Speight J.G. Coal-fired power generation handbook (Hoboken; Salem, 2015). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаSpeight J.G. Coal-fired power generation handbook. - Hoboken: Wiley; Salem: Scrivener publishing, 2015. - xvi, 736 p.: ill. - (Power generation). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p. 727-736. - ISBN 978-1-118-20846-5
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xv

1  Occurrence and Resources ..................................... 1
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ 1
   1.2  Origin of Coal .......................................... 8
   1.3  Occurrence ............................................. 12
   1.4  Coal Utilization and Coal Types ........................ 14
        1.4.1  Lignite ......................................... 17
        1.4.2  Subbituminous Coal .............................. 18
        1.4.3  Bituminous Coal ................................. 19
        1.4.4  Anthracite ...................................... 21
   1.5  Resources .............................................. 23
   1.6  Reserves ............................................... 27
        1.6.1  Proven Reserves ................................. 28
        1.6.2  Inferred Reserves ............................... 30
        1.6.3  Potential Reserves .............................. 31
        1.6.4  Undiscovered Reserves ........................... 31
        1.6.5  Other Definitions ............................... 33
   References .................................................. 34
2  Classification .............................................. 37
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 37
   2.2  Classification Systems ................................. 40
        2.2.1  Geological Age .................................. 43
        2.2.2  Banded Structure ................................ 44
        2.2.3  Rank ............................................ 45
        2.2.4  Coal Survey (National Coal Board, U.K.) ......... 52
        2.2.1  International System ............................ 52
        2.2.6  Coal as an Organic Rock ......................... 54
        2.2.7  A Hydrocarbon Resource .......................... 55
   2.3  Coal Petrography ....................................... 58
        2.3.1  Vitrinite Group ................................. 61
        2.3.2  Liptinite Group ................................. 62
        2.3.3  Inertinite Group ................................ 62
   2.4  Correlation of the Various Systems ..................... 63
   References .................................................. 67
3  Recovery, Preparation, and Transportation ................... 69
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 69
   3.2  Coal Recovery .......................................... 71
        3.2.1  Surface Mining .................................. 73
        3.2.2  Underground Mining .............................. 77
   3.3  Coal Preparation ....................................... 79
   3.4  Size Reduction ......................................... 92
        3.4.1  Rotary Breaker .................................. 95
        3.4.2  Roll Crusher .................................... 95
        3.4.3  Hammer Mill ..................................... 96
        3.4.4  Impactor ........................................ 96
        3.4.5  Tumbler ......................................... 97
   3.5  Coal Cleaning .......................................... 98
        3.5.1  Effect of Composition and Rank .................. 99
        3.5.2  Methods ........................................ 100
   3.6  Coal Drying ........................................... 106
        3.6.1  Rotary Dryers .................................. 108
        3.6.2  Fluidized Bed Dryers ........................... 110
        3.6.3  Microwave Dryers ............................... 111
        3.6.4  Screw Conveyor Dryers .......................... 112
        3.6.5  Superheated Steam Dryer ........................ 112
   3.7  Desulfurization ....................................... 113
   3.8  Transportation ........................................ 115
        3.8.1  Unit Train ..................................... 116
        3.8.2  Barge .......................................... 117
        3.8.3  Pipeline ....................................... 117
        3.8.4  Truck .......................................... 119
        3.8.5  Ocean .......................................... 120
        3.8.6  Conveyer Belt .................................. 120
   References ................................................. 121
4  Storage .................................................... 127
   4.1  Introduction .......................................... 127
   4.2  Oxidation and Spontaneous Ignition .................... 129
        4.2.1  Oxidation and Rank ............................. 133
        4.2.2  Pyrite ......................................... 136
        4.2.3  Other Minerals ................................. 137
        4.2.4  Coal Size and Stockpile Ventilation ............ 137
        4.2.5  Moisture Content ............................... 138
        4.2.6  Time Factor .................................... 140
