Pistocchi A. GIS based chemical fate modeling: principles and applications (Hoboken, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаPistocchi A. GIS based chemical fate modeling: principles and applications. - Hoboken: Wiley, 2014. - xvii, 486 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.481-486. - ISBN 978-1-118-05997-5
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii
Contributors ................................................. xvii

Chapter 1. Chemicals, Models, and GIS: Introduction ............. 1
1-1  Chemistry, Modeling, and Geography ......................... 1
1-2  Mr. Palomar and Models ..................................... 2
1-3  What Makes a Model Different? .............................. 4
1-4  Simple, Complex, or Tiered? ................................ 7
     Compatibility of Emissions and Concentrations .............. 9
     Spatiotemporal Variability ................................ 10
     Spatial Patterns .......................................... 12
     More Complex Models and the Tale of Horatii and Curiatii .. 15
1-5  For Whom is this Book Written? ............................ 17
     References ................................................ 19

Chapter 2. Basics of Chemical Compartment Models and Their
Implementation with GIS Functions .............................. 23
2-1  Introduction .............................................. 23
2-2  Phase Partitioning ........................................ 24
     Air Compartment ........................................... 24
     Surface Water Compartment ................................. 25
     Soil Compartment .......................................... 25
2-3  Diffusion, Dispersion, and Advection ...................... 26
2-4  Fluxes at the Interfaces .................................. 28
     Air-Ground Surface Interface .............................. 28
     Water-Air and Water-Bottom Sediment Interface ............. 28
     Soil-Air and Soil-Water Interface ......................... 29
     Parameterization of Advection Velocities and Diffusion/
     Dispersion Rates .......................................... 29
2-5  Reactions ................................................. 32
2-6  Transport Within an Environmental Medium: The Advection-
     Diffusion Equation (ADE) .................................. 33
     Soils ..................................................... 37
     Surface Water 38 Atmosphere ............................... 39
2-7  Analytical Solutions ...................................... 40
     Example: The Domenico Model ........................ 40
     Example: Implementation of a River Plug Flow 
     Model in a Spreadsheet .................................... 45
2-8  Box Models, Multimedia and Multispecies Fate and
     Transport ................................................. 47
     Example: Implementing a Box Model of Soil Contamination
     and Water Pollution Loading in a Spreadsheet .............. 51
2-9  Spatial Models: Implicit, Explicit, Detailed Explicit,
     and GIS-Based Schemes ..................................... 57
     References ................................................ 65

Chapter 3. Basics of GIS Operations ............................ 71
3-1  What is GIS? .............................................. 71
3-2  GIS Data .................................................. 72
     Coordinate Systems ........................................ 72
     Example: Coordinate Transformation ........................ 75
     Example: Georeference a Map from a Paper Using ArcGIS ..... 77
     GIS Formats ............................................... 81
3-3  GIS Software .............................................. 92
3-4  GIS Standards ............................................. 93
     Exercise: Browse and Export Geographic Objects in KML
     and Combine Them with Layers from a WMS ................... 94
3-5  A Classification of GIS Operations for Chemical Fate
     Modeling .................................................. 99
3-6  Spatial Thinking ......................................... 100
3-7  Beyond GIS ............................................... 103
3-8  Further Progress on GIS .................................. 104
     References ............................................... 104

Chapter 4. Map Algebra ........................................ 107
4-1  Map Algebra Operators and Syntaxes ....................... 109
4-2  Using Map Algebra to Compute a Gaussian Plume ............ 112
     Example: Using Map Algebra to Compute Volatilization
     Rates from Water Bodies .................................. 119
4-3  Using Map Algebra to Implement Isolated Box Models ....... 121
     References ............................................... 124

Chapter 5. Distance Calculations .............................. 127
5-1  Concepts of Distance Calculations ........................ 127
     Example: Feature Buffering ............................... 127
     Example: Join Based on Distance .......................... 129
5-2  Distance Along a Surface and Vertical Distance ........... 134
5-3  Applications of Euclidean Distance in Pollution
     Problems ................................................. 135
5-4  Cost Distance ............................................ 139
     Exercise: Euclidean and Cost distance Calculations ....... 140
     References ............................................... 148

Chapter 6. Spatial Statistics and Neighborhood Modeling in
GIS ........................................................... 149
6-1  Variograms: Analyzing Spatial Patterns ................... 149
     Exercise: Computing Variograms of Observed Atmospheric
     Contaminants ............................................. 154
6-2  Interpolation ............................................ 160
6-3  Zonal Statistics ......................................... 163
6-4  Neighborhood Statistics and Filters ...................... 164
     Exercise: Creating a Population Map from Point and
     Polygon Data ............................................. 169
     References ............................................... 170

