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ОбложкаYang Ch. Spatial cloud computing: a practical approach / Ch.Yang, Q.Huang; with the collab. of Zhenlong Li, Chen Xu, Kai Liu. - Boca Raton: CRC press/Taylor & Francis, 2014. - xxiv, 333 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. and index. - ISBN 978-1-4665-9316-9
Шифр: (И/Д-Y18) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xvii
Acknowledgments ............................................. xxiii

PART I  Introduction to cloud computing for geosciences ......... 1

1    Geoscience application challenges to computing
     infrastructures ............................................ 3
1.1  Challenges and opportunities for geoscience applications
     in the 21st century ........................................ 3
     1.1.1  Energy .............................................. 3
     1.1.2  Emergency response .................................. 4
     1.1.3  Climate change ...................................... 5
     1.1.4  Sustainable development ............................. 6
1.2  The needs of a new computing infrastructure ................ 8
     1.2.1  Providing enough computing power .................... 8
     1.2.2  Responding in real time ............................. 9
     1.2.3  Saving energy ....................................... 9
     1.2.4  Saving the budget .................................. 10
     1.2.5  Improving accessibility ............................ 10
1.3  The birth of cloud computing .............................. 10
     1.3.1  Distributed computing .............................. 10
     1.3.2  On-demand services ................................. 11
     1.3.3  Computing sharing and cost savings ................. 12
     1.3.4  Reliability ........................................ 12
     1.3.5  The emergence of cloud computing ................... 12
1.4  The advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing for
     geoscience applications ................................... 14
     1.4.1  Advantages of cloud computing ...................... 14
     1.4.2  Problems ........................................... 14
1.5  Summary ................................................... 15
1.6  Problems .................................................. 15
     References ................................................ 16

2    Cloud computing architecture, concepts, and
     characteristics ........................................... 19
2.1  Concepts .................................................. 19
2.2  Cloud computing architecture .............................. 20
2.3  Characteristics ........................................... 22
2.4  Service models ............................................ 23
2.5  Deployment models and cloud types ......................... 25
2.6  Review of cloud computing resources ....................... 27
     2.6.1  Commercial clouds .................................. 27
     2.6.2  Open-source cloud solutions ........................ 29
2.7  Summary ................................................... 30
2.8  Problems .................................................. 30
     References ................................................ 31

3    Enabling technologies ..................................... 33
3.1  Hardware advancements ..................................... 33
     3.1.1  Multicore and many-core technologies ............... 33
     3.1.2  Networking ......................................... 34
     3.1.3  Storage ............................................ 34
     3.1.4  Smart devices ...................................... 35
3.2  Computing technologies .................................... 35
     3.2.1  Distributed computing paradigm ..................... 35
     3.2.2  Computing architecture model ....................... 36
3.3  Virtualization ............................................ 36
     3.3.1  Virtualization implementation ...................... 37
     3.3.2  Virtualization solutions ........................... 38
3.4  Distributed file system ................................... 39
     3.4.1  Introduction to the distributed file system ........ 40
     3.4.2  Google File System ................................. 40
     3.4.3  Apache Hadoop Distributed File System .............. 41
3.5  Web x.0 ................................................... 42
     3.5.1  Web services ....................................... 43
     3.5.2  Service-oriented architecture ...................... 44
3.6  Conclusion ................................................ 46
3.7  Summary ................................................... 46
3.8  Problems .................................................. 47
     References ................................................ 47

PART II Deploying applications onto cloud services ............. 49

4    How to use cloud computing ................................ 51
4.1  Popular cloud services .................................... 51
     4.1.1  Introduction ....................................... 51
     4.1.2  Amazon AWS and Windows Azure ....................... 52
4.2  Use case: A simple Web Application ........................ 53
     4.2.1  HTML design for the Hello Cloud Web application .... 53
     4.2.2  Web servers ........................................ 54
4.3  Deploying the Web application onto cloud services ......... 55
     4.3.1  Amazon Web Services ................................ 55
     4.3.2  Windows Azure ...................................... 66
4.4  Conclusion and discussion ................................. 70
4.5  Summary ................................................... 72
4.6  Problems .................................................. 72
     References ................................................ 73

