McKeen L.W. The effect of UV light and weather on plastics and elastomers (Waktham; Oxford, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

Навигация

Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
ОбложкаMcKeen L.W. The effect of UV light and weather on plastics and elastomers. - 3rd ed. - Waktham; Oxford: Elsevier/William Andrew, 2013. - xi, 388 p.: ill. - (PDL handbook series). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.383-388. - ISBN 978-1-4557-2851-0
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... i

1    Introduction to Plastics and Polymers Compositions ......... 1
1.1  Introduction to Plastics and Polymers ...................... 1
     1.1.1  Polymerization ...................................... 1
       1.1.1.1 Addition Polymerization .......................... 1
     1.1.2  Condensation Polymerization ......................... 2
1.2  Copolymers ................................................. 2
1.3  Linear, Branched and Cross-Linked Polymers ................. 3
1.4  Polarity ................................................... 3
1.5  Unsaturation ............................................... 4
1.6  Steric Hindrance ........................................... 5
1.7  Isomers .................................................... 5
     1.7.1  Structural Isomers .................................. 5
     1.7.2  Geometric Isomers ................................... 6
     1.7.3  Stereoisomers: Syndiotactic, Isotactic, Atactic ..... 6
1.8  Inter- and Intramolecular Attractions in Polymers .......... 7
     1.8.1  Hydrogen Bonding .................................... 7
     1.8.2  Van der Waals Forces ................................ 8
     1.8.3  Chain Entanglement .................................. 8
1.9  General Classifications .................................... 8
     1.9.1  Molecular Weight .................................... 8
     1.9.2  Thermosets vs Thermoplastics ........................ 9
     1.9.3  Crystalline vs Amorphous ........................... 10
1.10 Plastic Compositions ...................................... 10
     1.10.1 Fillers, Reinforcement, and Composites ............. 11
     1.10.2 Combustion Modifiers, Fire, Flame Retardants and
            Smoke Suppressants ................................. 12
     1.10.3 Release Agents ..................................... 13
     1.10.4 Slip Additives/Internal Lubricants ................. 13
     1.10.5 Antiblock Additives ................................ 14
     1.10.6 Catalysts .......................................... 14
     1.10.7 Impact Modifiers and Tougheners .................... 14
     1.10.8 UV/Radiation Stabilizers ........................... 14
     1.10.9 Optical Brighteners ................................ 15
     1.10.10 Plasticizers ...................................... 15
     1.10.11 Pigments, Extenders, Dyes, and Mica ............... 15
       1.10.11.1 Titanium Dioxide .............................. 15
       1.10.11.2 Carbon Black .................................. 15
     1.10.12 Coupling Agents ................................... 15
     1.10.13 Thermal Stabilizers ............................... 15
     1.10.14 Antistats ......................................... 16
     1.11 Summary .............................................. 16
     References ................................................ 16

2    Introduction to the Weathering of Plastics ................ 17
2.1  Physical Processes of Weathering on Plastic Materials ..... 17
2.2  Chemical Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Plastic
     Materials ................................................. 18
     2.2.1  Ozone .............................................. 18
     2.2.2  Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) ............................... 18
     2.2.3  Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) ............................. 19
     2.2.4  Photodegradation and Photo Oxidation—UV
            Degradation Processes .............................. 19
2.3  Mechanisms of UV Stabilization ............................ 19
     2.3.1 Absorption, Reflection and Refraction ............... 20
2.4  UV Stabilizers ............................................ 21
     2.4.1  UV Absorbers ....................................... 22
     2.4.2  Hindered Amine Stabilizers ......................... 22
     2.4.3  Phenolic Antioxidants .............................. 23
     2.4.4  Phosphites and Phosphonites ........................ 24
     2.4.5  Inorganic Screeners ................................ 24
     2.4.6  Thiosynergists ..................................... 26
     2.4.7  Optical Brighteners ................................ 26
     2.4.8  Acid Scavenger ..................................... 26
     2.4.9  Quencher ........................................... 28
     2.4.10 Synergistic Mixtures of Stabilizers ................ 28
2.5  Testing ................................................... 28
     2.5.1  Indoor and Interior Exposures ...................... 28
     2.5.2  Outdoor Testing .................................... 29
     2.5.3  Conventional Aging ................................. 29
     2.5.4  Conventional Aging with Spray ...................... 31
     2.5.5  Accelerated Outdoor Tests .......................... 31
       2.5.5.1  Equatorial Mount with Mirrors for
                Acceleration (EMMA®) ........................... 31
       2.5.5.2  Equatorial Mount with Mirrors for
                Acceleration Plus Water (EMMAqua®) ............. 32
       2.5.5.3  Ultra-accelerated Exposure Testing ............. 32
     2.5.6  Artificial Accelerated Tests ....................... 32
       2.5.6.1  Xenon Arc ...................................... 33
       2.5.6.2  Fluorescent or QUV® ............................ 33
       2.5.6.3  Carbon Arc Fade-Ometer® ........................ 39
       2.5.6.4  SEPAP .......................................... 39
     2.5.7  Ozone Testing ...................................... 40
     References ................................................ 40

