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ОбложкаJeffrey T. Phased-array radar design: application of radar fundamentals. - Edison: SciTech Publishing, 2009. - xxii, 319 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.317-318. - ISBN 978-1-891121-69-2
Шифр: (И/З.95-J37) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xv
Abbreviations ................................................. xxi

Chapter 1  Radar Fundamentals ................................... 1
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.2  Search and Track Functions ................................. 1
1.3  Target Detection, Resolution, and Clutter Concepts ......... 2
     1.3.1  Target Detection .................................... 2
     1.3.2  Radar Resolution .................................... 4
     1.3.3  Clutter Backscatter ................................. 5
1.4  Surveillance Radars ........................................ 6
     1.4.1  Volume Search ....................................... 7
1.5  Radar Block Diagram ........................................ 7
1.6  Radar Range Equation ....................................... 9
     1.6.1  Jamming Effects on Signal-to-Noise Ratio ........... 11
     1.6.2  Other Forms of the Radar Range Equation ............ 13
       1.6.2.1  Radar Range Equation for Volume Search ......... 13
       1.6.2.2  Radar Range Equation for Horizon Fence Search .. 15
       1.6.2.3  Radar Range Equation for Tracking .............. 16
       1.6.2.4  Radar Range Equation Summary ................... 17
1.7  Detection in Noise ........................................ 17
     1.7.1  Target Models ...................................... 19
     1.7.2  Detection and False Alarm Probabilities ............ 20
     1.7.3  Detection in Thermal Noise ......................... 21
     1.7.4  Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processors ........ 22
     1.7.5  Detection in Clutter ............................... 23
1.8  Resolution and Measurement Accuracy ....................... 25
1.9  Tracking Radars and the Monopulse Technique ............... 28
1.10 Track-While-Scan Radars ................................... 28
1.11 References ................................................ 29
1.12 Problems .................................................. 30

Chapter 2  Target Detection .................................... 33
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 33
2.2  Target Radio Frequency (RF) Scattering Models ............. 34
2.3  Target Detection in Noise ................................. 36
2.4  Target Detection in Clutter ............................... 40
2.5  Multiple-Pulse Detection .................................. 47
     2.5.1  Binary Integration ................................. 48
     2.5.2  Non-Coherent Integration ........................... 48
     2.5.3  Coherent Integration ............................... 49

Chapter 3  Waveforms, Matched Filtering, and Radar Signal
Processing ..................................................... 55
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 55
3.2  Complex-Waveform Representations .......................... 56
3.3  Fourier Transforms ........................................ 57
3.4  Matching Filtering ........................................ 58
3.5  Waveform Ambiguity Diagram ................................ 63
3.6  The Fast Fourier Transform ................................ 63
3.7  Digital Implementation of Matched Filters ................. 65
3.8  Phase-Coded Waveforms ..................................... 68
3.9  Waveform Scheduling ....................................... 69
3.10 Waveforms and Radar Functions ............................. 70
3.11 Other Radar Signal Processing Functions ................... 71
     3.11.1 Constant False Alarm Rate Processing ............... 71
     3.11.2 Monopulse Processing ............................... 78
3.12 References ................................................ 80
3.13 Problems .................................................. 81

Chapter 4  Search and Acquisition Functions .................... 85
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 85
4.2  Types of Searches ......................................... 86
     4.2.1  Volume Search ...................................... 86
     4.2.2  Horizon Search Fence ............................... 89
     4.2.3  Cued Search ........................................ 91
     4.2.4  Multiple-Beam Search ............................... 93
4.3  Acquisition Waveforms and Processing ...................... 94
4.4  References ................................................ 95
4.5  Problems .................................................. 95

Chapter 5  Estimation, Tracking, and Data Association .......... 97
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 97
5.2  Parameter Estimation for Radar ............................ 98
5.3  The Radar Tracking Function ............................... 99
     5.3.1  Coordinate Systems ................................ 101
5.4  Types of Tracking Filters ................................ 101
     5.4.1  Fixed-Gain Filters ................................ 101
     5.4.2  Computed-Gain Filters ............................. 102
       5.4.2.1  Kaiman Filters ................................ 102
       5.4.2.2  Interacting Multiple-Model Filters ............ 110
5.5  Data Association Algorithms .............................. 113
     5.5.1  Nearest Neighbor .................................. 113
     5.5.2  Probabilistic Data Association .................... 114
     5.5.3  Joint Probabilistic Data Association .............. 115
     5.5.4  Nearest-Neighbor Joint Probabilistic Data
            Association ....................................... 115
     5.5.5  Multiple-Hypothesis Track ......................... 116
     5.5.6  Other Assignment Algorithms ....................... 116
5.6  Tracking Air Targets ..................................... 118
5.7  Tracking Ballistic Missile Targets ....................... 119
5.8  Tracking Surface Targets ................................. 124
5.9  References ............................................... 124