Chapter 7. I Digital Elevation Models, Topographic Controls,
and Hydrologic Modeling in GIS ................................ 171
7-1  Basic Surface Analysis ................................... 171
7-2  Drainage ................................................. 178
     Example: Pit Filling, Flow Direction, Flow Accumulation,
     and Flow Length in ArcGIS ................................ 178
     Example: Catchment Population in India ................... 183
     Example: Travel Time ..................................... 185
7-3  Using GIS Hydrological Functions in Chemical Fate
     and Transport Modeling ................................... 187
7-4  Non-D8 Methods and the TauDEM Algorithms ................. 190
7-5  ESRI's "Darcy Flow" and "Porous Puff" Functions .......... 191
     References ............................................... 193

Chapter 8. Elements of Dynamic Modeling in GIS ................ 195
8-1  Dynamic G/S Models ....................................... 195
8-2  Studying Time-Dependent Effects With Simple Map Algebra .. 200
     Intermittent Emissions ................................... 200
     Lagged Release from Historical Stockpiles ................ 201
     Stepwise Constant Emission and Removal Processes ......... 202
8-3  Decoupling Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Models:
     The Mappe Global Approach ................................ 203
     References ............................................... 206

Chapter 9. Metamodeling and Source-Receptor Relationship
Modeling in GIS ............................................... 209
9-1  Introduction ............................................. 209
9-2  Metamodeling ............................................. 210
9-3  Source-Receptor Relationships ............................ 213
     References ............................................... 215

Chapter 10. Spatial Data Management in GIS and the Coupling
of GIS and Environmental Models
10-1 Introduction ............................................. 217
10-2 Historical Perspective of Emergence of Spatial
     Databases in Environmental Domain ........................ 218
10-3 Spatial Data Management in GIS: Theory and History ....... 221
     Spatial Database Definition .............................. 221
     Relational Data Model Foundations ........................ 221
     Object Relational Concepts: A Foundation Model for
     Spatial Databases—Theoretical Background ................. 224
     Postgre SQL/Post GIS Object Relational Support ........... 225
     Oracle Object Relational Support ......................... 225
10-4 Spatial Database Solutions ............................... 226
     ESRI Geodatabase ......................................... 226
     PostgreSQL and PostGIS ................................... 229
     Oracle Locator and Spatial ............................... 230
10-5 Simple Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton
     and GIS: Hands-On Examples ........................ 230
     Simple PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Environmental Spatiotemporal
     Database Skeleton and QuantumGIS ......................... 231
     Simple Oracle XE Environmental Spatiotemporal Database
     Skeleton ................................................. 237
10-6 Generalized Environmental Spatiotemporal Database
     Skeleton and Geographic Mashups .......................... 244
     Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton ......................... 244
     Geographic Mashup ........................................ 246
     References ............................................... 249

Chapter 11. Soft Computing Methods for the Overlaying of
Chemical Data with Other Spatially Varying Parameters ......... 253
11-1 Introduction ............................................. 253
11-2 Fuzzy Logic and Expert Judgment .......................... 258
11-3 Spatial Multicriteria Analysis ........................... 262
11-4 An Example of Vulnerability Mapping of Water Resources
     to Pollution ............................................. 266
     References ............................................... 276

Chapter 12. Types of Data Required for Chemical Fate
Modeling ...................................................... 279
12-1 Climate and Atmospheric Data ............................. 280
12-2 Soil Data ................................................ 286
12-3 Impervious Surface Area .................................. 289
12-4 Vegetation ............................................... 289
12-5 Hydrological Data ........................................ 291
12-6 Elevation Data ........................................... 293
12-7 Hydrography .............................................. 296
12-8 Lakes .................................................... 298
12-9 Stream Network Hydraulic Data ............................ 298
12-10 Ocean Parameters ........................................ 299
12-11 Human Activity .......................................... 301
     Land Use/Land Cover ...................................... 303
     Population ............................................... 305
     Stable Lights at Night ................................... 306
12-12 Using Satellite Images for the Extraction
     of Environmental Parameters .............................. 306
12-13 Compilations of Data for Chemical Fate and Transport
     Modeling ................................................. 307
     References ............................................... 307

