Zhang F. Photon upconversion nanomaterials (Heidelberg, 2015). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаZhang F. Photon upconversion nanomaterials. - Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 2015. - xix, 416 p.: ill., tab. - (Nanostructure science and technology). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p. 413-416. - ISBN 978-3-662-45596-8; ISSN 1571-5744
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1  General Introduction to Upconversion Luminescence Materials .. 1
   1.1  Energy Transfer Mechanism of the Upconversion
        Materials ............................................... 4
   1.2  The Category of the Upconversion Materials .............. 6
        1.2.1  Lanthanide-based Upconverters .................... 7
        1.2.2  Transition Metal Upconverters ................... 13
        1.2.3  Mixed Rare Earth/Transition Metal Upconverters .. 14
        1.2.4  Organic Upconverters ............................ 14
        1.2.5  Lanthanide-doped Upconversion Nanomaterials ..... 15
   1.3  Summary ................................................ 17
   References .................................................. 17
2  "Wet" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Upconversion
   Nanoparticles ............................................... 21
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 21
   2.2  Mechanism for the Synthesis of Monodisperse
        Nanocrystals ........................................... 22
        2.2.1  Nucleation ...................................... 23
        2.2.2  Synthetic Techniques for the Separation
               of Nucleation and Growth ........................ 26
        2.2.3  Growth .......................................... 27
   2.3  Synthesis Routes for the Upconversion Nanoparticles .... 34
        2.3.1  Thermolysis Strategy ............................ 34
        2.3.2  Hydro(Solvo)Thermal Strategy .................... 39
        2.3.3  Other Methods for the Synthesis of the
               Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanoparticles ...... 41
        2.3.4  Ultrasmall Upconversion Nanoparticles with
               Bright Upconversion Luminescence ................ 42
   2.4  Synthesis Routes for the Fabrication of the Core
        @Shell Structured Upconversion Nanoparticles ........... 44
        2.4.1  One-Pot Heating-Up Method ....................... 44
        2.4.2  Successive Layer-by-Layer Strategy for the
               Fabrication of Multi-shell-Structured
               Upconversion Nanoparticles ...................... 46
        2.4.3  Ostwald Ripening Strategy for the Fabrication
               of Core@Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles ........ 48
        2.4.4  Cation Exchange Strategy for the Fabrication
               of Core@Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles ........ 49
   2.5  Characterizations ...................................... 49
        2.5.1  Optical Characterization ........................ 49
        2.5.2  Chemical and Structural Characterization ........ 55
   2.6  Summary and Perspectives ............................... 61
   References .................................................. 62
3  Upconversion Luminescence of Lanthanide Ion-Doped
   Nanocrystals ................................................ 73
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 73
   3.2  Upconversion Emission Color Tunability ................. 74
        3.2.1  Multi-color Emission Using Different Host-
               Dopant Combinations ............................. 74
        3.2.2  Doping Concentration-Induced Multi-color
               Emission ........................................ 77
        3.2.3  Tuning Upconversion Emission Using FRET or 
               LRET ............................................ 79
        3.2.4  Single-Band Upconversion Luminescence ........... 80
        3.2.5  Other Ways to Tune Upconversion Emission ........ 81
   3.3  Strategies for Enhancement of Upconversion Efficiency .. 83
        3.3.1  Selection of Novel Host Matrix .................. 83
        3.3.2  Plasmonic-Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence .... 88
        3.3.3  Fabrication of Highly Efficient Lanthanide
               Upconversion Nanoparticles by Homogeneous
               Doping .......................................... 91
        3.3.4  Tuning the Excitation Wavelength ................ 92
   3.4  Core@Shell Structure-Based Luminescence Engineering
        of the Upconversion Nanocrystals ....................... 93
        3.4.1  Enhancing Upconversion Luminescence with Core
               ©Shell Structure ................................ 93
        3.4.2  Tuning Upconversion Emission Using Core@Shell
               Structures ...................................... 98
        3.4.3  Tuning of the Excitation Wavelength ............. 98
   3.5  Upconversion Nanocrystals Versus Quantum Dots and
