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ОбложкаSpaldin N.A. Magnetic materials: fundamentals and applications. - 2nd ed. - Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. - xiii, 274 p.: ill. - Ref.: p.362-269. - Ind.: p.270-274. - ISBN 978-0-521-88669-7
Шифр: И/З.84-S78
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
 
Acknowledgments .............................................. xiii

I. Basics

1    Review of basic magnetostatics ............................. 3
1.1  Magnetic field ............................................. 4
     1.1.1  Magnetic poles ...................................... 4
     1.1.2  Magnetic flux ....................................... 6
     1.1.3  Circulating currents ................................ 6
     1.1.4  Ampere's circuital law .............................. 7
     1.1.5  Biot-Savart law ..................................... 8
     1.1.6  Field from a straight wire .......................... 8
1.2  Magnetic moment ........................................... 10
     1.2.1  Magnetic dipole .................................... 11
1.3  Definitions ............................................... 11
     Homework .................................................. 12

2    Magnetization and magnetic materials ...................... 14
2.1  Magnetic induction and magnetization ...................... 14
2.2  Flux density .............................................. 15
2.3  Susceptibility and permeability ........................... 16
2.4  Hysteresis loops .......................................... 18
2.5  Definitions ............................................... 19
2.6  Units and conversions ..................................... 19
     Homework .................................................. 20

3    Atomic origins of magnetism ............................... 22
3.1  Solution of the Schrödinger equation for a free atom ...... 22
     3.1.1  What do the quantum numbers represent? ............. 25
3.2  The normal Zeeman effect .................................. 27
3.3  Electron spin ............................................. 30
3.4  Extension to many-electron atoms .......................... 31
     3.4.1  Pauli exclusion principle .......................... 32
3.5  Spin-orbit coupling ....................................... 32
     3.5.1  Russell-Saunders coupling .......................... 32
     3.5.2  Hund's rules ....................................... 34
     3.5.3  jj coupling ........................................ 35
     3.5.4  The anomalous Zeeman effect ........................ 35
     Homework .................................................. 37

4    Diamagnetism .............................................. 38
4.1  Observing the diamagnetic effect .......................... 38
4.2  Diamagnetic susceptibility ................................ 39
4.3  Diamagnetic substances .................................... 41
4.4  Uses of diamagnetic materials ............................. 42
4.5  Superconductivity ......................................... 42
     4.5.1  The Meissner effect ................................ 43
     4.5.2  Critical field ..................................... 44
     4.5.3  Classification of superconductors .................. 44
     4.5.4  Superconducting materials .......................... 44
     4.5.5  Applications for superconductors ................... 46
     Homework .................................................. 46

5    Paramagnetism ............................................. 48
5.1  Langevin theory of paramagnetism .......................... 49
5.2  The Curie-Weiss law ....................................... 52
5.3  Quenching of orbital angular momentum ..................... 54
5.4  Pauli paramagnetism ....................................... 55
     5.4.1  Energy bands in solids ............................. 56
     5.4.2  Free-electron theory of metals ..................... 58
     5.4.3  Susceptibility of Pauli paramagnets ................ 60
5.5  Paramagnetic oxygen ....................................... 62
5.6  Uses of paramagnets ....................................... 63
     Homework .................................................. 64

6    Interactions in ferromagnetic materials ................... 65
6.1  Weiss molecular field theory .............................. 66
     6.1.1  Spontaneous magnetization .......................... 66
     6.1.2  Effect of temperature on magnetization ............. 67
6.2  Origin of the Weiss molecular field ....................... 69
     6.2.1   Quantum mechanics of the He atom .................. 70
6.3  Collective-electron theory of ferromagnetism .............. 73
     6.3.1   The Slater-Pauling curve .......................... 76
6.4  Summary ................................................... 76
     Homework .................................................. 78

7    Ferromagnetic domains ..................................... 79
7.1  Observing domains ......................................... 79
7.2  Why domains occur ......................................... 81
     7.2.1  Magnetostatic energy ............................... 81
     7.2.2  Magnetocrystalline energy .......................... 82
     7.2.3  Magnetostrictive energy ............................ 84
7.3  Domain walls .............................................. 85
7.4  Magnetization and hysteresis .............................. 87
     Homework .................................................. 92

8    Antiferromagnetism ........................................ 96
8.1  Neutron diffraction ....................................... 97
8.2  Weiss theory of antiferromagnetism ....................... 101
     8.2.1  Susceptibility above TN ........................... 102
     8.2.2  Weiss theory at TN ................................ 103
     8.2.3  Spontaneous magnetization below TN ................ 103
     8.2.4  Susceptibility below TN ........................... 103
8.3  What causes the negative molecular field? ................ 107
8.4  Uses of antiferromagnets ................................. 110
     Homework ................................................. 112

9    Ferrimagnetism ........................................... 113
9.1  Weiss theory of ferrimagnetism ........................... 114
     9.1.1  Weiss theory above TC ............................. 115
     9.1.2  Weiss theory below TC ............................. 117
9.2  Ferrites ................................................. 120
     9.2.1  The cubic ferrites ................................ 120
     9.2.2  The hexagonal ferrites ............................ 124
9.3  The garnets .............................................. 125
9.4  Half-metallic antiferromagnets ........................... 126
     Homework ................................................. 127