5    Cloud-enabling geoscience applications .................... 75
5.1  Common components for geoscience applications ............. 75
     5.1.1  Server-side programming ............................ 75
     5.1.2  Database ........................................... 76
     5.1.3  High performance computing ......................... 76
5.2  Cloud-enabling geoscience applications .................... 77
5.3  Use cases ................................................. 78
     5.3.1  Database-driven Web applications ................... 78
     5.3.2  Typical HPC applications ........................... 84
5.4  Summary ................................................... 90
5.5  Problems .................................................. 90
     References ................................................ 90

6    How to choose cloud services: Toward a cloud computing
     cost model ................................................ 93
6.1  The importance and challenges of selecting cloud
     services .................................................. 93
6.2  The factors impacting cloud service selection ............. 94
     6.2.1  Cloud service capacity provisioning and
            measurements ....................................... 94
     6.2.2  Cloud platform pricing rules ....................... 96
     6.2.3  Application features and requirements .............. 97
6.3  Selecting cloud services using the Earth Science
     Information Partners (ESIP) cloud Adoption Advisory Tool
     as an example ............................................. 98
     6.3.1  Architecture of the advisory tool .................. 99
     6.3.2  The general workflow for cloud service selection ... 99
     6.3.3  Use case .......................................... 102
6.4  In-depth considerations in cloud service selection
     and the development of advisory tools .................... 104
     6.4.1  Correctness and accuracy of evaluation models ..... 105
     6.4.2  Up-to-date information of cloud services .......... 106
     6.4.3  Interactivity and visualization functions of the
            advisory tool ..................................... 106
6.5  Summary .................................................. 106
6.6  Problems ................................................. 107
     References ............................................... 107

PART III Cloud-enabling geoscience projects ................... 109

7    ArcGIS in the cloud ...................................... 111
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 111
     7.1.1  Why a geographical information system needs the
            cloud ............................................. 111
     7.1.2  GIS examples that need the cloud .................. 112
7.2  ArcGIS in the cloud ...................................... 112
     7.2.1  ArcGIS Online ..................................... 112
       7.2.1.1  Functionalities ............................... 113
     7.2.2  ArcGIS for Server ................................. 114
       7.2.2.1  Functionalities ............................... 114
     7.2.3  GIS software as a service ......................... 115
       7.2.3.1  Functionalities ............................... 115
     7.2.4  Mobile GIS service ................................ 116
     7.2.5  Section summary ................................... 116
7.3  Use cases ................................................ 117
     7.3.1  Regional analysis of Oregon using ArcGIS Online ... 117
     7.3.2  Use cases of ArcGIS for Server .................... 120
       7.3.2.1  Brisbane City Council Flood Common
                Operating Picture ............................. 120
       7.3.2.2  Pennsylvania State Parks Viewer ............... 121
     7.3.3  Section summary ................................... 122
7.4  Summary .................................................. 122
7.5  Problems ................................................. 123
     References ............................................... 124

8    Cloud-enabling GEOSS Clearinghouse ....................... 125
8.1  GEOSS Clearinghouse: Background and challenges ........... 125
     8.1.1  Background ........................................ 125
     8.1.2  Challenges ........................................ 126
8.2  Deployment and optimization .............................. 127
     8.2.1  General deployment workflow ....................... 127
     8.2.2  Special considerations ............................ 130
            8.2.2.1  Data backup .............................. 130
            8.2.2.2  Load balancing ........................... 132
            8.2.2.3  Auto-scaling ............................. 132
     8.2.3  The differences from the general steps in
            Chapter 5 ......................................... 134
8.3  System demonstration ..................................... 135
     8.3.1  Local search ...................................... 135
     8.3.2  Remote search ..................................... 136
8.4  Conclusion ............................................... 136
     8.4.1  Economic advantages ............................... 137
     8.4.2  Technical advantages .............................. 138
8.5  Summary .................................................. 138
8.6  Problems ................................................. 138
     Appendix 8.1 Template for creating an auto-scaling
     function ................................................. 138
     References ............................................... 141