        Dyes .................................................. 101
   3.6  Summary and Perspectives .............................. 107
   References ................................................. 108
4  Upconversion Nanoparticle-Based Nanocomposites ............. 121
   4.1  Introduction .......................................... 121
   4.2  UCNP-mSiO2 ............................................ 122
        4.2.1  Two-Step Sol-gel Method for the Fabrication
               of UCNPs-mSiO2 Nanocomposites .................. 125
        4.2.2  One-Step Sol-gel Method for the Fabrication
               of UCNPs-mSiO2 Nanocomposites .................. 126
        4.2.3  Yolk-Shell UCNPs-mSiO2 Nanocomposites .......... 127
   4.3  UCNPs-MNPs ............................................ 130
        4.3.1  SiO2-Assisted Synthesis of UCNPs-MNPs
               Multi-functional Nanocomposites ................ 132
        4.3.2  Cross-Linker-Assisted Synthesis of UCNPs-MNPs
               Multi-functional Nanocomposites ................ 133
        4.3.3  Seed-Mediated Growth Method for the Synthesis
               of UCNPs-MNPs Multi-functional Nanocomposites .. 134
        4.3.4  Applications of UCNPs-MNPs Nanocomposites ...... 135
   4.4  UCNPs-Metals .......................................... 137
   4.5  UCNPs-Semiconductors .................................. 141
   4.6  Summary and Perspectives .............................. 146
   References ................................................. 147
5  Surface Modification and Bioconjugation of Upconversion
   Nanoparticles .............................................. 159
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 159
   5.2  Ligand Engineering .................................... 162
        5.2.1  Ligand Exchange ................................ 162
        5.2.2  Oxidation of Oleic Acid ........................ 169
   5.3  Ligand Attraction ..................................... 171
   5.4  Layer-by-Layer Assembly ............................... 174
   5.5  Surface Modifications Using Silane Reagents ........... 175
   5.6  Surface Polymerization ................................ 177
   5.7  Surface Control During Synthesis ...................... 178
   5.8  Summary ............................................... 180
   References ................................................. 180
6  Upconversion Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging .......... 187
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 187
   6.2  In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity Assessment .............. 190
        6.2.1  Recent Progress on Toxicity Assessment
               of UCNPs ....................................... 191
        6.2.2  Evaluation Methods for the Long-Term Toxicity
               of UCNPs in Small Animals ...................... 192
   6.3  Biomedical Imaging Using UCNPs Under 980-nm
        Excitation ............................................ 193
   6.4  Biomedical Imaging Using UCNPs Excited at Different
        Wavelength ............................................ 197
   6.5  Ultrasmall UCNPs for Biomedical Imaging ............... 198
   6.6  Optical Tomography .................................... 200
   6.7  Multimodal Imaging Using UCNPs ........................ 202
        6.7.1  Upconversion PL and Magnetic Resonance
               Imaging (MRI) .................................. 202
        6.7.2  Upconversion PL and X-Ray Computed
               Tomography (CT) ................................ 207
        6.7.3  Upconversion PL and Positron Emission
               Tomography (PET) ............................... 209
        6.7.4  Upconversion PL and Single-Photon Emission
               Computed Tomography (SPECT) .................... 210
        6.7.5  Upconversion PL and Multimodal Imaging
               (MRI/PET/SPECT/CT) ............................. 212
   6.8  Upconversion Imaging Techniques ....................... 212
        6.8.1  Imaging System ................................. 212
        6.8.2  Penetration Depth Measurement .................. 218
   6.9  Conclusion and Future Opportunity for
        Upconversion-Based Biomedical Imaging ................. 224
   References ................................................. 226
7  The Applications of Upconversion Nanoparticles in
   Bioassay ................................................... 233
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 233
   7.2  Heterogeneous Assay ................................... 234
   7.3  Homogeneous Assay ..................................... 238
   7.4  UCNPs for Encoding and Multiplexed Detection .......... 241
        7.4.1  Tuning UCNPs' Material Composition for
               Encoding and Multiplexed Detection ............. 244
        7.4.2  Tuning UCNPs' Optical Surface Layer for
               Encoding and Multiplexed Detection ............. 247
        7.4.3  Tuning UCNPs' Luminescence Lifetimes for