Chapter 13. Retrieval and Analysis of Emission Data ........... 311
13-1 Characterization of Emissions ............................ 311
13-2 Emissions based on Production Volumes .................... 312
13-3 Estimation from Usage or Release Inventories ............. 313
13-4 Emission Factors ......................................... 313
13-5 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Emissions ........... 314
     Diffuse Emissions at Local to Regional Scale ............. 317
     Example: Estimating Urban Runoff Contaminants from Land
     Use and Population Data in the Province of Naples,
     Italy .................................................... 318
     Exercise: Apportionment of Emissions Using a Geographic
     Pattern .................................................. 318
13-6 Modeling Traffic Flows ................................... 322
     References ............................................... 326

Chapter 14. Characterization of Environmental Properties and
Processes ..................................................... 329
14-1 Physicochemical Properties and Partition Coefficients .... 329
14-2 Aerosol and Suspended Sediments .......................... 330
     Exercise: Computing SPM in Rivers Using the Formula of
     Hakanson and Co-workers .................................. 332
14-3 Diffusive Processes ...................................... 335
14-4 Dispersion ............................................... 335
14-5 Advective Processes ...................................... 336
     Atmospheric Deposition ................................... 336
     Soil Water Budget Calculations ........................... 338
     Soil Erosion ............................................. 344
14-6 River and Lal e Hydraulic Geometry ....................... 344
     References ............................................... 350

Chapter 15. Complex Models, GIS, and Data Assimilation ........ 353
15-1 Atmospheric Transport Models ............................. 353
     Example: Dispersion Modeling of an Atmospheric Emission
     in Australia ............................................. 354
15-2 Transport in Groundwater and the Analytic Element
     Method ................................................... 361
15-3 GIS Functions of Modeling Systems and Data Assimilation .. 361
     References ............................................... 363

Chapter 16. The Issue of Monitoring Data and the Evaluation
of Spatial Models of Chemical Fate ............................ 365
16-1 Existing Monitoring Programs ............................. 366
16-2 Distributed Sampling ..................................... 366
16-3 Methods for the Comparison of Measured and Modeled
     Concentrations ........................................... 367
     Exercise: Comparison of Two PCB Soil Concentration
     Models ................................................... 368
     References ............................................... 375

Chapter 17. From Fate to Exposure and Risk Modeling with GIS .. 377
17-1 Exposure and Risk for Human Health ....................... 377
17-2 Models for the Quantification of Chemical Intake by
     Humans ................................................... 382
     Exercise: Human Exposure, Intake, and Cancer Risk
     Related to Ingestion of   Aboveground Produce
     Contaminated by Gas and Dust Deposition of 2,3,7,8-TCDD
     Emitted from an Industrial Emission Source ............... 386
17-3 Ecological and Environmental Risk Assessment ............. 393
     Exercise: Mapping Patch Area and Ecotones in South
     America .................................................. 398
17-4 Data for GIS Based Risk Assessment ....................... 400
     References ............................................... 401

Chapter 18. GIS Based Models in Practice: The Multimedia
Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment (MAPPE)
Model ......................................................... 405
18-1 Introduction ............................................. 405
18-2 Environmental Compartments Considered in the Model ....... 407
     Atmosphere Compartment ................................... 409
     Soil Compartment ......................................... 412
     Inland Water Compartment ................................. 413
     Seawater ................................................. 415
18-3 Implementation in GIS: Example with Lindane .............. 416
     Scalar Input Quantities .................................. 416
     Maps Describing Landscape and Climate Parameters ......... 418
     Air Compartment Calculations ............................. 419
     Soil Compartment Calculations ............................ 422
     Inland Water Compartment Calculations .................... 427
     Seawater Compartment Calculations ........................ 434
18-4 Using the Model For Scenario Assessment .................. 436
     References ............................................... 441

Chapter 19. Inverse Modeling and Its Application to Water
Contaminants .................................................. 443
19-1 Introduction ............................................. 443
     Exercise: Inverse Modeling of Caffeine in Europe ......... 447
     References ............................................... 451

Chapter 20. Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators and the
Modeling of Contamination Patterns ............................ 453
20-1 The Relative Risk Model .................................. 453
     Example: Relative Risk Assessment for Coastal
     Ecosystems Due to Wastewater Emission in South Africa .... 456
20-2 Use of Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators in the
     Context of Relative Risk Assessment: An Example with
     Contaminants Applied to Soil Example: Generic Modeling
     of Sewage Sludge Soil Application in Mexico .............. 464
     References ............................................... 472

Chapter 21. Perspectives: The Challenge of Cumulative Impacts
and Planetary Boundaries ...................................... 475
References .................................................... 478

Index ......................................................... 481


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