Vissokov G. Plasma nanotechnologies. Nanopowders - preparation, properties and applications (Sofia, 2005). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаVissokov G. Plasma nanotechnologies. Nanopowders - preparation, properties and applications. - Sofia: Publications house of Univ. of mining a. geology, 2005. - 303 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.286-295. - ISBN 954-9748-83-9
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Curriculum Vitae ................................................ 9
Abbreviations .................................................. 12
Notations ...................................................... 13

INTRODUCTION ................................................... 17

CHAPTER ONE. GENERAL NOTIONS IN NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND THERMAL
PLASMA ......................................................... 20
1.1  What is nanotechnology? ................................... 20
1.2  General concepts of plasma-chemistry ...................... 21
     1.2.1  Characteristics of low-temperature plasma .......... 21
1.3  Description and characteristics of plasma-chemical
     reactions ................................................. 24
     1.3.1  Basic equation of the plasma-chemical kinetics ..... 25
     1.3.2  Rate coefficient of plasma-chemical reactions ...... 28
     1.3.3  Kinetics of dissociative reactions ................. 32
     1.3.4  Quasi-equilibrium plasma-chemical processes ........ 33
            1.3.4.1  Thermodynamics of plasma-chemical
                     processes ................................. 35
            1.3.4.2  Kinetics of plasma-chemical processes ..... 36
     1.3.5  Non-equilibrium plasma-chemical processes .......... 37
     1.3.6  Condensed-phase plasma-chemical processes .......... 39
     1.3.7  Advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-
            chemical processes ................................. 40

CHAPTER TWO. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND A PRIORI CONCEPTS
FOR PLASMA-CHEMICAL PREPARATION OF NANODISPERSED POWDERS ....... 44
2.1  Precise computer calculation of the free enthalpy
     variation in the presence of phase transitions ............ 45
2.2  Physicochemical and technological aspects of the plasma-
     chemical (high-temperature) processes for preparation
     of ND powders ............................................. 49
     2.2.1  Modelling the vaporization and condensation of
            particles under the conditions of plasma-chemical
            processes .......................................... 50
            2.2.1.1  Development of a three-dimensional model
                     of the motion, heating, melting and
                     vaporization of micron-sized particles
                     in thermal plasma ......................... 71
            2.2.1.2  Modelling the condensation of the
                     particles ................................. 89
     2.2.2  Chemical, physicochemical and technological
            aspects of the plasma-chemical preparation of ND
            powders ............................................ 91
            2.2.2.1  ND powders trapping ....................... 94

CHAPTER THREE. EQUIPMENT USED IN PLASMA-CHEMICAL PREPARATION
OF NANODISPERSED POWDERS ....................................... 96
3.1  The plasma-chemical installation - calculation of the
     average mass temperature of the plasmatron and the
     plasma-chemical reactor (PCR). Plasma-chemical unit -
     characteristics. Determination of the specific surface
     of ND powders ............................................. 96
3.2  Plasma preparation of nanotubes (fullerenes) ............. 106

CHAPTER FOUR. PLASMACHEMICAL NANO-TECHNOLOGIES IN CATALYSIS ... 110
4.1  Plasma-chemically synthesis and regeneration of
     catalysts ................................................ 110
     4.1.1  Plasma-chemical synthesis and regeneration
            (activation) of nanostructured catalysts for
            steam conversion of methane ....................... 115
     4.1.2  Plasmachemical preparation of nanostructured
            catalysts for low-temperature steam conversion
            of carbon monoxide ................................ 126
            4.1.2.1  Thermodynamic and model studies .......... 126
            4.1.2.2  Properties of catalysts .................. 135
            4.1.2.3  Catalytic activity ....................... 151
     4.1.3  Comprehensive physical-chemical characterization
            and kinetic studies of the reduction and activity
            of catalysts for ammonia synthesis regenerated
            by electric-arc plasma ............................ 163
            4.1.3.1  Magnetochemical studies of
                     nanodispersed ferromagnetic catalysts
                     for ammonia synthesis .................... 181
     4.1.4  Plasma spraying in the preparation of supported
            catalysts ......................................... 191
     4.1.5  Plasma modification of catalysts .................. 191
     4.1.6  Conclusions ....................................... 194

