Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks (Hoboken, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаEvolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks / B.Dorronsoro et al. - Hoboken: Wiley/IEEE computer society, 2014. - xiv, 222 p.: ill., tab. - (Nature-inspired computing series). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.221-222. - ISBN 978-1-118-34113-1
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii

PART I  BASIC CONCEPTS AND LITERATURE REVIEW .................... 1

1    INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS ..................... 3
1.1  Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ..................................... 6
1.2  Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks .................................. 9
     1.2.1  Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) .... 11
     1.2.2  Communication Access for Land Mobiles (CALM) ....... 12
     1.2.3  C2C Network ........................................ 13
1.3  Sensor Networks ........................................... 14
     1.3.1  IEEE 1451 .......................................... 17
     1.3.2  IEEE 802.15.4 ...................................... 17
     1.3.3  ZigBee ............................................. 18
     1.3.4  6LoWPAN ............................................ 19
     1.3.5  Bluetooth .......................................... 19
     1.3.6  Wireless Industrial Automation System .............. 20
1.4  Conclusion ................................................ 20
     References ................................................ 21

2    INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS ................... 27
2.1  Optimization Basics ....................................... 28
2.2  Evolutionary Algorithms ................................... 29
2.3  Basic Components of Evolutionary Algorithms ............... 32
     2.3.1  Representation ..................................... 32
     2.3.2  Fitness Function ................................... 32
     2.3.3  Selection .......................................... 32
     2.3.4  Crossover .......................................... 33
     2.3.5  Mutation ........................................... 34
     2.3.6  Replacement ........................................ 35
     2.3.7  Elitism ............................................ 35
     2.3.8  Stopping Criteria .................................. 35
2.4  Panmictic Evolutionary Algorithms ......................... 36
     2.4.1  Generational EA .................................... 36
     2.4.2  Steady-State EA .................................... 36
2.5  Evolutionary Algorithms with Structured Populations ....... 36
     2.5.1  Cellular EAs ....................................... 37
     2.5.2  Cooperative Coevolutionary EAs ..................... 38
2.6  Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms ................... 39
     2.6.1  Basic Concepts in Multi-Objective Optimization ..... 40
     2.6.2  Hierarchical Multi-Objective Problem Optimization .. 42
     2.6.3  Simultaneous Multi-Objective Problem Optimization .. 43
2.7  Conclusion ................................................ 44
     References ................................................ 45

SURVEY ON OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS ..... 49
3.1  Taxonomy of the Optimization Process ...................... 51
     3.1.1  Online and Offline Techniques ...................... 51
     3.1.2  Using Global or Local Knowledge .................... 52
     3.1.3  Centralized and Decentralized Systems .............. 52
3.2  State of the Art .......................................... 53
     3.2.1  Topology Management ................................ 53
     3.2.2  Broadcasting Algorithms ............................ 58
     3.2.3  Routing Protocols .................................. 59
     3.2.4  Clustering Approaches .............................. 63
     3.2.5  Protocol Optimization .............................. 64
     3.2.6  Modeling the Mobility of Nodes ..................... 65
     3.2.7  Selfish Behaviors .................................. 66
     3.2.8  Security Issues .................................... 67
     3.2.9  Other Applications ................................. 67
3.3  Conclusion ................................................ 68
     References ................................................ 69

4    MOBILE NETWORKS SIMULATION ................................ 79
4.1  Signal Propagation Modeling ............................... 80
     4.1.1  Physical Phenomena ................................. 81
     4.1.2  Signal Propagation Models .......................... 85
4.2  State of the Art of Network Simulators .................... 89
     4.2.1  Simulators ......................................... 89
     4.2.2  Analysis ........................................... 92
4.3  Mobility Simulation ....................................... 93
     4.3.1  Mobility Models .................................... 93
     4.3.2  State of the Art of Mobility Simulators ............ 96
4.4  Conclusion ................................................ 98
     References ................................................ 98