Chapter 6  Target Classification, Discrimination, and
Identification ................................................ 125
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 125
6.2  The Target Classification Problem ........................ 127
6.3  Radar-Measured Target Features ........................... 127
6.4  Waveforms and Signal Processing .......................... 128
     6.4.1  Classification, Discrimination, and
            Identification Waveforms .......................... 128
     6.4.2  Signal Processing ................................. 128
6.5  Feature Extraction ....................................... 129
6.6  Classifiers .............................................. 130
     6.6.1  Bayes Classifier .................................. 130
     6.6.2  Dempster-Shafer Classifier ........................ 132
     6.6.3  Decision Tree Classifiers ......................... 133
     6.6.4  Rule-Based Classifiers ............................ 133
     6.6.5  Compound Classifiers .............................. 135
6.7  Classification of Air Targets ............................ 135
6.8  Classification of Ballistic Missile Targets .............. 136
6.9  Hit or Kill Assessment ................................... 137
6.10 Performance Prediction ................................... 137
6.11 References ............................................... 138

Chapter 7  Data Processing Algorithms for Phased-Array
Radars ........................................................ 139
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 139
7.2  Data and Signal Processing Algorithms .................... 140
     7.2.1  Resource Planning and Radar Scheduling
            Algorithms ........................................ 141
       7.2.1.1  Resource Management ........................... 141
       7.2.1.2  Radar Scheduler ............................... 142
     7.2.2  Search and Track Algorithms ....................... 145
       7.2.2.1  Search and Acquisition Functions .............. 145
       7.2.2.2  Target Data Association ....................... 151
       7.2.2.3  Statistical Tracking Filters .................. 154
     7.2.3  Classification, Discrimination, and
            Identification (CDI) .............................. 157
       7.2.3.1  Target Feature Extraction ..................... 157
       7.2.3.2  Target Classifiers ............................ 159
     7.2.4  Radar Hardware Control ............................ 163
       7.2.4.1  Waveform Control .............................. 163
       7.2.4.2  Antenna Steering Control ...................... 163
       7.2.4.3  Receive Control ............................... 164
     7.2.5  Radar Measurement Processing ...................... 164
       7.2.5.1  Amplitude and Phase Calibration ............... 164
       7.2.5.2  Range Calibration ............................. 165
       7.2.5.3  Monopulse Calibration ......................... 165
       7.2.5.4  Channel-to-Channel Alignment .................. 165
       7.2.5.5  Radar Cross Section Calibration ............... 165
     7.2.6  Signal Processing ................................. 165
       7.2.6.1  Matched Filtering ............................. 166
       7.2.6.2  Detection Processing .......................... 167
       7.2.6.3  Monopulse Processing .......................... 170
       7.2.6.4  Coherent and Non-Coherent Integration ......... 171
     7.2.7  Calibration and Alignment ......................... 171
       7.2.7.1  Built-in Calibration and Alignment ............ 171
       7.2.7.2  Tracked Object-Based Calibration and
                Alignment ..................................... 172
     7.2.8  Adaptive Processing ............................... 172
       7.2.8.1  Sidelobe Cancellers ........................... 173
       7.2.8.2  Adaptive Arrays ............................... 174
       7.2.8.3  Space-Time Adaptive Processing ................ 176
       7.2.8.4  Digital Beam Forming .......................... 177
     7.2.9  Statistical Detection and Estimation .............. 178
       7.2.9.1  Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test ............. 179
       7.2.9.2  Statistical Estimation ........................ 182
7.3  References ............................................... 184

Chapter 8  Interference Suppression Techniques ................ 185
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 185
8.2  Electronic Interference Sources .......................... 186
     8.2.1  Unintentional Interference ........................ 186
     8.2.2  Intentional Interference Sources .................. 186
       8.2.2.1  Sidelobe Noise Jammers ........................ 186
       8.2.2.2  Mainlobe and Repeater Jammers ................. 187
8.3  Electronic Protection or Counter-Counter Measures ........ 187
     8.3.1  Sidelobe Blanker .................................. 187
     8.3.2  Sidelobe Canceller ................................ 188
     8.3.3  Multiple Sidelobe Canceller ....................... 190
     8.3.4  Adaptive Processing ............................... 192
     8.3.5  Digital Beam Forming .............................. 192
     8.3.6  Frequency Agility and Hopping ..................... 194
     8.3.7  Sector Blanking ................................... 197
8.4  Problems ................................................. 197
     8.4.1  Problem Statement ................................. 197
     8.4.2  Task Description .................................. 198
     8.4.3  Additional Information ............................ 199
8.5  References ............................................... 200