   4.3  Mechanism of Spontaneous Ignition ..................... 140
   4.4  Stockpiling ........................................... 144
        4.4.1  Stockpile Construction ......................... 145
        4.4.2  Stockpile Management ........................... 146
   4.5  Effect of Storage ..................................... 149
        4.5.1  Long-Term Storage .............................. 150
        4.5.2  Short-Term Storage ............................. 150
   4.6  Preventing Spontaneous Ignition ....................... 151
   References ................................................. 153
5  General Properties ......................................... 159
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 159
   5.2  Sampling .............................................. 164
        5.2.1  Methods ........................................ 166
        5.2.2  In Situ Sampling ............................... 167
        5.2.3  Ex-Situ Sampling ............................... 168
   5.3  Proximate Analysis .................................... 171
        5.3.1  Moisture ....................................... 173
        5.3.2  Natural Bed Moisture ........................... 175
        5.3.3  Volatile Matter ................................ 177
        5.3.4  Ash ............................................ 179
        5.3.5  Fixed Carbon ................................... 187
   5.4  Ultimate Analysis ..................................... 187
        5.4.1  Carbon and Hydrogen ............................ 189
        5.4.2  Nitrogen ....................................... 189
        5.4.3  Oxygen ......................................... 190
        5.4.4  Sulfur ......................................... 191
        5.4.5  Chlorine ....................................... 192
        5.4.6  Mercury ........................................ 193
        5.4.7  Trace Elements ................................. 194
   5.5  Calorific Value ....................................... 195
   5.6  Reporting Coal Analyses ............................... 198
   References ................................................. 204
6  Physical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties ............... 211
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 211
   6.2  Physical Properties ................................... 215
        6.2.1  Coal Type ...................................... 216
        6.2.2  Density ........................................ 217
        6.2.3  Petrographic Analysis .......................... 222
        6.2.4  Porosity and Surface Area ...................... 223
   6.3  Mechanical Properties ................................. 225
        6.3.1  Strength ....................................... 226
        6.3.2  Hardness ....................................... 227
        6.3.3  Friability ..................................... 228
        6.3.4  Grindability ................................... 230
        6.3.5  Dustiness Index ................................ 234
   6.4  Thermal Properties .................................... 234
        6.4.1  Heat Capacity .................................. 236
        6.4.2  Thermal Conductivity ........................... 237
        6.4.3  Plastic and Agglutinating Properties ........... 238
        6.4.4  Agglomerating Index ............................ 242
        6.4.5  Free Swelling Index ............................ 242
        6.4.6  Ash Fusion Temperature ......................... 243
   6.5  Epilogue .............................................. 245
   References ................................................. 245
7  Combustion ................................................. 251
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 251
   7.2  General Aspects ....................................... 255
        7.2.1  Coal Devolatilization and Combustion of
               Volatile Matter ................................ 255
        7.2.2  Char Combustion ................................ 257
   7.3  Chemistry and Physics ................................. 258
        7.3.1  Influence of Coal Quality ...................... 262
        7.3.2  Mechanism ...................................... 266
        7.3.3  Ignition ....................................... 269
        7.3.4  Surface Effects ................................ 270
        7.3.5  Reaction Rates ................................. 272
        7.3.6  Heat Balance ................................... 272
        7.3.7  Soot Formation ................................. 273
        7.3.8  Conduction, Convection, and Radiation .......... 274
        7.3.9  Slagging and Fouling ........................... 275
        7.3.10 Additives and Catalysts ........................ 276
        7.3.11 Excess Air ..................................... 278
        7.3.12 Coal/Air Transport ............................. 279
   7.4  Catalytic Combustion .................................. 279
   7.5  Fuels ................................................. 280
        7.5.1  Coal ........................................... 282
        7.5.2  Coal Blends .................................... 284
        7.5.3  Coal-Oil Fuels ................................. 290
        7.5.4  Coal-Water Fuels ............................... 292