9    Cloud-enabling Climate@Home .............................. 143
9.1  Climate@Home: Background and challenges .................. 143
     9.1.1  Background ........................................ 143
     9.1.2  Challenges ........................................ 146
9.2  Deployment and optimizations ............................. 147
     9.2.1  General deployment workflow ....................... 147
            9.2.1.1  Deploying the spatial Web portal ......... 147
            9.2.1.2  Deploying the BOINC server ............... 149
     9.2.2  Special considerations ............................ 151
     9.2.3  The differences from the general steps in
            Chapter 5 ......................................... 152
9.3  System demonstrations .................................... 153
     9.3.1  Overview of the spatial Web portal ................ 153
     9.3.2  The geovisual analytical portlet .................. 154
     9.3.3  The resource management portlet ................... 155
9.4  Conclusion ............................................... 155
9.5  Summary .................................................. 157
9.6  Problems ................................................. 158
     Appendix 9.1 E4M20a_000040_wu.xml ........................ 158
     Appendix 9.2 Climateathome_re.xml ........................ 159
     References ............................................... 159

10   Cloud-enabling dust storm forecasting .................... 161
10.1 Dust storm modeling: Background and challenges ........... 161
     10.1.1 Background ........................................ 161
     10.1.2 Challenges ........................................ 162
10.2 Deployment and optimization .............................. 164
     10.2.1 General workflow .................................. 164
     10.2.2 Special considerations ............................ 167
     10.2.3 Summary of the differences from the general
            steps in Chapter 5 ................................ 169
10.3 Demonstration ............................................ 169
     10.3.1 Phoenix dust storm event .......................... 169
     10.3.2 Simulation result ................................. 170
     10.3.3 Performance ....................................... 170
     10.3.4 Cost-efficiency ................................... 173
10.4 Conclusion ............................................... 174
10.5 Summary .................................................. 175
10.6 Problems ................................................. 175
     References ............................................... 175

PART IV Cloud computing status and readiness .................. 177

11.1 Introduction to cloud services ........................... 179
     11.1.1 Geographic presence ............................... 179
     11.1.2 User interfaces and access to servers ............. 180
     11.1.3 Automatic scaling and load balancing .............. 180
     11.1.4 Service Level Agreement (SLA) ..................... 180
11.2 Amazon Web Services (AWS) ................................ 181
     11.2.1 Architecture ...................................... 181
     11.2.2 General characteristics of EC2 .................... 182
       11.2.2.1 Scalability ................................... 182
       11.2.2.2 Compatibility ................................. 183
       11.2.2.3 Deployment and interface ...................... 183
       11.2.2.4 Hypervisors ................................... 183
       11.2.2.5 Reliability ................................... 183
       11.2.2.6 OS supports ................................... 184
       11.2.2.7 Cost .......................................... 184
     11.2.3 Major users and general comments .................. 185
       11.2.3.1 List of major customers ....................... 185
       11.2.3.2 Maturation .................................... 186
       11.2.3.3 Feedback from the community ................... 186
     11.2.4 Usage complexity .................................. 187
11.3 Windows Azure ............................................ 188
     11.3.1 Architecture ...................................... 188
     11.3.2 General characteristics of Windows Azure .......... 189
       11.3.2.1 Scalability ................................... 189
       11.3.2.2 Compatibility ................................. 190
       11.3.2.3 Deployment and interface ...................... 191
       11.3.2.4 Hypervisors ................................... 191
       11.3.2.5 Reliability ................................... 191
       11.3.2.6 OS supports ................................... 191
       11.3.2.7 Cost .......................................... 191
     11.3.3 Major users and general comments .................. 192
       11.3.3.1 List of major customers ....................... 192
       11.3.3.2 Maturation .................................... 193
       11.3.3.3 Feedback from community ....................... 193
       11.3.3.4 Usage complexity .............................. 193
11.4 Nebula ................................................... 194
     11.4.1 Architecture ...................................... 194
     11.4.2 General characteristics of Nebula ................. 195
       11.4.2.1 Scalability ................................... 195
       11.4.2.2 Compatibility ................................. 195
       11.4.2.3 Deployment and interface ...................... 195
       11.4.2.4 Hypervisors ................................... 195
       11.4.2.5 Reliability ................................... 195
       11.4.2.6 OS supports ................................... 195
       11.4.2.7 Cost .......................................... 195
     11.4.3 Major users and general comments .................. 196
       11.4.3.1 List of major customers ....................... 196
       11.4.3.2 Maturation .................................... 196
       11.4.3.3 Feedback from community ....................... 196
       11.4.3.4 Usage complexity .............................. 196
     11.5 Conclusion .......................................... 196
     11.6 Summary ............................................. 197
     11.7 Problems ............................................ 198
     References ............................................... 198

