Ananda Mohan P.V. VLSI analog filters: active RC, OTA-C, and SC (New York: Birkhauser, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаAnanda Mohan P.V. VLSI analog filters: active RC, OTA-C, and SC. - New York: Birkhäuser: Springer Science+Business Media, 2013. - xvii, 620 p.: ill. - (Modeling and simulation in science, engineering and technology). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.617-620. - ISBN 978-0-8176-8357-3; ISSN 2164-3679
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1    Introduction ............................................... 1
1.1  Problems in Integration of Analog Filters .................. 2
1.2  Filter Design Approaches ................................... 4
     1.2.1  LC Filters .......................................... 4
     1.2.2  Active RC Filters ................................... 5
     1.2.3  Active R and Partially Active R Filters ............. 6
     1.2.4  SC Filters .......................................... 6
     1.2.5  OTA-C (Gm-C) Filters ................................ 8
     1.2.6  MOSFET-C Filters .................................... 8
     1.2.7  Log-Domain Filters .................................. 9
     1.2.8  Current-Mode Filters ............................... 10
     References ................................................ 10

2    Active RC Filters Using Opamps ............................ 13
2.1  Amplifiers Using Opamps ................................... 13
2.2  Integrators Using Opamps .................................. 21
2.3  First-Order Filters Using Opamps .......................... 27
     2.3.1  Low-Pass Filters ................................... 27
     2.3.2  First-Order All-Pass Filters ....................... 29
2.4  Sallen-Key Active RC Low-Pass Filter ...................... 29
     2.4.1  Effect of Finite Gain of the Opamp ................. 32
     2.4.2  Effect of Finite Bandwidth of the Opamp ............ 33
     2.4.3  Active Compensation of Sallen-Key Filter with
            К = 1 .............................................. 35
     2.4.4  Sensitivity Analysis ............................... 36
2.5  Second-Order Filters Based on Multiple Feedback ........... 42
     2.5.1  Friend's Biquad .................................... 42
     2.5.2  Multiple Feedback-Type Low-Pass Filter
            Due to Friend ...................................... 46
     2.5.3  Active Filters Using Single Fully Differential
            Amplifier .......................................... 53
2.6  Biquads Using Two Opamps .................................. 55
     2.6.1  GIC-Based Biquads .................................. 55
     2.6.2  Two-Amplifier Biquads Derived from Single-
            Amplifier Biquads .................................. 58
2.7  Biquads Using More Than Two Opamps ........................ 60
     2.7.1  KHNBiquad .......................................... 60
     2.7.2  Tow-Thomas Biquad .................................. 63
     2.7.3  Akerberg-Mossberg Biquad ........................... 66
     2.7.4  Scaling for Optimal Dynamic Range .................. 67
     2.7.5  Variants of Tow-Thomas and KHN Biquads ............. 68
     2.7.6  Tarmy-Ghausi-Moschytz Three Opamp Biquad and Its
            Variations ......................................... 74
2.8  Second-Order Active Filters Using Amplifier Pole and One
     Capacitor ................................................. 76
     2.8.1  Using Single Capacitor ............................. 76
     2.8.2  Second-Order Filters Using Only Resistors
            and Amplifier Poles ................................ 81
2.9  Active Filters Based on RLC Ladder Filters ................ 88
     2.9.1  Component Simulation Technique ..................... 89
     2.9.2  FDNR-Based Filters ................................. 92
     2.9.3  Active RC Ladder Filters Based on Operational
            Simulation ......................................... 93
     2.9.4  Operational Simulation of High-Pass Filters:
            Yoshihoro's Technique ............................. 100
     2.9.5  Operational Simulation of General-Parameter
            Ladder Filters .................................... 104
2.10 Multiloop Feedback-Based Active RC Filters ............... 106
     2.10.1 FLF (Follow-the-Leader Feedback) .................. 106
     2.10.2 PRB (Primary Resonator Block) Structure ........... 109
     2.10.3 SCF (Shifted Companion Form) Structure ............ 109
     2.10.4 Multiloop Feedback (MLF) Structure ................ 110
     2.10.5 IFLF (Inverse Follow-the-Leader Feedback)
            Structure ......................................... 110
     2.10.6 MSF (Minimum Sensitivity Feedback) Structure ...... 110
2.11 Noise in Active RC Filters ............................... 112
2.12 Distortion in Active RC Filters .......................... 122
2.13 Problems ................................................. 126
     References ............................................... 142

3    OTA-C Filters ............................................ 147
3.1  OTA-C Integrators ........................................ 148
3.2  First-Order OTA-C Filters ................................ 150
     3.2.1  First-Order OTA-C Filters Using OTAs with
            Single-Current Output ............................. 150
     3.2.2  First-Order Filters Using ОТ As with Current
            Input and Current Output .......................... 152
3.3  Voltage-Mode Second-Order OTA-C Filters .................. 154
3.4  Current-Mode Second-Order OTA-C Filters .................. 166
3.5  OTA-C Filters Using First-Order All-Pass Sections ........ 189
     3.5.1  OTA-C Filters Derived from Tarmy-Ghausi
            Active RC Filter .................................. 189
     3.5.2  Second-Order All-Pass OTA-C Filter Realization
            Derived from Mitra-Hirano and Gray-Markel
            Structures ........................................ 195
3.6  High-Order OTA-C Filters ................................. 197
     3.6.1  Inductance Simulation Using ОТ As ................. 197
     3.6.2  Voltage-Mode OTA-C Filters Derived from RLC
            Ladder Filters Using Component Simulation ......... 198
     3.6.3  Table-Based Linear Transformation Type OTA-C
            Filters Based on Ladder Filters ................... 202
     3.6.4  Current-Mode OTA-C Filters Based on RLC Ladder
            Filters ........................................... 209
3.7  Multiple-Feedback-Type OTA-C Filters ..................... 216
3.8  Analytical Synthesis-Based OTA-C Filters ................. 219
3.9  Effect of OTA Nonidealities .............................. 223
3.10 OTA-C Oscillators ........................................ 227
3.11 Derivation of Voltage-Mode OTA-C Filters from Active RC
     Filters and Current-Mode OTA-C Filters from Voltage-
     Mode OTA-C Filters ....................................... 232
3.12 Distortion in OTA-C Filters .............................. 235
3.13 Noise Analysis of OTA-C Biquads .......................... 239
3.14 Problems ................................................. 245
     References ............................................... 246