PART II  PROBLEMS OPTIMIZATION ................................ 105

5    PROPOSED OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK .......................... 107
5.1  Architecture ............................................. 108
5.2  Optimization Algorithms .................................. 110
     5.2.1  Single-Objective Algorithms ....................... 110
     5.2.2  Multi-Objective Algorithms ........................ 115
5.3  Simulators ............................................... 121
     5.3.1  Network Simulator: ns-3 ........................... 121
     5.3.2  Mobility Simulator: SUMO .......................... 123
     5.3.3  Graph-Based Simulations ........................... 126
5.4  Experimental Setup ....................................... 127
5.5  Conclusion ............................................... 131
     References ............................................... 131

6    BROADCASTING PROTOCOL .................................... 135
6.1  The Problem .............................................. 136
     6.1.1  DFCN Protocol ..................................... 136
     6.1.2  Optimization Problem Definition ................... 138
6.2  Experiments .............................................. 140
     6.2.1  Algorithm Configurations .......................... 140
     6.2.2  Comparison of the Performance of the Algorithms ... 141
6.3  Analysis of Results ...................................... 142
     6.3.1  Building a Representative Subset of Best
            Solutions ......................................... 143
     6.3.2  Interpretation of the Results ..................... 145
     6.3.3  Selected Improved DFCN Configurations ............. 148
6.4  Conclusion ............................................... 150
     References ............................................... 151

7    ENERGY MANAGEMENT ........................................ 153
7.1  The Problem .............................................. 154
     7.1.1  AEDB Protocol ..................................... 154
     7.1.2  Optimization Problem Definition ................... 156
7.2  Experiments .............................................. 159
     7.2.1  Algorithm Configurations .......................... 159
     7.2.2  Comparison of the Performance of the Algorithms ... 160
7.3  Analysis of Results ...................................... 161
7.4  Selecting Solutions from the Pareto Front ................ 164
     7.4.1  Performance of the Selected Solutions ............. 167
7.5  Conclusion ............................................... 170
     References ............................................... 171

8    NETWORK TOPOLOGY ......................................... 173
8.1  The Problem .............................................. 175
     8.1.1  Injection Networks ................................ 175
     8.1.2  Optimization Problem Definition ................... 176
8.2  Heuristics ............................................... 178
     8.2.1  Centralized ....................................... 178
     8.2.2  Distributed ....................................... 179
8.3  Experiments .............................................. 180
     8.3.1  Algorithm Configurations .......................... 180
     8.3.2  Comparison of the Performance of the Algorithms ... 180
8.4  Analysis of Results ...................................... 183
     8.4.1  Analysis of the Objective Values .................. 183
     8.4.2  Comparison with Heuristics ........................ 185
8.5  Conclusion ............................................... 187
     References ............................................... 188

9    REALISTIC VEHICULAR MOBILITY ............................. 191
9.1  The Problem .............................................. 192
     9.1.1  Vehicular Mobihty Model ........................... 192
     9.1.2  Optimization Problem Definition ................... 196
9.2  Experiments .............................................. 199
     9.2.1  Algorithms Configuration .......................... 199
     9.2.2  Comparison of the Performance of the Algorithms ... 200
9.3  Analysis of Results ...................................... 202
     9.3.1  Analysis of the Decision Variables ................ 202
     9.3.2  Analysis of the Objective Values .................. 204
9.4  Conclusion ............................................... 206
     References ............................................... 206

10   SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ................................... 209
10.1 A New Methodology for Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc
     Networks ................................................. 211
10.2 Performance of the Three Algorithmic Proposals ........... 213
     10.2.1 Broadcasting Protocol ............................. 213
     10.2.2 Energy-Efficient Communications ................... 214
     10.2.3 Network Connectivity .............................. 214
     10.2.4 Vehicular Mobility ................................ 215
10.3 Global Discussion on the Performance of the Algorithms ... 215
     10.3.1 Single-Objective Case ............................. 216
     10.3.2 Multi-Objective Case .............................. 217
10.4 Conclusion ............................................... 218
     References ............................................... 218

INDEX ......................................................... 221


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