               Encoding and Multiplexed Detection ............. 247
   References ................................................. 248
8  Upconversion Nanoparticles for Biosensing .................. 255
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 255
   8.2  The Construction of UCNPs-Based FRET or LRET
        Nanosensors with Different Energy Acceptors ........... 258
        8.2.1  Organic Dyes as Energy Acceptors ............... 258
        8.2.2  Noble Metal Nanoparticles as Energy Acceptors .. 262
        8.2.3  Carbon Nanomaterials as Energy Acceptors ....... 264
        8.2.4  Mn02 Nanosheets as Energy Acceptors ............ 267
   8.3  Biosensing of Different Species of Analytes ........... 268
        8.3.1  Biosensing of Ions ............................. 269
        8.3.2  Biosensing of Gas Molecules .................... 271
        8.3.3  Biosensing of Biomolecules ..................... 272
   8.4  Detection Based on Magnetic Separation ................ 274
   8.5  Detection Based on Quenching Effect of Heavy Metal
        Ions .................................................. 276
   References ................................................. 278
9  Upconversion Nanoparticles for Light-Activated Therapy ..... 285
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 285
   9.2  UCNPs for Photodynamic Therapy ........................ 286
        9.2.1  History and Mechanism of Photodynamic Therapy .. 286
        9.2.2  Photosensitizers ............................... 289
        9.2.3  UCNP-Based Photodynamic Therapy ................ 291
   9.3  UCNPs for Chemotherapy and Gene Therapy ............... 314
        9.3.1  NIR Light-Triggered Photoisomerization ......... 315
        9.3.2  NIR Light-Triggered Photolysis ................. 319
        9.3.3  NIR Light-Triggered Photoreduction ............. 328
   9.4  UCNPs for Photothermal Therapy ........................ 329
   9.5  Conclusion and Perspectives ........................... 330
   References ................................................. 331
10 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Thermal Sensing ............. 343
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 343
   10.2 Rare Earth-Doped Upconversion Nanothermometry ......... 348
        10.2.1 Intensity Upconversion Nanothermometry ......... 348
        10.2.2 Band-Shaped Upconversion Nanothermometry-FIR
               Theory ......................................... 351
        10.2.3 Lifetime Upconversion Nanothermometry .......... 359
        10.2.4 Bandwidth Nanothermometry and Spectral
               Position Nanothermometry ....................... 359
   10.3 UCNP-Based Nanocomposite Materials for Nanothermotry .. 362
   10.4 Upconversion Nanoparticles Versus Quantum Dots
        Versus Gold Nanoparticles Versus Green Fluorescent
        Protein as Nanothermometry ............................ 366
        10.4.1 Quantum Dots (QDs) ............................. 366
        10.4.2 Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) ...................... 368
        10.4.3 Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) ................ 368
        10.4.4 Comparison Between UCNPs, GNPs, QDs, and
               GFP-Based Nanothermometers ..................... 369
   10.5 Summary and Outlook ................................... 370
   References ................................................. 371
11 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Other Applications .......... 375
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 375
   11.2 UCNPs for Photovoltaic Cells .......................... 376
        11.2.1 Solar Cell Operation Principle and Their
               Obstacles ...................................... 377
        11.2.2 Recent Solutions to the Above Obstacles ........ 379
        11.2.3 Recent Progress in Upconversion-Assisted
               Solar Cell ..................................... 381
        11.2.4 Conclusion and Future Opportunity
               for Upconversion-Assisted Solar Cell ........... 383
   11.3 UCNPs for Photocatalysis .............................. 386
        11.3.1 Photocatalysis Mechanism ....................... 386
        11.3.2 Obstacles and Recent Solutions for
               Photocatalysis ................................. 388
        11.3.3 Recent Progress in Upconversion-Assisted
               Photocatalysis ................................. 390
        11.3.4 Conclusion and Future Opportunity for
               Upconversion-Assisted Photocatalysis ........... 394
   11.4 UCNPs for Security Application ........................ 396
   11.5 UCNPs for Optical Storage, Remote-Control
        Photoswitching and Other Applications ................. 403
   References ................................................. 404
12 Conclusions and Perspectives ............................... 409

Index ......................................................... 413


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