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ОбложкаNiedermayer M. Cost-driven design of smart Microsystems. – Boston; London: Artech House, 2012. - xii, 229 p.: ill. – Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. – Ind.: p.225-229. – ISBN 978-1-60807-084-8
Шифр: (И/З.84-N60) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xi

1    Introduction ............................................... 1
     References ................................................. 9

2    Design Methodologies ...................................... 11
2.1  Design Strategies ......................................... 11
2.2  Design of Embedded Systems ................................ 12
     2.2.1  Design Strategies for Digital Circuits ............. 12
     2.2.2  Design Strategies for Analog Circuits .............. 14
2.3  Design of Electronic Components and Microsystems .......... 16
2.4  Design of Modules with Heterogeneous Components ........... 19
2.5  Design of Communication Protocols ......................... 21
2.6  Design Models for Smart Microsystems ...................... 23
     References ................................................ 25

3    Fabrication Processes ..................................... 27
3.1  Semiconductor Technologies ................................ 27
     3.1.1  Wafer Fabrication .................................. 28
     3.1.2  Wafer Test ......................................... 31
     3.1.3  Chip Packaging and Class Test ...................... 34
3.2  Module Integration Technologies ........................... 35
     3.2.1  Fabrication of Module Substrates ................... 36
     3.2.2  Assembly and Interconnection ....................... 41
     3.2.3  Passivation and Encapsulation Technologies ......... 54
3.3  Process Modeling .......................................... 58
References ..................................................... 62

4    Physical Design Decisions ................................. 67
4.1  Basic Elements of Module Integration ...................... 67
     4.1.1  Wiring Capacity of Substrates ...................... 67
     4.1.2  Module Systems ..................................... 70
4.2  Placement and Routing ..................................... 75
     4.2.1  Component Arrangement .............................. 75
     4.2.2  Component Wiring ................................... 77
     4.2.3  Ensuring the Signal Integrity ...................... 79
4.3  Determination of the Miniaturization Potential ............ 83
     4.3.1  Volume Aggregation Lists ........................... 84
     4.3.2  Simplified Geometry Models ......................... 85
     4.3.3  Adapted Geometry Models ............................ 85
References ..................................................... 87

5    Structural Design Trade-Offs .............................. 89
5.1  Data Processing ........................................... 89
     5.1.1  Computing Architectures ............................ 89
     5.1.2  Implementation of System Functions ................. 94
5.2  Ambient Interface ......................................... 95
     5.2.1  Sensor and Actuators ............................... 95
     5.2.2  Processing of Sensor Data .......................... 97
5.3  Power Supply ............................................. 100
     5.3.1  Power Consumption of the Functional Components .... 100
     5.3.2  Energy Storage and Power Conversion ............... 101
5.4  Communication Interface .................................. 104
     5.4.1  Radio Architectures ............................... 104
     5.4.2  Layout of Transmitter and Receiver Circuitry ...... 108
5.5  Modeling and Simulation of System Architectures .......... 109
     5.5.1  Optimization of Analog Architectural Elements ..... 109
     5.5.2  Optimization of Digital Architectural Elements .... 111
     References ............................................... 114

6    Leverage Effects of the Functional Design ................ 119
6.1  Properties of the Surrounding Medium ..................... 119
     6.1.1  Concentrated and Distributed Phenomena ............ 120
     6.1.2  Signal Propagation ................................ 120
     6.1.3  Interferences ..................................... 122
     6.1.4  Modeling of Environmental Influences .............. 123
6.2  Radio Communications ..................................... 125
     6.2.1  Modulation Schemes ................................ 126
     6.2.2  Media Access Schemes .............................. 126
     6.2.3  Logical Link Control .............................. 128
     6.2.4  Network Control ................................... 130
6.3  Distributed Data Acquisition ............................. 132
     6.3.1  Localization ...................................... 134
     6.3.2  Synchronization and Calibration ................... 136
6.4  Determination of Functional Optimization Potential ....... 137
     6.4.1  Aggregation Lists of System Parameters ............ 138
     6.4.2  Simplified System Models .......................... 141
     6.4.3  Adapted System Models ............................. 141
     References ............................................... 143

7    Cost Fundamentals ........................................ 147
7.1  Basic Cost Categories .................................... 147
7.2  Approaches of Cost Estimation ............................ 149
     7.2.1  Cost Determination of fabrication Processes ....... 151
     7.2.2  Cost Determination of System Components ........... 153
7.3  Direct Component Costs ................................... 156
     7.3.1  Determination of Cost-Driving Function
            Components ........................................ 157
     7.3.2  Determination of Costs for Module Integration ..... 158
7.4  Indirect Costs of Product Development .................... 162
     7.4.1  Development Effort of Hardware .................... 162
     7.4.2  Development Effort of Software .................... 163
     7.4.3  Generalized Cost Modeling of Development
            Activities ........................................ 165
     7.4.4  Influence of Expectations ......................... 168
References .................................................... 170

8    Cost Reduction Strategies ................................ 173
8.1  Model-Based Cost Optimization ............................ 173
     8.1.1  Determination of Potential Cost Reduction ......... 174
     8.1.2  Design Flow ....................................... 178
8.2  Smart Microsystems with Tailored Architectures ........... 181
8.3  Smart Microsystems with Universal Architectures .......... 188
8.4  Smart Microsystems with Modular Architectures ............ 192
References .................................................... 195

9    Application Examples ..................................... 197
9.1  Smart Microsystems for Tracking Transport Goods .......... 197
     9.1.1  Functional Design Decisions ....................... 198
     9.1.2  Physical Design Decisions ......................... 201
9.2  Smart Microsystems for Condition Monitoring .............. 209
     9.2.1  Functional Design Decisions ....................... 210
     9.2.2  Physical Design Decisions ......................... 213

Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................... 219
About the Author .............................................. 223
Index ......................................................... 225

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