3    Introduction to Plastic Properties ........................ 43
3.1  Introduction to the Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal
     Properties of Plastics and Elastomers ..................... 43
3.2  Appearance Properties ..................................... 43
     3.2.1  Color .............................................. 43
     3.2.2  Gloss Measurement .................................. 45
     3.2.3  Haze Measurement ................................... 45
     3.2.4  Yellowness Index ................................... 46
3.3  Mechanical Testing of Plastics ............................ 47
     3.3.1  Tensile Properties ................................. 47
     3.3.2  Rigidity of Plastics Materials ..................... 48
     3.3.3  Shear Properties ................................... 49
     3.3.4  Flexural Properties ................................ 54
     3.3.5  Puncture and Impact Properties ..................... 54
       3.3.5.1  High-Speed Puncture Test ....................... 54
       3.3.5.2  Drop Dart Impact Test for Plastics Film ........ 57
     3.3.6  Izod Impact Strength and Charpy Impact Strength .... 58
     3.3.7  Gardner and Falling Dart Impact Strength ........... 60
     3.3.8  Tear Properties .................................... 60
       3.3.8.1  Elmendorf Tear Strength ........................ 61
       3.3.8.2  Trouser Tear Resistance ........................ 61
       3.3.8.3  Toughness ...................................... 62
3.4  Thermal Property Testing of Plastics ...................... 62
     3.4.1  Melt Flow Index .................................... 63
     3.4.2  Heat Deflection Temperature ........................ 63
     3.4.3  Vicat Softening Temperature ........................ 63
     3.4.4  Melting Point (Tm) ................................. 65
     3.4.5  Glass Transition Temperature, Tg ................... 65
       3.4.5.1  Mechanical Methods of Estimating Tg ............ 66
       3.4.5.2  Thermal Mechanical Analysis .................... 67
       3.4.5.3  Thermal Methods of Estimating Tg ............... 67
     References ................................................ 69

4    Styrenic Plastics ......................................... 71
4.1  Styrenic Plastics ......................................... 71
4.2  ABS Copolymer ............................................. 71
4.3  Polystyrene ............................................... 72
     4.3.1  General Purpose Polystyrene ........................ 93
     4.3.2  High-Impact Polystyrene ............................ 93
     4.3.3  Syndiotactic Polystyrene ........................... 95
4.4  SAN Copolymer ............................................ 103
4.5  Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate ........................... 105
     References ............................................... 105

5    Polyesters ............................................... 107
5.1  Polyesters ............................................... 107
5.2  Liquid Crystalline Polymers .............................. 107
5.3  Polybutylene Terephthalate ............................... 108
5.4  Polycarbonate ............................................ 112
     5.4.1 Polycarbonate Blends ............................... 131
5.5  Polyethylene Terephthalate ............................... 134
5.6  Polyethylene Naphthalate ................................. 142
     References ............................................... 142

6    Polyimides ............................................... 145
6.1  Polyamide-Imide .......................................... 145
6.2  Polyetherimide ........................................... 146
6.3  Polyimide ................................................ 155
     Reference ................................................ 161

7    Polyamides Nylons ........................................ 163
7.1  Polyamides (Nylons) ...................................... 163
7.2  Amorphous Polyamide (Polyamide Copolymers) ............... 165
7.3  Polyamide 6 (Nylon 6) .................................... 169
7.4  Polyamide 11 (Nylon 11) .................................. 170
7.5  Polyamide 12 (Nylon 12) .................................. 176
7.6  Polyamide 66 (Nylon 66) .................................. 177
7.7  Polyarylamide ............................................ 178
7.8  Polyphthalamide/High-Performance Polyamide ............... 190
     References ............................................... 190

