Bland-Hawthorn J. The origin of the galaxy and local group (Berlin; Heidelberg, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаBland-Hawthorn J. The origin of the galaxy and local group / J.Bland-Hawthorn, K.Freeman, F.Matteucci. - Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 2014. - ix, 231 p.: ill. - (Saas-Fee advanced course; 37). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.229-231. - ISBN 978-3-642-41719-1; ISSN 1861-7980
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
1    Near Field Cosmology: The Origin of the Galaxy
     and the Local Group ........................................ 1
     Joss Bland-Hawthorn and Kenneth Freeman
1.1  Prologue ................................................... 1
1.2  Far Field Cosmology ........................................ 2
     1.2.1  The Cosmic Microwave Background ..................... 4
     1.2.2  The First Stars ..................................... 7
     1.2.3  The First Black Holes .............................. 10
     1.2.4  The First Dark Haloes .............................. 12
     1.2.5  Reionization and the First Galaxies ................ 15
1.3  Lessons from Galaxy Redshift Surveys ...................... 16
     1.3.1  Evolution and Environment .......................... 19
     1.3.2  Accretion and Feedback ............................. 20
     1.3.3  Baryon Inventory and Metal Enrichment .............. 22
     1.3.4  Chemical Evolution in Galaxies ..................... 25
     1.3.5  Milky Way and Local Group Analogues in the Real
            Universe ........................................... 25
     1.3.6  Milky Way and Local Group Analogues in Simulated
            Universes .......................................... 26
1.4  Gas Accretion onto Galaxies ............................... 27
     1.4.1  Introduction ....................................... 27
     1.4.2  Earliest Epoch of Gas Accretion .................... 28
     1.4.3  Early Ideas on Galaxy Accretion .................... 30
     1.4.4  Accretion Shocks ................................... 32
     1.4.5  Cooling Flows ...................................... 34
     1.4.6  Cold Flows ......................................... 35
     1.4.7  Warm Flows ......................................... 38
     1.4.8  Accretion via Major and Minor Mergers .............. 38
     1.4.9  Accretion of High Velocity Clouds .................. 39
1.5  Near Field Cosmology ...................................... 45
     1.5.1  Introduction ....................................... 45
     1.5.2  A Working Model of How the Galaxy Formed ........... 47
     1.5.3  Timescales and Fossils ............................. 49
     1.5.4  Stellar Age Dating ................................. 51
     1.5.5  Goals of Near Field Cosmology ...................... 54
1.6  Structure of the Galaxy ................................... 55
     1.6.1  The Bulge .......................................... 55
     1.6.2  The Disk ........................................... 59
     1.6.3  The Stellar Halo ................................... 60
     1.6.4  The Dark Halo ...................................... 62
1.7  Signatures of Galaxy Formation ............................ 63
     1.7.1  Zero Order Signatures: Information Preserved
            Since Dark Matter Virialized ....................... 63
     1.7.2  First Order Signatures: Information Preserved
            Since the Main Epoch of Baryon Dissipation ......... 68
     1.7.3  Second Order Signatures: Major Processes
            Involved in Subsequent Evolution ................... 74
1.8  Reconstructing the Past Through Chemical Tagging .......... 86
     1.8.1  Unravelling a Dissipative Process .................. 86
     1.8.2  How Many Star Clusters? ............................ 88
     1.8.3  Cluster Chemistry .................................. 89
     1.8.4  Chemical Homogeneity ............................... 90
     1.8.5  Unique Chemical Signatures ......................... 92
     1.8.6  Primary Requirements of Chemical Tagging ........... 92
     1.8.7  Candidates for Chemical Tagging .................... 97
     1.8.8  Short-Term Goal: Size and Structure
     in a Multi-Dimensional C-Space ........................... 100
     1.8.9  Long-Term Goal: Reconstructing Ancient Star
     Groups from Unique Chemical Signatures ................... 101
1.9  Epilogue: Challenges for the Future ...................... 104
     1.9.1  The Limitations of Near Field Cosmology:
     Are We Really Putting ЛСВМ to the Test? .................. 104
     1.9.2  Future Surveys .................................... 106
Appendix A: The Discovery of Dark Matter in Galaxies .......... 109
Appendix B: Stellar Data: Sources and Techniques .............. 112
     B.l  Data Needed for Galactic Archaeology ................ 112
     B.2  Sources of Data ..................................... 118
     B.3  Sources of Models ................................... 125
     References ............................................... 128

2    Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way and Its Satellites ... 145
     Francesca Matteucci
2.1  How to Model Galactic Chemical Evolution ................. 145
     2.1.1  The Initial Conditions ............................ 146
     2.1.2  Birthrate Function ................................ 146
     2.1.3  Stellar Yields .................................... 150
     2.1.4  Gas Flows ......................................... 158
2.2  Basic Equations for Chemical Evolution ................... 158
     2.2.1  Yields per Stellar Generation ..................... 158
     2.2.2  Analytical Models ................................. 159
     2.2.3  Detailed Numerical Models ......................... 162
2.3  The Milky Way ............................................ 164
     2.3.1  The Formation of the Milky Way .................... 164
     2.3.2  The Two-Infall Model .............................. 166
     2.3.3  Detailed Recipes for the Two-Infall Model ......... 167
     2.3.4  The Chemical Enrichment History of the Solar
            Vicinity .......................................... 170
     2.3.5  The Galactic Disk ................................. 181
     2.3.6  The Galactic Bulge ................................ 186
2.4  What We Have Learned About the Milky Way ................. 194
2.5  The Time-Delay Model and the Hubble Sequence ............. 194
     2.5.1  Star Formation and Hubble Sequence ................ 195
2.6  Dwarf Spheroidals of the Local Group ..................... 198
     2.6.1  How do dSphs Form? ................................ 198
     2.6.2  Observations of dSphs ............................. 200
     2.6.3  Chemical Evolution of dSphs ....................... 200
     2.6.4  What Have we Learned About dSphs? ................. 208
2.7  Ultra-Faint Dwarfs in the Local Group .................... 212
2.8  Other Spirals ............................................ 214
     2.8.1  Chemical Models for External Spirals .............. 215
2.9  Cosmic Chemical Evolution ................................ 217
     References ............................................... 222

Index ......................................................... 229


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