4    Switched Capacitor Filters ............................... 251
4.1  Basic Concept of Switched-Capacitor Resistor ............. 251
4.2  Analysis of SC Filters ................................... 254
     4.2.1  Laker's z-Domain Equivalent Circuit Method ........ 254
4.3  First-Order SC Circuits .................................. 257
4.4  Stray-Insensitive SC Biquads ............................. 262
     4.4.1  Fliescher-Laker SC Biquad ......................... 262
     4.4.2  Design Procedure .................................. 264
     4.4.3  Capacitor Spread Evaluation ....................... 265
     4.4.4  Sensitivity Evaluation ............................ 267
4.5  Multiplexed Single-Amplifier SC Filters .................. 268
     4.5.1  Parasitic Compensated SC Biquads .................. 268
     4.5.2  Multiplexed Single Opamp High-Order SC Filters .... 270
4.6  Improved SC Biquads ...................................... 272
     4.6.1  Multiplexing of Capacitors ........................ 272
     4.6.2  Split-Integrating Capacitor Technique ............. 273
     4.6.3  Nagaraj's SC Filters with Low Capacitor Spread .... 276
     4.6.4  T-Cell Integrator-Based Biquads ................... 278
4.7  Optimal Design of SC Biquads ............................. 279
4.8  SC Ladder Filters Based on Component Simulation and
     Operational Simulation ................................... 287
     4.8.1  SC Realization of L, C, and R Elements ............ 288
     4.8.2  SC Low-Pass and Band-Pass Filters Derived Using
            Operational Simulation of LC Ladder Filters ....... 291
     4.8.3  SC High-Pass Filters Derived Using Operational
            Simulation of LC Ladder Filters ................... 296
4.9  High-Frequency SC Filters ................................ 298
     4.9.1  SC Filters Using Double Sampling Scheme ........... 302
     4.9.2  SC Filters Based on POG (Precise Opamp Gain) ...... 304
     4.9.3  SC N-Path Filters ................................. 306
4.10 High-Frequency SC Ladder Filters ......................... 325
4.11 SC FIR Filters ........................................... 331
4.12 Compensation of Finite Gain and Offset Voltage of SC
     Integrators and Amplifiers ............................... 337
     4.12.1 Offset and Finite Gain Compensation in
            Integrators ....................................... 337
     4.12.2 Compensation of Opamp Offset and Finite Gain in
            SC Amplifiers ..................................... 342
4.13 Distortion in SC Filters ................................. 346
4.14 Low-Voltage SC Filter Design Techniques .................. 349
     4.14.1 Switched-Opamp Technique-Based SC Filters ......... 351
     4.14.2 Clock Boosting Technique .......................... 355
     4.14.3 Local Switch Bootstrapping ........................ 355
     4.14.4 Reset-Opamp Technique ............................. 359
     4.14.5 BIOC (Biased Inverting Opamp Configuration)
            Based SC Filters .................................. 360
4.15 Noise in SC Filters ...................................... 365
4.16 Effect of Finite Bandwidth of Opamp on the Performance
     of SC Filters ............................................ 374
     4.16.1 Effect of Opamp Bandwidth on SC Filters Using
            Opamps ............................................ 374
     4.16.2 Effect of Opamp Bandwidth on SC Filters
            Using OTAs ........................................ 378
4.17 Charge Injection in MOS Switches ......................... 381
4.18 SC Sigma-Delta Modulators ................................ 382
     4.18.1 First-Order and Second-Order Modulators ........... 382
     4.18.2 High-Order Sigma-Delta Modulators ................. 387
     4.18.3 Practical Considerations in the Design of Sigma-
            Delta Modulators .................................. 403
     4.18.4 Band-Pass Sigma-Delta Modulators .................. 411
4.19 Problems ................................................. 424
     References ............................................... 432

5    Practical Designs of VLSI Analog Filters ................. 439
5.1  Integrated Resistors and Capacitors ...................... 439
5.2  Active RC Filter Designs for Wireless Applications ....... 440
5.3  Active RC Filters for ADSL ............................... 462
5.4  Active RC Filters for Software Radio ..................... 465
5.5  Active RC Filters for Other Applications ................. 466
5.6  Gm-C Filters for Wireless Applications ................... 478
5.7  Gm-C Filters for Optical Receivers ....................... 515
5.8  Gm-C Filters for Software Radio .......................... 515
5.9  Gm-C Filters for EEG Application ......................... 522
5.10 Gm-C Filters for HDD ..................................... 523
5.11 Gm-C Filters for Power Supply Applications ............... 529
5.12 Gm-C Filters for Other Applications ...................... 532
5.13 Gm-C Filter Tuning Techniques ............................ 571
5.14 SC Filters Using Comparators ............................. 578
5.15 Sigma-Delta Modulators ................................... 582
5.16 LC Filters ............................................... 591
5.17 Evaluation of CT Filters ................................. 598
5.18 Problems ................................................. 600
References .................................................... 604

Appendix A .................................................... 609
Appendix В .................................................... 613
Index ......................................................... 617


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