8    Polyolefins .............................................. 193
8.1  Polyolefins .............................................. 193
8.2  Polyethylene ............................................. 193
     8.2.1  Linear Low-Density Polyethylene ................... 195
     8.2.2  Low-Density Polyethylene .......................... 195
     8.2.3  High-Density Polyethylene ......................... 195
     8.2.4  Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene ........... 195
8.3  Polypropylene ............................................ 207
8.4  Poly-4-Methyl-1 -Pentene ................................. 208
     References ............................................... 214

9    Polyvinyls and Acrylics .................................. 217
9.1  Polyvinyls and Acrylics .................................. 217
9.2  Ethylene - Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer ....................... 217
9.3  Polyvinyl Chloride ....................................... 218
9.4  Poly acrylics ............................................ 220
9.5  Ionomers ................................................. 233
     References ............................................... 242

10   Fluoropolymers ........................................... 243
10.1 Fluoropolymers ........................................... 243
10.2 Polytetrafiuoroethylene .................................. 243
10.3 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene ........................... 246
10.4 Perfluoro Alkoxy (PFA) ................................... 247
10.5 Polyvinyl Fluoride ....................................... 250
10.6 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene .............................. 252
10.7 Polyvinylidene Fluoride .................................. 256
10.8 Ethylene—Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer ................... 258
10.9 Ethylene—Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer ............... 262
References .................................................... 269

11   High-Temperature/High-Performance Polymers ............... 271
11.1 Polyary lEtherKetone ..................................... 271
11.2 Polyphenylene Sulfide .................................... 272
11.3 Polysulfone .............................................. 274
11.4 Polyphenylsulfone ........................................ 275
11.5 Polyethersulfone ......................................... 276
11.6 Parylene (Poly(P-Xylylene)) .............................. 279
11.7 Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal Homopolymer)/
     Polyoxymethylene Copolymer (POM-Coor Acetal Copolymer) ... 283
     11.7.1 Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal Homopolymer) ...... 283
     11.7.2 Polyoxymethylene Copolymer (POM-Co or Acetal
            Copolymer) ........................................ 284
11.8 Polyphenylene Oxide ...................................... 295
References .................................................... 296

12   Elastomers and Rubbers ................................... 299
12.1 Elastomers and Rubbers ................................... 299
12.2 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers .................... 299
     12.2.1 UV Radiation Resistance ........................... 301
12.3 Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers ........................ 301
12.4 Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomers ..................... 313
12.5 Butyl Rubber ............................................. 314
12.6 Chlorobutyl Rubber (Polychloroprene) ..................... 320
12.7 Ethylene-Propylene Rubbers (EPM, EPDM) ................... 324
12.8 Epichlorohydrin Rubber ................................... 325
12.9 Fluoroelastomers ......................................... 337
12.10 Natural Rubber .......................................... 346
12.11 Acrylonitrile - Butadiene Copolymer ..................... 346
12.12 Styrene - Butadiene Rubber .............................. 352
12.13 Ethylene - Vinyl Acetate Copolymer ...................... 357
12.14 Polysulfide Rubber ...................................... 361
12.15 Polysiloxane/Silicone Rubber ............................ 364
References .................................................... 369

13   Sustainable Polymers ..................................... 371
13.1 Sustainable Polymers ..................................... 371
13.2 Cellulose-Based Materials ................................ 372
     13.2.1 CellophaneTM ...................................... 372
     13.2.2 Nitrocellulose .................................... 375
     13.2.3 Cellulose Acetate ................................. 376
     13.2.4 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate ........................ 377
     13.2.5 Ethyl Cellulose ................................... 378
13.3 Polycaprolactone ......................................... 378
13.4 Poly(Lactic Acid) ........................................ 380
References .................................................... 382

Index ......................................................... 383


Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
 


[О библиотеке | Академгородок | Новости | Выставки | Ресурсы | Библиография | Партнеры | ИнфоЛоция | Поиск | English]
  Пожелания и письма: www@prometeus.nsc.ru
© 1997-2019 Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН (Новосибирск)
Статистика доступов: архив | текущая статистика
 

Документ изменен: Wed Feb 27 14:28:12 2019. Размер: 19,106 bytes.
Посещение N 666 c 22.12.2015