        7.5.5  Coal-Biomass Fuels ............................. 298
   References ................................................. 307
8  Combustion Systems ......................................... 315
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 315
   8.2  Combustion Systems .................................... 319
        8.2.1  Stoker Systems ................................. 321
        8.2.2  Fixed Bed Systems .............................. 323
        8.2.3  Fluidized Beds ................................. 330
        8.2.4  Entrained Systems .............................. 342
        8.2.5  Miscellaneous Systems .......................... 345
   8.3  Fuel Feeders .......................................... 352
   References ................................................. 353
9  Gasification ............................................... 355
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 355
   9.2  General Aspects ....................................... 358
        9.2.1  Coal Devolatilization .......................... 361
        9.2.2  Char Gasification .............................. 362
   9.3  Chemistry and Physics ................................. 364
        9.3.1  Influence of Coal Quality ...................... 365
        9.3.2  Mechanism ...................................... 368
        9.3.3  Primary Gasification ........................... 370
        9.3.4  Secondary Gasification ......................... 370
        9.3.5  Shift Conversion ............................... 370
        9.3.6  Hydrogasification .............................. 371
   9.4  Catalytic Gasification ................................ 371
   9.5  Plasma Gasification ................................... 373
   9.6  Gasification Systems .................................. 374
        9.6.1  Fixed Bed Gasifier ............................. 376
        9.6.2  Fluidized Bed Gasifier ......................... 378
        9.6.3  Entrained Bed Gasifier ......................... 381
        9.6.4  Molten Salt Gasifier ........................... 383
   9.7  Gaseous Products ...................................... 383
        9.7.1  Low Btu Gas .................................... 383
        9.7.2  Medium Btu Gas ................................. 385
        9.7.3  High Btu Gas ................................... 385
        9.7.4  Methane ........................................ 386
        9.7.5  Hydrogen ....................................... 387
        9.7.6  Other Products ................................. 390
   9.8  Gasification of Coal with Biomass and Waste ........... 390
        9.8.1  Biomass ........................................ 391
        9.8.2  Waste .......................................... 393
        9.8.3  Reactors ....................................... 396
   9.9  Underground Gasification .............................. 397
   References ................................................. 401
10 Gasification Systems ....................................... 407
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 407
   10.2 Fixed-Bed Processes ................................... 409
        10.2.1 Foster Wheeler Stoic Process ................... 409
        10.2.2 Lurgi Process .................................. 410
        10.2.3 Wellman Galusha Process ........................ 412
        10.2.4 Woodall-Duckham Process ........................ 414
   10.3 Fluidized-Bed Processes ............................... 416
        10.3.1 Agglomerating Burner Process ................... 416
        10.3.2 Carbon Dioxide Acceptor Process ................ 416
        10.3.3 Coalcon Process ................................ 419
        10.3.4 The COED/COGAS Process ......................... 420
        10.3.5 Exxon Catalytic Gasification Process ........... 421
        10.3.6 The Hydrane Process ............................ 422
        10.3.7 The Hygas Process .............................. 422
        10.3.8 Pressurized Fluid-bed Process .................. 424
        10.3.9 Synthane Process ............................... 425
        10.3.10 The U-Gas Process ............................. 427
        10.3.11 Winkler Process ............................... 428
   10.4 Entrained-Bed Processes ............................... 429
        10.4.1 Bi-Gas Process ................................. 429
        10.4.2 Combustion Engineering Process ................. 430
        10.4.3 Koppers-Totzek Process ......................... 431
        10.4.4 The Texaco Process ............................. 432
   10.5 Molten Salt Processes ................................. 434
        10.5.1 Atgas process .................................. 434
        10.5.2 Pullman-Kellogg Process ........................ 435
        10.5.3 Rockgas Process ................................ 436
        10.5.4 Rummel Single-Shaft Process .................... 437
   10.6 Underground Gasification .............................. 437
        10.6.1 Borehole Producer Method ....................... 439
        10.6.2 Chamber Method ................................. 440
        10.6.3 Shaftless Method ............................... 440
        10.6.4 Stream Method .................................. 441