12   How to test the readiness of cloud services .............. 201
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 201
12.2 Test environment ......................................... 201
     12.2.1 Network ........................................... 201
     12.2.2 Computing service configuration ................... 202
12.3 Concurrent intensity test using GEOSS Clearinghouse
     (CLH) .................................................... 202
     12.3.1 Clearinghouse requirements for computing
            services .......................................... 202
     12.3.2 Test design ....................................... 203
     12.3.3 Test workflow ..................................... 204
     12.3.4 Test result analyses .............................. 206
12.4 Data and computing intensities test using Climate@Home ... 207
     12.4.1 Climate@Home computing requirements ............... 207
     12.4.2 Test design ....................................... 208
     12.4.3 Test workflow ..................................... 208
     12.4.4 Test result analyses .............................. 211
12.5 Cloud test using dust storm forecasting .................. 211
     12.5.1 Dust storm forecasting computing requirements ..... 211
     12.5.2 Test design ....................................... 212
     12.5.3 Test workflow ..................................... 213
     12.5.4 Test result analyses .............................. 215
12.6 Summary .................................................. 216
12.7 Problems ................................................. 217
     Appendix 12.1: GetRecords example to search metadata ..... 218
     Appendix 12.2: Example of Jmeter test plan ............... 218
     References ............................................... 221

13   Open-source cloud computing solutions .................... 223
13.1 Introduction to open-source cloud computing solutions .... 223
     13.1.1 CloudStack ........................................ 224
     13.1.2 Eucalyptus ........................................ 224
     13.1.3 Nimbus ............................................ 225
     13.1.4 OpenNebula ........................................ 225
13.2 CloudStack ............................................... 225
     13.2.1 Architecture ...................................... 225
     13.2.2 General characteristics of CloudStack ............. 226
     13.2.3 Major users and general comments on the
            CloudStack solution ............................... 227
13.3 Eucalyptus ............................................... 228
     13.3.1 Architecture ...................................... 228
     13.3.2 General characteristics of Eucalyptus ............. 229
     13.3.3 Major users and general comments on Eucalyptus .... 230
13.4 OpenNebula ............................................... 231
     13.4.1 Architecture ...................................... 231
     13.4.2 General characteristics of OpenNebula ............. 231
     13.4.3 Major users and general comments on OpenNebula .... 233
13.5 Nimbus ................................................... 234
     13.5.1 Architecture ...................................... 234
     13.5.2 General characteristics of Nimbus ................. 235
     13.5.3 Major users and general comments on Nimbus ........ 235
13.6 Open-source benchmarking considerations .................. 236
13.7 Conclusion ............................................... 236
13.8 Summary .................................................. 236
13.9 Problems ................................................. 239
References .................................................... 239

14   How to test the readiness of open-source cloud computing
     solutions ................................................ 241
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 241
14.2 Test environment ......................................... 241
14.3 Tests of cloud operations ................................ 243
14.4 Tests of virtual computing resources ..................... 244
     14.4.1 Brief introduction ................................ 244
     14.4.2 Test design ....................................... 245
     14.4.3 Test workflow ..................................... 246
     14.4.4 Test result analyses .............................. 249
14.5 Tests of general applications ............................ 251
     14.5.1 Brief introduction of test aspects ................ 251
     14.5.2 Test design ....................................... 251
     14.5.3 Testing workflow .................................. 252
     14.5.4 Test result analyses .............................. 253
14.6 Cloud readiness test for GEOSS Clearinghouse ............. 254
     14.6.1 Clearinghouse computing requirements .............. 254
     14.6.2 Test design, workflow, and analysis ............... 254
14.7 Cloud readiness test for dust storm forecasting .......... 255
     14.7.1 Dust storm forecasting computing requirements ..... 255
     14.7.2 Test design ....................................... 255
     14.7.3 Test workflow ..................................... 256
     14.7.4 Test result analyses .............................. 256
14.8 Summary .................................................. 256
14.9 Problems ................................................. 257
     Appendix 14.1 Ubench Patch File (Ubench-Patch.Txt) ....... 257
References .................................................... 258

15   GeoCloud initiative ...................................... 261
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 261
15.2 GeoCloud architecture .................................... 262
15.3 GeoCloud activities ...................................... 264
     15.3.1 Creating prototype platforms ...................... 265
     15.3.2 Validate with agency applications ................. 267
     15.3.3 Document and promulgate ........................... 267
15.4 GeoCloud security ........................................ 268
     15.4.1 Amazon Web Services (AWS) Security ................ 268
     15.4.2 GeoCloud security operation ....................... 269
15.5 Operational cost in the cloud ............................ 269
15.6 Discussion ............................................... 270
15.7 Summary .................................................. 271
15.8 Problems ................................................. 271
     References ............................................... 271

PART V  Future directions ..................................... 273

16   Handling intensities of data, computation, concurrent
     access, and spatiotemporal patterns ...................... 275
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 275
16.2 Big data ................................................. 276
     16.2.1 Introduction ...................................... 276
     16.2.2 An example with Climate@Home....................... 277
     16.2.3 Solutions ......................................... 277
     16.2.4 Remaining problems and future research ............ 278
16.3 Computing intensity ...................................... 280
     16.3.1 Introduction ...................................... 280
     16.3.2 An example with digital evaluation model
            interpolation ..................................... 280
     16.3.3 Solutions ......................................... 281
       16.3.3.1 Cloud CPU computing ........................... 281
       16.3.3.2 Cloud GPU computing ........................... 282
     16.3.4 Remaining problems and future research ............ 283
16.4 Concurrent intensity ..................................... 284
     16.4.1 Introduction ...................................... 284
     16.4.2 An example with GEOSS Clearinghouse ............... 285
     16.4.3 Solution .......................................... 286
       16.4.3.1 Global content delivery ....................... 286
       16.4.3.2 Elasticity .................................... 287
       16.4.3.3 Spatiotemporal indexing ....................... 287
     16.4.4 Remaining problems and future research ............ 288
16.5 Spatiotemporal intensity ................................. 289
16.6 Summary .................................................. 290
16.7 Problems ................................................. 290
     References ............................................... 291

17   Cloud computing research for geosciences and
     applications ............................................. 295
17.1 Evolving 21st century vision for geoscience
     applications ............................................. 295
     17.1.1 Fundamental geospatial science inquiries .......... 295
     17.1.2 Integrating geoscience with other domains of
            science for new discoveries ....................... 296
     17.1.3 Application vision ................................ 296
17.2 Technological advancements ............................... 297
     17.2.1 Cloud evaluation and selection .................... 297
     17.2.2 Cloud service resource management ................. 298
     17.2.3 Data backup and synchronization ................... 299
     17.2.4 Interoperability .................................. 299
     17.2.5 New visualization and interactive systems ......... 301
     17.2.6 Reliability and availability ...................... 302
     17.2.7 Real-time simulation and access ................... 302
17.3 Synergistic advancement of social science and cloud
     computing ................................................ 303
     17.3.1 Cloud management .................................. 303
     17.3.2 Cloud outreach .................................... 303
     17.3.3 Security and regulations .......................... 304
     17.3.4 Global collaboration .............................. 305
17.4 Summary .................................................. 305
17.5 Problems ................................................. 306
     References ............................................... 306

17.4 Index .................................................... 311

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