Chapter 9  Phased-Array Radar Architectures ................... 201
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 201
9.2  Antenna-Based Architectures .............................. 201
     9.2.1  Full Field-of-View Radars ......................... 202
     9.2.2  Limited Field-of-View Radars ...................... 203
     9.2.3  Digital Beam Former Radars ........................ 205
     9.2.4  Mechanically-Steered Phased-Array Radars .......... 207
9.3  Bandwidth-Based Architectures ............................ 207
     9.3.1  Narrowband Radars ................................. 207
     9.3.2  Wideband Radars ................................... 210
9.4  Function-Based Radars .................................... 212
     9.4.1  Search Radars ..................................... 212
     9.4.2  Track Radars ...................................... 213
     9.4.3  Classification, Kscrimination, and
            Identification Radars ............................. 214
     9.4.4  Missile Illumination Radars ....................... 215
     9.4.5  Multifunction Radars .............................. 216
9.5  Scalable Radar Architectures ............................. 216
     9.5.1  Scalable Architecture Objectives .................. 216
     9.5.2  Scalable Architecture Components .................. 217
     9.5.3  Candidate Building Blocks for Scalable Radar
            Architectures ..................................... 223
       9.5.3.1  Building Blocks ............................... 224
     9.5.4  Examples of Radars Synthesized from Architecture
            Building Blocks ................................... 230
       9.5.4.1  Wideband Full Field-of-View Radar ............. 230
       9.5.4.2  Mechanically-Scanned Limited Field-of-View
                Radar ......................................... 230

Chapter 10 Fundamental Radar Design Trade-Offs ................ 233
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 233
10.2 Operating Frequency Selection ............................ 235
     10.2.1 Volume Search ..................................... 235
     10.2.2 Horizon Fence Search .............................. 237
     10.2.3 Tracking .......................................... 238
     10.2.4 Target Classification and Discrimination .......... 238
     10.2.5 Operating Environments ............................ 239
       10.2.5.1 Clutter ....................................... 239
       10.2.5.2 Chaff ......................................... 240
       10.2.5.3 Electronic Counter Measures ................... 241
     10.2.6 Radar Applications ................................ 242
       10.2.6.1 Air Defense ................................... 242
       10.2.6.2 Missile Defense ............................... 242
       10.2.6.3 Early Warning ................................. 242
       10.2.6.4 Surface Target Search and Track ............... 242
10.3 Waveform Selection ....................................... 242
     10.3.1 Clear Environments ................................ 242
       10.3.1.1 Search ........................................ 242
       10.3.1.2 Track ......................................... 243
       10.3.1.3 Target Classification and Discrimination ...... 243
     10.3.2 Clutter Environments .............................. 244
       10.3.2.1 Search ........................................ 244
       10.3.2.2 Track ......................................... 245
       10.3.2.3 Target Classification and Discrimination ...... 245
10.4 Radar Coverage ........................................... 245
     10.4.1 Range ............................................. 245
     10.4.2 Angle ............................................. 246
     10.4.3 Doppler ........................................... 246
10.5 Receiver Operating Characteristic Design ................. 246
     10.5.1 Target Fluctuation Types .......................... 247
     10.5.2 Probabilities of False Alarm and Detection ........ 247
     10.5.3 Coherent and Non-Coherent Integration ............. 248
10.6 Search Design ............................................ 249
     10.6.1 Target Types, Fluctuation Models, and Dynamics .... 249
       10.6.1.1 Air Targets ................................... 249
       10.6.1.2 Surface Targets ............................... 250
     10.6.2 Search Fence versus Volumetric Search ............. 250
     10.6.3 Coherent and Non-Coherent Integration ............. 251
     10.6.4 Cumulative Probability Approach ................... 251
       10.6.4.1 Single-Pulse Detection ........................ 252
       10.6.4.2 Binary Integration ............................ 252
       10.6.4.3 Non-Coherent Integration ...................... 252
       10.6.4.4 Coherent Integration .......................... 252
10.7 Tracking Architecture and Parameter Selection ............ 253
     10.7.1 Data Association Algorithm ........................ 253
     10.7.2 Tracking Filter and Target Model .................. 253
       10.7.2.1 Air Targets ................................... 254
       10.7.2.2 Ballistic Missьe Targets ...................... 254
10.8 Target Classification .................................... 255
10.9 References ............................................... 256

