Bhattacharjee S. Compact plasma and focused ion beams (Boca Raton, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаBhattacharjee S. Compact plasma and focused ion beams. - Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2014. - xxv, 366 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.363-366. - ISBN 978-1-4665-5788-8
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword ....................................................... xv
Preface ....................................................... xix
Acknowledgments ............................................. xxiii
Author ........................................................ xxv
1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   Plasma ....................................................... 1
      What Is Plasma? ........................................... 1
      Plasma as a Fourth State of Matter ........................ 1
      Physics of Plasma Production .............................. 2
      Ways of Creating Plasmas in the Laboratory ................ 2
   Particle Interactions ........................................ 3
   Some Basic Plasma Properties ................................. 3
   Criterion for the Definition of a Plasma ..................... 5
   Different Types of Plasmas ................................... 7
   Description of Plasmas ...................................... 10
   Theoretical Approaches ...................................... 12
   Microwave-Generated Plasmas ................................. 12
   Compact Microwave Plasma Sources ............................ 13
   Research Objective and Methods .............................. 14
   Note ........................................................ 15
   References .................................................. 16
2  Review of the Cutoff Problem ................................ 19
   A Brief History of Earlier Work ............................. 19
   Microwave Propagation in Waveguides ......................... 20
      Waveguide Geometrical Cutoff ............................. 21
         Rectangular Waveguide ................................. 21
         Circular Waveguide .................................... 23
      Waveguide Filled with a Plasma ........................... 25
         Effect of a Magnetic Field ............................ 27
   Plasma Density Cutoff ....................................... 28
      Ordinary Wave ............................................ 28
      Extraordinary Wave ....................................... 28
   References .................................................. 29
3  Plasma and Wave Diagnostics ................................. 33
   Plasma Diagnostics with Langmuir's Probes ................... 33
      Single Langmuir Probe .................................... 33
         Electron Saturation Region ............................ 36
         Ion Saturation Region ................................. 37
      Methods to Determine Plasma Parameters ................... 37
         Electron Temperature (Te) ............................. 37
         Electron Density (Ne) ................................. 37
         Ion Density (N+) ...................................... 38
         Space Potential (Vs) and Floating Potential (Vƒ) ...... 38
      Practical Difficulties Encountered in Determination
      of the Plasma Parameters ................................. 39
      Measurement of the Electron Energy Distribution .......... 40
      Retarding Field Analyzer Probe (or Electron Energy
      Analyzer) ................................................ 42
      Ion Energy Analyzer Probe ................................ 43
   Design of Electromagnetic Probes ............................ 45
      Wave Electric Field Probe ................................ 47
      B-Dot Probe .............................................. 47
   References .................................................. 48
4  Genesis of a Wave Induced Discharge: A New Perspective ...... 51
   Introduction ................................................ 51
   Historical Development of Breakdown Studies ................. 52
   Modeling of the Electron Dynamics ........................... 53
   Development of the General Algorithm ........................ 56
   Field-Free Case: Three-Dimensional Random Walk .............. 60
   Electron Transport in the Presence of an EM Field ........... 61
   Magnetostatically Assisted Electron Transport in the
   Presence of an EM Field ..................................... 65
   Electric Field Effects and the Random Walk Parameter ........ 69
   Linear and Circularly Polarized Waves ....................... 71
   Summary and Conclusion ...................................... 72
   References .................................................. 73
5  Plasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves:
   Near-Circular Multicusp ..................................... 75
   Introduction ................................................ 75
   Apparatus ................................................... 75
      Vacuum Chamber ........................................... 76
      Microwave System ......................................... 77
      Vacuum Pumps ............................................. 78
      Pressure Gauges .......................................... 79
   Multicusp Design ............................................ 79
   Waveguide Design ............................................ 80
   Experimental Results ........................................ 81
   Spatial Profiles of the Plasma .............................. 84
   Discussion .................................................. 86
      On the Possible Reasons for Plasma Production ............ 86
      On the Produced Plasma ................................... 87
   Conclusions ................................................. 89
   References .................................................. 89
6  Plasma Production in Continuous-Mode Microwaves:
   Rectangular Nonmulticusp Waveguide .......................... 91
   Introduction ................................................ 91
   Experimental Procedures ..................................... 92
      Waveguide Design ......................................... 92
      Magnetic Field Design .................................... 94
      Measurement of the Reflected Power and the Ion Current ... 95
   Experimental Results ........................................ 95
      O-like" Mode Propagation (Ј || B) ........................ 95