   References ................................................. 442
11 Electric Power Generation .................................. 445
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 445
   11.2 Electricity From Coal ................................. 448
        11.2.1  Conventional Power Plant ...................... 448
   11.3 Steam Generation ...................................... 452
        11.3.1 The Steam Generator ............................ 455
        11.3.2 The Steam Turbines and the Electrical
               Generator ...................................... 455
        11.3.3 Steam Condensing and Cooling Towers ............ 458
   11.4 Control of Emissions .................................. 461
        11.4.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions ....................... 461
        11.4.2 Particulate Matter Emissions ................... 462
        11.4.3 Sulfur Dioxide Emissions ....................... 463
        11.4.4 Mercury Emissions .............................. 463
   11.5 Power Plant Efficiency ................................ 465
   11.6 Combined Cycle Generation ............................. 470
        11.6.1 Cogeneration ................................... 470
        11.6.2 IGCC Technology ................................ 471
   References ................................................. 474
12 Gas Cleaning ............................................... 477
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 477
   12.2 Environmental Legislation ............................. 482
   12.3 General Aspects ....................................... 485
   12.4 Air Pollution Control Devices ......................... 490
        12.4.1 Nitrogen Oxide Emissions ....................... 490
        12.4.2 Sulfur Oxide Emissions ......................... 491
   12.5 Particulate Matter Removal ............................ 493
        12.5.1 Electrostatic Precipitators .................... 494
        12.5.2 Fabric Filters ................................. 495
        12.5.3 Granular-bed Filters ........................... 496
        12.5.4 Scrubber Systems ............................... 497
        12.5.5 Cyclones ....................................... 504
   12.6 Acid Gas Removal ...................................... 505
   12.7 Removal of Sulfur-Containing Gases .................... 511
   12.8 Removal of Nitrogen-Containing Gases .................. 515
   References ................................................. 517
13 Environmental Aspects of Power Generation .................. 521
   13.1 Introduction .......................................... 521
   13.2 Coal Preparation ...................................... 525
        13.2.1 Water Treatment ................................ 526
        13.2.2 Dust Control ................................... 526
        13.2.3 Noise Control .................................. 527
        13.2.4 Recent Legislation ............................. 527
   13.3 Transportation and Storage ............................ 529
        13.3.1 Transportation ................................. 529
        13.3.2 Storage ........................................ 531
   13.4 Combustion ............................................ 532
        13.4.1 Effect of Coal Type ............................ 533
        13.4.2 Gaseous Effluents .............................. 534
   13.5 Gasification .......................................... 540
14 Clean Coal Technologies for Power Generation ............... 579
   14.1 Introduction .......................................... 579
   14.2 Historical Perspectives ............................... 588
   14.3 Modern Perspectives ................................... 590
   14.4 Clean Coal Technology ................................. 593
        14.4.1 Precombustion Cleaning ......................... 597
        14.4.2 Cleaning during Combustion ..................... 600
        14.4.3 Post-combustion Cleaning ....................... 606
        14.4.4 Conversion and Added-value Products ............ 617
   14.5 Managing Wastes from Coal Use ......................... 624
   14.6 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration .............. 626
   References ................................................. 637
15 Coal and Energy Security ................................... 645
   15.1 Introduction .......................................... 645
   15.2 Energy Security ....................................... 649
   15.3 National Energy Plan and Coal Utilization ............. 656
   15.4 Electric Power Generation ............................. 659
   15.5 Hydrogen from Coal .................................... 661
   15.6 Energy Security and Sustainable Development ........... 664
        15.6.1 Continuing Use of Coal ......................... 664
        15.6.2 Management of Coal Wastes ...................... 666
        15.6.3 Sustainable Development ........................ 668
   References ................................................. 673

Glossary ...................................................... 675
Common Conversion Factors Used in Coal Technology ............. 723
Index ......................................................... 727


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