CHAPTER FIVE. GENERALIZATIONS ON THE PLASMA-CHEMICAL
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NANODISPERSED
INORGANIC POWDERS ............................................. 195
5.1  On some technological characteristics of the plasma-
     chemical preparation of nanodispersed inorganic powders .. 195
     5.1.1  Classification of the processes developed ......... 196
     5.1.2  Modeling of plasma-chemical reactors .............. 201
5.2  Particularities in the physical and physicochemical
     properties of nanodispersed particles synthesized in
     low-temperature plasma ................................... 202
     5.2.1  Structural, phase and moфhological
            characteristics of plasma-chemically synthesized
            nanodispersed powders ............................. 207
            5.2.1.1  Structural characteristics of
                     nanodispersed powders synthesized in
                     low-temperature plasma ................... 210
            5.2.1.2  Phase characteristics of nanodispersed
                     particles synthesized in low-
                     temperature plasma ....................... 218
            5.2.1.3  The effect of impurities on the
                     structure of ND particles ................ 221
     5.2.2  Particularities in the surface structure of ND
            particles ......................................... 222
     5.2.3  On the increased chemical activity and the
            passivation of ND powders synthesized in
            electric-arc low-temperature plasma ............... 226
     5.2.4  Particularities in the physical and
            physicochemical properties of nanodispersed
            particles synthesized in electric-arc low-
            temperature plasma ................................ 234
5.3  Other plasma technologies ................................ 235
     5.3.1  Preparation of inter-metal compounds and
            composite materials ............................... 235
     5.3.2  Spheroidization of high-melting temperature
            materials and of other materials .................. 235
     5.3.3  Deposition of coatings and modification of
            surfaces .......................................... 235
5.4  Fields of applications of plasma-chemically-synthesized
     ND powders ............................................... 236
5.5  Conclusions .............................................. 237

CHAPTER SIX. APPLICATIONS OF THE NANO-TECHNOLOGIES AND THE
NANOMATERIALS ................................................. 239
6.1  Essence of the nano-technologies ......................... 239
6.2  Electronics, communications, nano-devices and sensors .... 245
6.3  Aviation and space industries ............................ 250
6.4  Chemical industry and power generation ................... 251
     6.4.1  Scientific and technological progress ............. 251
     6.4.2  Energy storage - lithium batteries, carbon
            nanotubes and fuel cells .......................... 254
     6.4.3  Nanocatalysts and nanocatalysis ................... 255
     6.4.4  Hydrogen storage and fuel cells ................... 256
     6.4.5  Increase of the energy efficiency ................. 257
     6.4.6  Conclusions ....................................... 257
6.5  Metallurgy (powder and metal ceramics) - special steels
     and alloys ............................................... 258
6.6  Consolidated nano-structures ............................. 259
     6.6.1  Scientific and technological progress ............. 260
     6.6.2  Ceramic nanoparticles ............................. 260
     6.6.3  Preparation of nanostructured coatings ............ 261
     6.6.4  Lowering the flammability of plastics ............. 261
     6.6.5  Fabrication ofhard nanostructured materials ....... 262
     6.6.6  Nanostructures with colossal magnetic resistance .. 263
     6.6.7  Conclusions ....................................... 263
6.7  Fabrication of ultra-high-strength carbon nanofibers ..... 263
     6.7.1  Classification and strength parameters of carbon
            fibers ............................................ 264
     6.7.2  Carbon fibers structure ........................... 265
     6.7.3  Techniques for CNF fabrication .................... 265
     6.7.4  Industrial applications of CNF .................... 266
     6.7.5  Conclusions ....................................... 267
6.8  Nanoprocesses and nanomaterials in the environmental
     protection ............................................... 268
     6.8.1  Scientific and technological progress ............. 268
     6.8.2  Adsorption of heavy metals by hierarchically
            self-aligned nanostructures ....................... 270
     6.8.3  Photo-catalytic purification of fluids ............ 271
     6.8.4  Fabrication of mesoporous materials ............... 271
     6.8.5  Application of nanoporous materials in
            purification of water ............................. 272
     6.8.6  Nanoparticles in the environment .................. 272
6.9  Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials applications in the
     defense industry and fight against terrorism ............. 273
6.10 Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials in the everyday life .. 274
6.11 Nanotechnologies in biology and medicine ................. 275
6.12 Nanotechnologies and education ........................... 278
6.13 Conclusions .............................................. 279

CONCLUSIONS ................................................... 280

REFERENCES .................................................... 286

APPENDIX. National research program NANO-TECHNOLOGIES AND

NEW MATERIALS ................................................. 296
1    Justification ............................................ 296
2    Aims of the National program on NT and new materials ..... 298
     2.1  Bringing the educational academic programs in line
          with the new trends of development .................. 299
     2.2  Development of scientific research .................. 299
     2.3  Organization of the experimental and technological
          infrastructure in Bulgaria related to the nano-
          technologies, the nano-sized materials and their
          apphcations ......................................... 301
3    Program packages ......................................... 301
     3.1  Research and technological development .............. 301
     3.2  Improvement of the research infrastructure .......... 302
          3.2.1  Educational programs ......................... 302
          3.2.2  Scientific research .......................... 303
          3.2.3  Environment for dissemination of the
                 scientific research achievements and
                 innovations .................................. 303


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