      "X-Like" Mode Propagation (Ј | B) ........................ 98
   Discussion .................................................. 99
      "O-Like" Mode Propagation (Ј || B) ...................... 100
      "X-Like" Mode Propagation Case (Ј | B) .................. 101
   Conclusions ................................................ 102
   References ................................................. 103
7  Comparison of Square and Near-Circular Multicusp
   Waveguides ................................................. 105
   Introduction ............................................... 105
   Waveguide Design ........................................... 106
   Experimental Results ....................................... 107
   Discussion ................................................. 109
      Comparison of the Effect of Cross-Section ............... 109
      Mechanisms of Plasma Maintenance ........................ 113
         Ionization Effects of the Space Potential and the
         Electron Temperature ................................. 113
         Reduction of the Wavelength λ due to UHR ............. 114
         Existence of Pass Band for Wave Propagation .......... 115
   Conclusions ................................................ 119
   Summary of Experimental Results in Continuous-Mode
   Microwaves ................................................. 119
   Summary of the Plasma Production Mechanisms ................ 121
      Plasma Ignition at the Waveguide Entrance ............... 121
      Potential Ionization and Confinement .................... 121
      Confinement by the Minimum-B Magnetic Field ............. 121
      Plasma Diffusion into the Waveguide ..................... 123
      Waveguide's Reduced Dimension ........................... 123
      Wave Propagation with a Reduced Wavelength and
      Existence of Pass Bands ................................. 123
   References ................................................. 123
8  Plasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves:
   General Experiment ......................................... 125
   Introduction ............................................... 125
   Apparatus and Methods in the General Experiment ............ 127
   Apparatus and Methods of the Experiment with a Circular
   Waveguide with a Dimension below Cutoff .................... 129
   Some Additional Details of the Experimental Set-Up ......... 130
      Microwave Source ........................................ 130
      Boxcar Integrator ....................................... 130
      Digital Oscilloscopes ................................... 131
      Probe for Measuring the Electric Field .................. 132
   Experimental Results ....................................... 132
   Discussion ................................................. 135
      Argon ................................................... 136
      Nitrogen ................................................ 137
      Standard Air ............................................ 138
   Conclusions ................................................ 140
   References ................................................. 140
9  Plasma Production in Pulsed-Mode Microwaves: Circular
   Multicusp Waveguide with a Dimension below Cutoff .......... 143
   Introduction ............................................... 143
   Experimental Setup and Procedures .......................... 144
   Experimental Results ....................................... 146
   Discussion ................................................. 156
      On the Mechanisms of Plasma Production .................. 156
      Modeling of the Spatiotemporal Current Profiles ......... 156
   Discussion ................................................. 161
      Electric Field Penetration .............................. 162
      Plasma Buildup .......................................... 162
      Pulse Repetition Frequency and Pulse Duration ........... 163
   Conclusions ................................................ 163
   References ................................................. 164
10 Plasma Buildup by Short-Pulse, High-Power Microwaves ....... 165
   Introduction ............................................... 165
   Experiments ................................................ 166
   Discussion ................................................. 171
      Electron Temperature Growth during the Pulse ............ 172
      Plasma Evolution after the End of Pulse ................. 174
      On the Experimental Results ............................. 176
   Conclusion ................................................. 178
   References ................................................. 178
11 Power Absorption and Intense Collimated Beam Production
   in a Pulsed High-Power Microwave Ion Source ................ 181
   Introduction ............................................... 181
   Ion Source Design and Experimental Setup ................... 182
   Experimental Results ....................................... 182
   Discussion ................................................. 185
   Conclusions ................................................ 186
   Summary in Pulsed Microwaves ............................... 187
      Experimental Results .................................... 187
      General Properties of the Plasma ........................ 187
      Plasma Characteristics in the Circular Waveguide ........ 188
      Summary of the Plasma Production Mechanisms ............. 188
         Continuation of the High Electron Temperature ........ 188
         Penetration of the Electric Field .................... 189
         Particle Diffusion into the Waveguide ................ 189
         Effect of Finite Length of the Waveguide ............. 189
   References ................................................. 189
12 New Experiments in Continuous-Mode Microwaves: Formation
   of Standing Waves and Electron Trapping .................... 191
   Overview of the New Experimental System .................... 191
   Introduction ............................................... 194
   Spatial Plasma Characteristics ............................. 195
   Axial Wave Field Intensity Measurements .................... 196
   Electron Trapping in SW Minima ............................. 198
   Model Calculation .......................................... 199
   Summary and Discussion ..................................... 203
   References ................................................. 204