10   Summary of basics ........................................ 130
10.1 Review of types of magnetic ordering ..................... 130
     10.2 Review of physics determining types of magnetic
          ordering ............................................ 131

II. Magnetic phenomena

11   Anisotropy ............................................... 135
11.1 Magnetocrystalline anisotropy ............................ 135
     11.1.1 Origin of magnetocrystalline anisotropy ........... 136
     11.1.2 Symmetry of magnetocrystalline anisotropy ......... 138
11.2 Shape anisotropy ......................................... 139
     11.2.1 Demagnetizing field ............................... 139
11.3 Induced magnetic anisotropy .............................. 141
     11.3.1 Magnetic annealing ................................ 141
     11.3.2 Roll anisotropy ................................... 142
     11.3.3 Explanation for induced magnetic anisotropy ....... 142
     11.3.4 Other ways of inducing magnetic anisotropy ........ 143
     Homework ................................................. 144

12   Nanoparticles and thin films ............................. 145
12.1 Magnetic properties of small particles ................... 145
     12.1.1 Experimental evidence for single-domain
            particles ......................................... 147
     12.1.2 Magnetization mechanism ........................... 147
     12.1.3 Superparamagnetism ................................ 148
12.2 Thin-film magnetism ...................................... 152
     12.2.1 Structure ......................................... 152
     12.2.2 Interfaces ........................................ 153
     12.2.3 Anisotropy ........................................ 153
     12.2.4 How thin is thin? ................................. 154
     12.2.5 The limit of two-dimensionality ................... 154

13   Magnetoresistance ........................................ 156
13.1 Magnetoresistance in normal metals ....................... 157
13.2 Magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic metals ................ 158
     13.2.1 Anisotropic magnetoresistance ..................... 158
     13.2.2 Magnetoresistance from spontaneous magnetization .. 159
     13.2.3 Giant magnetoresistance ........................... 160
13.3 Colossal magnetoresistance ............................... 164
     13.3.1 Superexchange and double exchange ................. 164
     Homework ................................................. 168

14   Exchange bias ............................................ 169
14.1 Problems with the simple cartoon mechanism ............... 171
     14.1.1 Ongoing research on exchange bias ................. 172
14.2 Exchange anisotropy in technology ........................ 173

III. Device applications and novel materials

15   Magnetic data storage .................................... 177
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 177
15.2 Magnetic media ........................................... 181
     15.2.1 Materials used in magnetic media .................. 181
     15.2.2 The other components of magnetic hard disks ....... 183
15.3 Write heads .............................................. 183
15.4 Read heads ............................................... 185
15.5 Future of magnetic data storage .......................... 186

16   Magneto-optics and magneto-optic recording ............... 189
16.1 Magneto-optics basics .................................... 189
     16.1.1 Kerr effect ....................................... 189
     16.1.2 Faraday effect .................................... 191
     16.1.3 Physical origin of magneto-optic effects .......... 191
16.2 Magneto-optic recording .................................. 193
     16.2.1 Other types of optical storage, and the future
            of magneto-optic recording ........................ 196

17   Magnetic semiconductors and insulators ................... 197
17.1 Exchange interactions in magnetic semiconductors
     and insulators ........................................... 198
     17.1.1 Direct exchange and superexchange ................. 199
     17.1.2 Carrier-mediated exchange ......................... 199
     17.1.3 Bound magnetic polarons ........................... 200
17.2 II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors - (Zn,Mn)Se ........ 201
     17.2.1 Enhanced Zeeman splitting ......................... 201
     17.2.2 Persistent spin coherence ......................... 202
     17.2.3 Spin-polarized transport .......................... 203
     17.2.4 Other architectures ............................... 204
17.3 III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors - (Ga,Mn)As ........ 204
     17.3.1 Rare-earth-group-V compounds - ErAs ............... 207
17.4 Oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors .............. 208
17.5 Ferromagnetic insulators ................................. 210
     17.5.1 Crystal-field and Jahn-Teller effects ............. 210
     17.5.2 YTi03 and SeCuO3 .................................. 211
     17.5.3 BiMnOj ............................................ 213
     17.5.4 Europium oxide .................................... 214
     17.5.5 Double perovskites ................................ 215
17.6 Summary .................................................. 215

18   Multiferroics ............................................ 216
18.1 Comparison of ferromagnetism and other types of ferroic
     ordering ................................................. 216
     18.1.1 Ferroelectrics .................................... 216
     18.1.2 Ferroelastics ..................................... 219
     18.1.3 Ferrotoroidics .................................... 220
18.2 Multiferroics that combine magnetism and
     ferroelectricity ......................................... 221
     18.2.1 The contra-indication between magnetism and
            ferroelectricity .................................. 222
     18.2.2 Routes to combining magnetism and
            ferroelectricity .................................. 223
     18.2.3 The magnetoelectric effect ........................ 225
18.3 Summary .................................................. 228

Epilogue ...................................................... 229
Solutions to selected exercises ............................... 230
References .................................................... 262
Index ......................................................... 270


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