Soames S. Philosophy of language (Princeton; Oxford, 2012). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаSoames S. Philosophy of language. - Princeton; Oxford: Princeton university press, 2012. - viii, 189 p. - (Princeton foundations of contemporary philosophy). - Ref.: p.175-186. - Ind.: p.187-189. - ISBN 978-691-13866-4
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Acknowledgments ................................................ ix
Introduction .................................................... 1

PART ONE: A Century of Work in the Philosophy of Language

CHAPTER ONE. The Logical Study of Language ...................... 7
1.1  Gottlob Frege - Origins of the Modern Enterprise ........... 7
     1.1.1  Foundations of Philosophical Semantics .............. 7
     1.1.2  Frege's Distinction between Sense and Reference ..... 8
     1.1.3  The Compositionality of Sense and Reference ........ 10
     1.1.4  Frege's Hierarchy of Indirect Senses and
            Referents .......................................... 13
     1.1.5  The Semantic Importance of Frege's Platonist
            Epistemology ....................................... 15
     1.1.6  Potential Problems and Alternative Analyses ........ 16
     1.1.7  The Fregean Legacy ................................. 20
1.2  Bertrand Russell: Fundamental Themes ...................... 20
     1.2.1  Quantification, Propositions, and Propositional
            Functions .......................................... 20
     1.2.2  Generalized Quantifiers ............................ 23
     1.2.3  Denoting Phrases, Definite Descriptions, and
            Logical Form ....................................... 24
     1.2.4  Russell's Theory of Scope .......................... 26
     1.2.5  Thought, Meaning, Acquaintance, and Logically
            Proper Names ....................................... 28
     1.2.6  Existence and Negative Existentials ................ 30
     Selected Further Reading .................................. 32

CHAPTER TWO. Truth, Interpretation, and Meaning ................ 33
2.1 The Importance of Tarski ................................... 33
     2.1.1  Truth, