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ОбложкаSolar cell nanotechnology / ed. by A.Tiwari, R.Boukherroub, M.Sharon. - Hoboken: Wiley/Salem: Scrivener, 2014. - xviii, 516 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.505-516. - ISBN 978-1-118-68625-6
Шифр: (И/З.2-S70) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface .......................................................... xvii

Part 1  Current Developments ........................................ 1

1    Design Considerations for Efficient and Stable Polymer
     Solar Cells .................................................... 3
     Prajwal Adhikary, Jing Li, and Qiquan Qiao
1.1  Introduction ................................................... 4
     1.1.1  Background .............................................. 4
     1.1.2  Theory .................................................. 6
       1.1.2.1  Photovoltaic Processes in Donor-Acceptor (D-A)
                System .............................................. 7
       1.1.2.2  Equivalent Circuit Diagram of a PV Cell under
                Illumination ........................................ 9
       1.1.2.3  Parameters Governing Performance of Solar Cells ..... 9
1.2  Role of Interfacial Layer for Efficient BHJ Solar Cells ....... 11
     1.2.1  Role of Interfacial Layer on Voc ....................... 12
     1.2.2  Influence on Active Layer Vertical Morphology
            Based on underneath Interfacial Layer .................. 14
     1.2.3  Light Trapping Strategies and Plasmonic Effects for
            Efficient Light Harvesting ............................. 16
     1.2.4  Morphology Control of Active Layer and ETL by
            Processing ............................................. 19
1.3  Selection of Interfacial Layer for Stable and Longer
     Lifetime ...................................................... 20
     1.3.1  Stability of Active Layer Materials .................... 21
     1.3.2  Stability of Metal Electrodes .......................... 23
     1.3.3  Stability of Transparent Electrode ..................... 23
     1.3.1  Stability by Electron Transport Layers (ETLs) .......... 24
     1.3.5  Stability by Hole Transport Layers (HTLs) .............. 25
1.4  Materials Used as Interfacial Layer ........................... 26
     1.4.1  Conventional Solar Cell Devices ........................ 26
       1.4.1.1  Cathode and Electron Transport Layers .............. 26
       1.4.1.2  Anode and Hole Transport Layers .................... 28
     1.4.2  Inverted Device Structure .............................. 31
       1.4.2.1  Cathode and Electron Transport Layers .............. 31
       1.4.2.2  Anode and Hole Transport Layers .................... 33
1.5  Conclusion and Outlook ........................................ 34
     Acknowledgement ............................................... 34
     References .................................................... 35

Carbazole-Based Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Role
of Carbazole as Donor, Auxiliary Donor and π-linker ................ 41
A. Venkateswararao and K.R. Justin Thomas
2.1  Introduction .................................................. 42
2.2  Carbazole as a Donor for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells ........... 44
     2.2.1  Carbazole as Donor via C3-Position ..................... 45
     2.2.2  Carbazole as Donor and Linked through N9-position ...... 60
2.3  Carbazole as a π-Linker ....................................... 64
     2.3.1  Carbazole as a Bridge via C2, C7 Positions ............. 65
     2.3.2  Carbazole as a Linker via C3, C6 Positions ............. 67
2.4  Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor for DSSC ......................... 75
     2.4.1  Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor via C2-position ........... 76
     2.4.2  Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor via C3-Position ........... 77
     2.4.3  Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor via N9-Position ........... 80
     2.4.4  Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor via C3, С6-positions ...... 87
2.5  Carbazole as Donor as Well as Linker for DSSC ................. 87
2.6  Conclusion and Outlook ........................................ 91
     Acknowledgements .............................................. 92
     References .................................................... 92

3    Colloidal Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals
     for Photovoltaic Applications ................................. 97
     Joanna Kolny-Olesiak
3.1  Introduction .................................................. 97
3.2  Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals .................. 99
     3.2.1  Ligand Shell and Colloidal Stability .................. 100
     3.2.2  Adjusting the Reactivity of the Precursors ............ 102
     3.2.3  Shape Control ......................................... 103
     3.2.4  Crystallographic Structure ............................ 106
     3.2.5  Composition ........................................... 107
3.3  Application of Colloidal CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanoparticles
     in Solar Energy Conversion ................................... 109
     3.3.1  All-Inorganic Solar Cells ............................. 109
     3.3.2  Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells .................. 110
     3.3.3  Nanocrystal Sensitized Solar Cells .................... 111
3.4  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 112
     References ................................................... 112

4    Two Dimensional Layered Semiconductors: Emerging Materials
     for Solar Photovoltaics ...................................... 117
     Mariyappan Shanmugam and Bin Yu
4.1  Introduction ................................................. 118
4.2  Material Synthesis ........................................... 119
     4.2.1  Chemical Exfoliation .................................. 119
     4.2.2  CVD Synthesis of 2D Layered Semiconductors
            MoS2 and WS2 .......................................... 120
     4.2.3  Material Characterization ............................. 122
4.3  Photovoltaic Device Fabrication .............................. 122
     4.3.1  Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells ....................... 122
     4.3.2  Schottky Barrier Solar Cells .......................... 122
     4.3.3  Device Characterization ............................... 123
4.4  Microstructural and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of
     MoS2 and WS2 ................................................. 124
4.5  Photovoltaic Performance Evaluation .......................... 126
     4.5.1  BHJ Solar Cells ....................................... 126
     4.5.2  Schottky Barrier Solar Cells .......................... 127
4.6  Electronic Transport and Interfacial Recombination ........... 129
     4.6.1  BHJ Solar Cells ....................................... 129
     4.6.2  Schottky Barrier Solar Cells .......................... 131
4.7  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 132
     References ................................................... 133

5    Control of ZnO Nanorods for Polymer Solar Cells .............. 135
     Hsin-Yi Chen, Ching-Fuh Lin
5.1  Introduction ................................................. 136
5.2  Preparation and Characterization of ZnO NRs .................. 137
     5.2.1  ZnO NRs Prepared by Hydrothermal Method ............... 137
       5.2.1.1  Control of HMT and Zn(NO3)2 ....................... 138
       5.2.1.2  Control of Seed Layer Synthesis and Heating
                Temperature ....................................... 140
     5.2.2  Morphology Control of ZnO NRs ......................... 144
     5.2.3  Summary of ZnO NR Growth .............................. 146
5.3  Application of ZnO NR in Polymer Solar Cells ................. 147
     5.3.1  ZnO-NR/Polymer Solar Cells Based on Vertically-
            Aligned Zno NRs ....................................... 148
     5.3.2  ZnO NR as a Cathode Buffer Layer in Polymer Solar
            Cells ................................................. 150
5.4  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 154
     References ................................................... 154

Part 2  Noble Approaches .......................................... 159

6    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells ................................... 161
     Lakshmi V. Munukutla, Aung Htun, Sailaja Radhakrishanan,
     Laura Main, and Arunachala M. Kannan
6.1  Introduction ................................................. 161
6.2  Background ................................................... 163
     6.2.1  DSCC Operation Principle .............................. 164
     6.2.2  DSSC Structure ........................................ 166
     6.2.3  DSSC Challenges ....................................... 168
     6.2.4  DSSC Components ....................................... 168
       6.2.4.1  Working Electrode ................................. 168
       6.2.4.2  Dye Sensitizer .................................... 169
       6.2.4.3  Electrolyte ....................................... 170
       6.2.4.4  Platinum-Coated Counter Electrode ................. 171
       6.2.4.5  Equivalent Circuit of DSSC ........................ 172
6.3  DSSC Key Performance Parameters .............................. 173
6.4  Device Improvements .......................................... 174
     6.4.1  Experimental .......................................... 175
       6.4.1.1  Working Electrode Preparation ..................... 175
       6.4.1.2  Cell Assembly ..................................... 175
       6.4.1.3  Electrolyte Injection ............................. 176
     6.4.2  DSSC Performance Results .............................. 176
       6.4.2.1  ТIO2 Film Thickness Optimization .................. 176
       6.4.2.2  Optimization of Nanoparticle Size in ТIO2 ......... 178
       6.4.2.3  Scaling Down the DSS Cell Size .................... 180
6.5  DSSC Performance with Different Electrolytes ................. 180
     6.5.1  Liquid Electrolyte .................................... 180
     6.5.2  Quasi-Solid Electrolyte ............................... 181
6.6  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 183
     References ................................................... 183

7    Nanoimprint Lithography for Photovoltaic Applications ........ 185
     Benjamin Schumm and Stefan Kaskel
7.1  Introduction ................................................. 186
7.2  Soft Lithography ............................................. 186
     7.2.1  Soft Lithography Methods .............................. 186
     7.2.2  Stamp Materials Used for Nanoimprint Lithography ...... 188
7.3  NIL-Based Techniques for PV .................................. 190
     7.3.1  Antireflection Layers Prepared with NIL Methods ....... 190
       7.3.1.1  Structured Substrates - Outside ................... 191
       7.3.1.2  Structured Wafers ................................. 191
       7.3.1.3  Structured Substrates - Inside .................... 192
     7.3.2  NIL-Patterned Films as Etching Masks .................. 193
     7.3.3  NIL for Organic Solar Cell Processing ................. 194
     7.3.4  Plasmonic Films Prepared with NIL Methods ............. 196
     7.3.5  Up-Scaling Potential of NIL Processes ................. 197
7.4  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 198
     References ................................................... 199

8    Indoor Photovoltaics: Efficiencies, Measurements and Design .. 203
     Monika Freunek (Müller)
8.1  Introduction ................................................. 203
8.2  Indoor Radiation ............................................. 205
     8.2.1  Spectra and Intensities ............................... 205
8.3  Maximum Efficiencies ......................................... 208
     8.3.1  Maximum Indoor Efficiencies and Ideal Materials ....... 208
     8.3.2  Monochromatic Radiation ............................... 209
     8.3.3  Intensity Effects ..................................... 211
8.4  Optimization Strategies ...................................... 213
8.5  Characterization and Measured Efficiencies ................... 216
8.6  Irradiance Measurements ...................................... 217
8.7  Characterization ............................................. 217
8.8  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 219
     References ................................................... 221

9    Photon Management in Rare Earth Doped Nanomaterials for
     Solar Cells .................................................. 223
     Jiajia Zhou, Jianrong Qiu
9.1  Introduction ................................................. 223
9.2  Basic Aspects of Solar Cell .................................. 224
     9.2.1  Mechanism of Efficiency Limitation .................... 224
     9.2.2  EQEs of Solar Cells ................................... 225
     9.2.3  Photon Management Approaches to Enhance the
            Efficiency of Solar Cell .............................. 227
9.3  Up-Con version Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Application ...... 228
     9.3.1  Principles of Photon Up-Conversion .................... 228
     9.3.2  Spectroscopy Analysis and Application Demonstration ... 229
9.4  Down-Conversion Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Application ..... 232
     9.4.1  Principles of Photon Down-Conversion .................. 232
     9.4.2  Experimental and Spectroscopy Analysis ................ 233
     9.4.3  Evaluation ............................................ 235
9.5  Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 236
     9.5.1  Solution-Processable Nano-Coating for Broadband
            Up-Converter or Down-Converter ........................ 237
     9.5.2  Efficient Photon Management Using Nanoplasmonic
            Effect ................................................ 238
     References ................................................... 238

Part 3  Developments in Prospective ............................... 241

10   Advances in Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar
     Photovoltaic Devices ......................................... 243
     /. Gwamuri, D. Ö. Güney, and J. M. Pearce
10.1 Introduction ................................................. 244
     10.1.1 Plasmonics Basics ..................................... 245
     10.1.2 Metamaterials ......................................... 246
10.2 Theoretical Approaches to Plasmonic Light Trapping
     Mechanisms in Thin-film PV ................................... 247
     10.2.1 Optimal Cell Geometry Modeling ........................ 248
     10.2.2 Optical Properties Simulations ........................ 250
     10.2.3 Electrical Properties Simulations ..................... 255
10.3 Plasmonics for Improved Photovoltaic Cells Optical
     Properties ................................................... 256
     10.3.1 Light Trapping in Bulk Si Solar Cells ................. 256
     10.3.2 Plasmonic Light-Trapping Mechanisms for Thin-Film PV
            Devices ............................................... 257
     10.3.3 Experimental Results .................................. 260
10.4 Fabrication Techniques and Economics ......................... 260
     10.4.1 Lithography Nanofabrication Techniques ................ 260
     10.4.2 Physical/Chemical Processing Techniques ............... 263
10.5 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 263
     Acknowledgements ............................................. 266
     References ................................................... 266

11   Recent Research and Development of Luminescent Solar
     Concentrators ................................................ 271
     Yun Seng Lint, Shin Yiing Kee, and Chin Kim Lo
11.1 Introduction ................................................. 272
11.2 Mechanisms of Power Losses in Luminescent Solar
     Concentrator ................................................. 274
11.3 Modeling ..................................................... 276
     11.3.1 Thermodynamic Modeling ................................ 276
     11.3.2 Ray Tracing Modeling .................................. 277
     11.3.3 Hybrid of Thermodynamic and Ray-Tracing Method ........ 278
     11.3.4 Monte Carlo Simulations ............................... 279
11.4 Polymer Materials ............................................ 279
11.5 Luminescent Materials for Luminescent Solar Concentrator ..... 280
     11.5.1 Organic Dyes in LSC ................................... 280
     11.5.2 Quantum Dots .......................................... 283
     11.5.3 Rare Earth ............................................ 285
     11.5.4 Semiconducting Polymer ................................ 286
11.6 New Designs of Luminescent Solar Concentrator ................ 286
11.7 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 287
     References ................................................... 289

12   Luminescent Solar Concentrators - State of the Art
     and Future Perspectives ...................................... 293
     M. Tonezzer, D. Gutierrez, and D. Vincenzi
12.1 Introduction to the Third Generation of Photovoltaic
     Systems ...................................................... 294
12.2 Luminescence Solar Concentrators (LSCs) ...................... 294
     12.2.1 Description of LSC Devices ............................ 294
     12.2.2 The Efficiency and Losses Mechanism in LSC Devices .... 295
12.3 Components of LSC Devices .................................... 299
     12.3.1 Waveguide Slab ........................................ 300
     12.3.2 Fluorophore ........................................... 301
       12.3.2.1 Organic Fluorescent Dyes .......................... 301
       12.3.2.2 Quantum Dots ...................................... 303
       12.3.2.3 Rare-Earth Materials .............................. 305
     12.3.3 Solar Cells ........................................... 306
     12.3.4 Experimental Results .................................. 307
12.4 Pathways for Improving LSC Efficiency ........................ 308
     12.4.1 Escape-Cone losses (PTIR) ............................. 308
     12.4.2 Absorption Losses ..................................... 309
     12.4.3 Self Absorption Losses ................................ 310
12.5 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 311
     Acknowledgments .............................................. 312
     References ................................................... 312

13   Organic Fluorophores for Luminescent Solar Concentrators ..... 317
     Luca Beverina and Alessandro Sanguineti
13.1 Introduction ................................................. 318
13.2 LSCs: Device Operation and Main Features ..................... 321
13.3 Luminophores in LSCs ......................................... 324
     13.3.1 Colloidal Quantum Dots (QDs) .......................... 325
     13.3.2 Luminescent Lanthanides Chelates ...................... 327
     13.3.3 Organic Dyes .......................................... 333
13.4 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 349
     References ................................................... 351

14   PAn-Graphene-Nanoribbon Composite Materials for Organic
     Photovoltaics: A DFT Study of Their Electronic and Charge
     Transport Properties ......................................... 357
     Javed Mazher, Asefa A. Desta, and Shabina Khan
14.1 Introduction ................................................. 358
     14.1.1 Organic Photovoltaic Technology ....................... 359
     14.1.2 Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells ....................... 362
     14.1.3 Conjugated Polymers: Polyaniline (PAn) ................ 365
     14.1.4 Carbon Nanostructure: Graphene ........................ 367
     14.1.5 Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs) ........................... 372
       14.1.5.1 Types of Graphene Nanoribbons ..................... 372
     14.1.6 Nanocomposites and Their Percolation: GNR-
            Polyaniline Composites ................................ 374
     14.1.7 Origin of an Equilibrium Conductance in
            Nanodevices ........................................... 376
     14.1.8 Singularities Due to the Quantum Confinement of
            Nanostructures ........................................ 378
14.2 Review of Computational Background ........................... 379
     14.2.1 Modern Theoretical Methods: Ab-initio Nanocomposite
            Theory ................................................ 379
     14.2.2 Density Functional Theory (DFT) ....................... 380
     14.2.3 Nonequilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) ................ 384
14.3 Atomistic Computational Simulations: Modeling and
     Methodology .................................................. 385
     14.3.1 Atomistix Toolkit (ATK): Ab-initio DFT Software
            Package for Nanosystems ............................... 385
     14.3.2 Nanodevice Characteristics Simulation: PAn and
            GNR-PAn Composites .................................... 386
14.4 Results and Discussions ...................................... 389
     14.4.1 Device Characteristics of Chlorinated PAn ............. 390
     14.4.2 Device Characteristics of ZZGNR-PAn Nanocomposite ..... 393
     14.4.3 Device Characteristics of ACGNR-PAn Nanocomposite ..... 395
     14.4.4 Device Characteristics HGNR-PAn Nanocomposite ......... 397
14.5 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 398
     References ................................................... 400

15   Analytical Modeling of Thin-Film Solar Cells -
     Fundamentals and Applications ................................ 409
     Kurt Taretto
15.1 Introduction ................................................. 409
15.2 Basics ....................................................... 410
     15.2.1 Equivalent Solar Cell Circuit and Current-Voltage
            Equation .............................................. 414
15.3 Fundamental Semiconductor Equations .......................... 417
     15.3.1 Electric Field and Free Carrier Currents .............. 417
     15.3.2 Steady-State Continuity Equations ..................... 419
     15.3.3 Considerations for Excitonic Solar Cells .............. 422
     15.3.4 Characteristic Lengths ................................ 422
     15.3.5 Tunneling Recombination Occurring at the Nanometer
            Scale ................................................. 423
15.4 Analytical Models for Selected Solar Cells ................... 425
     15.4.1 Horizontal PN Junction ................................ 425
       15.4.1.1 PN Junction under Moderately Absorbed Light ....... 430
       15.4.1.2 Open-Circuit Voltage Limitations .................. 431
     15.4.2 PN Heterojunction ..................................... 433
     15.4.3 Vertical PN Multijunction ............................. 434
     15.4.4 Considerations for Nanorod Solar Cells ................ 438
     15.4.5 PIN Junction .......................................... 439
       15.4.5.1 Enhanced Uniform Field Approximation .............. 439
       15.4.5.2 Drift-Diffusion Model ............................. 440
15.5 The Importance of the Temperature Dependence of VOC .......... 442
15.6 Conclusions and Outlook ...................................... 444
     Acknowledgements ............................................. 444
     References ................................................... 444

16   Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells: Current Global
     Scenario ..................................................... 447
     Sandeep Rai and Atul Tiwari
16.1 Introduction ................................................. 448
16.2 Current Developments in OPVs ................................. 455
     16.2.1 Development of Low Optical Gap Materials .............. 461
     16.2.2 Designing of Higher IP Polymers and Lower EA
            Acceptors ............................................. 461
     16.2.3 Control of Blend Microstructure ....................... 463
16.3 Economics of Solar Energy .................................... 464
     16.3.1 Scenario in US ........................................ 466
     16.3.2 Solar Potential in India .............................. 467
     16.3.3 Global Solar Cell Demand .............................. 467
16.4 Conclusions and Future Trends in Photovoltaic ................ 468
     References ................................................... 471

17    Real and Reactive Power Control of Voltage Source
     Converter-Based Photovoltaic Generating Systems .............. 475
     S. Mishra and P. C. Sekhar
17.1 Introduction ................................................. 476
17.2 State of Art ................................................. 478
17.3 Proposed Solution ............................................ 479
17.4 Modeling of the PV Generator ................................. 480
17.5 Control of the PV Generator .................................. 483
     17.5.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking and the Perturb and
            Observe Algorithm ..................................... 483
     17.5.2 Control of Reactive Power Output from the PV
            System ................................................ 484
     17.5.3 DC Link Voltage Control for Maximum Power
            Extraction ............................................ 487
     17.5.4 Reference Current Generation for Voltage Source
            Converter ............................................. 488
     17.5.5 Decoupled Control of VSC-based PV Generating
            System ................................................ 489
17.6 Validation of the Proposed Control Architecture .............. 491
     17.6.1 Control of Real Power Feeding of PV Generator and
            PCC Voltage under Reverse Power Flow in a
            Distribution System ................................... 491
     17.6.2 Control of Real and Reactive Power Feedings of PV
            Generator ............................................. 497
17.7 Conclusion and Outlook ....................................... 501
     References ................................................... 502

Index ............................................................. 505

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