays ............................................ 399
6.3  Active Components ........................................ 402
     6.3.1  Diodes ............................................ 403
     6.3.2  Transistors ....................................... 406
     6.3.3  Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers ..................... 419
     6.3.4  Unijunction Transistors ........................... 420
     6.3.5  Thyratrons ........................................ 421
6.4  Amplifiers and Pulse Electronics ......................... 421
     6.4.1  Definition of Terms ............................... 421
     6.4.2  General Transistor-Amplifier Operating
            Principles ........................................ 424
     6.4.3  Operational-Amplifier Circuit Analysis ............ 428
     6.4.4  Instrumentation and Isolation Amplifiers .......... 432
     6.4.5  Stability and Oscillators ......................... 434
     6.4.6  Detecting and Processing Pulses ................... 435
6.5  Power Supplies ........................................... 441
     6.5.1  Power-Supply Specifications ....................... 442
     6.5.2  Regulator Circuits and Programmable Power
            Supplies .......................................... 443
     6.5.3  Bridges ........................................... 445
6.6  Digital Electronics ...................................... 447
     6.6.1  Binary Counting ................................... 447
     6.6.2  Elementary Functions .............................. 447
     6.6.3  Boolean Algebra ................................... 448
     6.6.4  Arithmetic Units .................................. 448
     6.6.5  Data Units ........................................ 448
     6.6.6  Dynamic Systems ................................... 450
     6.6.7  Digital-to-Analog Conversion ...................... 453
     6.6.8  Memories .......................................... 458
     6.6.9  Logic and Function ................................ 460
     6.6.10 Implementing Logic Functions ...................... 464
6.7  Data Acquisition ......................................... 467
     6.7.1  Data Rates ........................................ 467
     6.7.2  Voltage Levels and Timing ......................... 469
     6.7.3  Format ............................................ 469
     6.7.4  System Overhead ................................... 470
     6.7.5  Analog Input Signals .............................. 472
     6.7.6  Multiple Signal Sources: Data Loggers ............. 474
     6.7.7  Standardized Data-Acquisition Systems ............. 474
     6.7.8  Control Systems ................................... 479
     6.7.9  Personal Computer (PC) Control of Experiments ..... 482
6.8  Extraction of Signal from Noise .......................... 491
     6.8.1  Signal-to-Noise Ratio ............................. 491
     6.8.2  Optimizing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio .............. 492
     6.8.3  The Lock-In Amplifier and Gated Integrator or
            Boxcar ............................................ 493
     6.8.4  Signal Averaging .................................. 494
     6.8.5  Waveform Recovery ................................. 495
     6.8.6  Coincidence and Time-Correlation Techniques ....... 496
6.9  Grounds and Grounding .................................... 500
     6.9.1  Electrical Grounds and Safety ..................... 500
     6.9.2  Electrical Pickup: Capacitive Effects ............. 503
     6.9.3  Electrical Pickup: Inductive Effects .............. 504
     6.9.4  Electromagnetic Interference and r.f.i ............ 505
     6.9.5  Power-Line-Coupled Noise .......................... 505
     6.9.6  Ground Loops ...................................... 506
6.10 Hardware and Construction ................................ 508
     6.10.1 Circuit Diagrams .................................. 508
     6.10.2 Component Selection and Construction Techniques ... 508
     6.10.3 Printed Circuit Boards ............................ 513
     6.10.4 Wire Wrap™ Boards ................................. 523
     6.10.5 Wires and Cables .................................. 524
     6.10.6 Connectors ........................................ 528
6.11 Troubleshooting .......................................... 534
     6.11.1 General Procedures ................................ 534
     6.11.2 Identifying Parts ................................. 535
     Cited References ......................................... 537
     General References ....................................... 538
     Chapter 6 Appendix ....................................... 541

7    DETECTORS ................................................ 547
7.1  Optical Detectors ........................................ 547
7.2  Noise in Optical Detection Process ....................... 548
     7.2.1  Shot Noise ........................................ 548
     7.2.2  Johnson Noise ..................................... 549
     7.2.3  Generation-Recombination (gr) Noise ............... 549
     7.2.4  1/f Noise ......................................... 549
7.3  Figures of Merit for Detectors ........................... 550
     7.3.1  Noise-Equivalent Power ............................ 550
     7.3.2  Detectivity ....................................... 550
     7.3.3  Responsivity ...................................... 551
     7.3.4  Quantum Efficiency ................................ 552
     7.3.5  Frequency Response and Time Constant .............. 553
     7.3.6  Signal-to-Noise Ratio ............................. 553
7.4  Photoemissive Detectors  ................................. 554
     7.4.1  Vacuum Photodiodes ................................ 554
     7.4.2  Photomultipliers .................................. 555
     7.4.3  Photocathode and Dynode Materials ................. 556
     7.4.4  Practical Operating Considerations for
            Photomultiplier Tubes ............................. 561
7.5  Photoconductive Detectors ................................ 566
7.6  Photovoltaic Detectors (Photodiodes) ..................... 572
     7.6.1  Avalanche Photodiodes ............................. 574
     7.6.2  Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodetectors .............. 577
7.7  Detector Arrays .......................................... 578
     7.7.1  Reticons .......................................... 578
     7.7.2  Quadrant Detectors ................................ 578
     7.7.3  Lateral Effect Photodetectors ..................... 578
     7.7.4  Imaging Arrays .................................... 580
     7.7.5  Image Intensifiers ................................ 581
7.8  Signal-to-Noise Ratio Calculations ....................... 582
     7.8.1  Photomultipliers .................................. 582
     7.8.2  Direct Detection with p-i-n Photodiodes ........... 582
     7.8.3  Direct Detection with APDs ........................ 584
     7.8.4  Photon Counting ................................... 585
7.9  Particle and Ionizing Radiation Detectors ................ 585
     7.9.1  Solid-State Detectors ............................. 589
     7.9.2  Scintillation Counters ............................ 591
     7.9.3  X-Ray Detectors ................................... 591
7.10 Thermal Detectors ........................................ 591
     7.10.1 Thermopiles ....................................... 593
     7.10.2 Pyroelectric Detectors ............................ 593
     7.10.3 Bolometers ........................................ 594
     7.10.4 The Golay Cell .................................... 595
7.11 Electronics to be Used With Detectors .................... 596
7.12 Detector Calibration ..................................... 597
     Endnotes ................................................. 597
     Cited References ......................................... 597
     General References ....................................... 599

8     MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE .................. 600
8.1  The Measurement of Temperature ........................... 600
     8.1.1  Expansion Thermometers ............................ 601
     8.1.2  Thermocouples ..................................... 602
     8.1.3  Resistance Thermometers ........................... 605
     8.1.4  Semiconductor Thermometers ........................ 609
     8.1.5  Temperatures Very Low: Cryogenic Thermometry ...... 610
     8.1.6  Temperatures Very High ............................ 611
     8.1.7  New, Evolving, and Specialized Thermometry ........ 612
     8.1.8  Comparison of Main Categories of Thermometers ..... 612
     8.1.9  Thermometer Calibration ........................... 612
8.2  The Control of Temperature ............................... 613
     8.2.1  Temperature Control at Fixed Temperatures ......... 613
     8.2.2  Temperature Control at Variable Temperatures ...... 613
     Cited References ......................................... 621
     General References ....................................... 623

     Index .................................................... 625

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