Chapter 11 Performance-Driven Radar Requirements .............. 257
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 257
11.2 Radar Hardware Requirements .............................. 257
     11.2.1 Radar Range Equation-Driven Requirements .......... 257
       11.2.1.1 Transmitter Peak Power ........................ 257
       11.2.1.2 Transmit and Receive Antenna Gains ............ 259
       11.2.1.3 Noise Figure .................................. 259
     11.2.2 Environment-Driven Requirements ................... 259
     11.2.3 Waveform-Driven Requirements ...................... 261
       11.2.3.1 Analog-to-Digital Converter Sampling Rate ..... 261
     11.2.4 Clutter Cancellation-Driven Requirements .......... 262
       11.2.4.1 Phase Noise ................................... 262
     11.2.5 Interference Cancellation-Driven Requirements ..... 263
       11.2.5.1 Amplitude and Phase Errors .................... 263
       11.2.5.2 Channel-to-Channel Alignment .................. 264
     11.2.6 Processing Throughput ............................. 265
11.3 Radar Processing Software Requirements ................... 266
     11.3.1 Overview .......................................... 266
       11.3.1.1 Mission Software .............................. 266
       11.3.1.2 Signal Processing Software .................... 266
       11.3.1.3 Diagnostics and Test Software ................. 266
       11.3.1.4 Simulation Software ........................... 267
     11.3.2 Track-Driven Requirements ......................... 267
       11.3.2.1 Track File Capacity ........................... 267
       11.3.2.2 Track Update Rate ............................. 268
       11.3.2.3 Data Association Capability ................... 268
     11.3.3 Target Classification-Driven Requirements ......... 269
       11.3.3.1 Target Classification Capability .............. 269
       11.3.3.2 Target Feature Extraction Capability .......... 270
     11.3.4 Signal Processing-Driven Requirements ............. 270
       11.3.4.1 Signal Processing Throughput .................. 270
       11.3.4.2 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Sizes ............ 270
       11.3.4.3 Constant False Alarm Rate Types ............... 271
       11.3.4.4 Post-Detection Processing Capability .......... 275
     11.4 References 276

Chapter 12 Missile Defense Radar Design Considerations ........ 277
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 277
12.2 Missile Defense Mission Parameters and Requirements ...... 279
12.3 Interceptor Capabilities and Support Requirements ........ 280
12.4 Defended Area ............................................ 281
12.5 Ballistic Missile Defense Radar Requirements ............. 281
12.6 Performance Evaluation and Design Validation ............. 283
12.7 References ............................................... 284

Chapter 13 Early Warning Radar Design Considerations .......... 285
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 285
13.2 Early Warning Mission Parameters and Requirements ........ 287
13.3 Threat Warning and Attack Assessment ..................... 288
13.4 EWR Requirements ......................................... 288
13.5 Performance Evaluation and Design Validation ............. 289
13.6 References ............................................... 291

Chapter 14 Air Defense Radar Design Considerations ............ 293
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 293
14.2 Air Defense Mission Parameters and Requirements .......... 295
14.3 Interceptor Capabilities and Support Requirements ........ 296
14.4 Defended Area ............................................ 297
14.5 Air Defense Radar Requirements ........................... 297
14.6 Performance Evaluation and Design Validation ............. 298
14.7 References ............................................... 299

Chapter 15 Predicted Performance of Phased-Array Radars ....... 301
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 301
15.2 Functional Performance ................................... 302
     15.2.1 Target Detection .................................. 302
     15.2.2 Tracking .......................................... 304
     15.2.3 Interference Suppression .......................... 305
     15.2.4 Clutter Cancellation .............................. 308
     15.2.5 Hardware Subsystems ............................... 310
       15.2.5.1 Range (Time) Sidelobes ........................ 310
       15.2.5.2 Channel-to-Channel Alignment .................. 311
       15.2.5.3 Amplitude and Phase Errors .................... 312
       15.2.5.4 Phase Noise ................................... 312
       15.2.5.5 Wideband Operation versus Subarray Size ....... 313
15.3 References ............................................... 315

Index ......................................................... 317
About the Author .............................................. 319

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