13 Penetration and Screening of Perpendicularly Launched
   Electromagnetic Waves ...................................... 207
   Introduction ............................................... 207
   Experimental Setup ......................................... 208
   Experimental Observation ................................... 213
   Modeling ................................................... 217
   Modeling Results ........................................... 221
   Discussion and Summary ..................................... 225
   References ................................................. 227
14 Wave Birefringence in Perpendicular Propagation ............ 231
   Introduction ............................................... 231
   Polar Plasma Characteristics ............................... 233
   Polar Wave Field Intensity Measurements .................... 233
   Modeling of the Wave Birefringence ......................... 235
   Discussion anci Summary .................................... 238
   References ................................................. 238
15 Electron Localization and Trapping Physics Revisited ....... 241
   Introduction ............................................... 241
   Experimental Setup ......................................... 242
   Experimental Results ....................................... 243
   Modeling ................................................... 248
   Modeling Results ........................................... 250
   Summary and Discussion ..................................... 252
   References ................................................. 254
16 New Experiments in Pulsed Microwaves: Quasisteady-State
   Interpulse Plasmas ......................................... 257
   Introduction ............................................... 257
   Experiment ................................................. 258
   Experimental Results ....................................... 260
   Model Calculation .......................................... 264
      Temporal Evolution of the Electron Energy ............... 264
      Temporal Evolution of the Plasma ........................ 265
   Discussion and Conclusion .................................. 270
   References ................................................. 271
17 Electron Plasma Waves Inside Large-Amplitude
   Electromagnetic Pulses ..................................... 273
   Introduction ............................................... 273
   Experimental Setup ......................................... 274
   Experimental Results ....................................... 276
   Time-Frequency Analysis .................................... 281
   Model ...................................................... 281
      Temporal Variation of the Electron Current .............. 281
      Spatial Variation of the Electron Current ............... 286
   Summary .................................................... 288
   References ................................................. 289
18 Transition from Interpulse to Afterglow Plasmas ............ 291
   Introduction ............................................... 291
   Experimental Setup ......................................... 292
   Results .................................................... 294
   Summary .................................................... 299
   References ................................................. 300
19 Introduction to Focused Ion Beams .......................... 303
   Focused Ion Beams .......................................... 303
      Microwave Plasma Sources ................................ 304
   References ................................................. 304
20 Experimental Setup for Basic Plasma Studies ................ 307
   Introduction ............................................... 307
   Basic Plasma Experiments ................................... 307
   Measurement of Plasma Parameters ........................... 308
   Sub-Cutoff Dimensional Plasma Sources ...................... 311
      Plasma Generation ....................................... 312
      Plasma Sustenance ....................................... 314
   Conclusion ................................................. 318
   References ................................................. 320
21 Basic Beam Studies: Extraction and Ion Energy
   Distribution ............................................... 321
   Introduction ............................................... 321
   Experiment ................................................. 321
      Total Beam Current Measurements ......................... 322
      Ion Energy Spread Measurements .......................... 322
   Results and Discussion ..................................... 323
      Ion Energy Distribution along the Radial Direction ...... 328
      Total Beam Current Measurements ......................... 329
      Ion Energy Spread Measurements .......................... 332
   Conclusion ................................................. 333
   References ................................................. 334
22 Multielement Focused Ion Beam .............................. 337
   Introduction ............................................... 337
   Beam Column of MEFIB ....................................... 337
   Beam Simulation Codes ...................................... 338
   Results and Discussion ..................................... 338
      Single-EL System ........................................ 338
      Double-EL System ........................................ 340
   Tolerance Studies .......................................... 345
   Conclusion ................................................. 346
   References ................................................. 347
23 Focused Ion Beam Experiments ............................... 349
   Introduction ............................................... 349
   Results and Discussion ..................................... 349
      Focused Beam Current Measurements ....................... 349
      Case A .................................................. 350
      Beam Profile Measurements ............................... 352
      Beam Spot Size Measurements ............................. 356
   Conclusion ................................................. 357
   References ................................................. 357
24 Summary and Future Prospects ............................... 359

Index ......................................................... 363


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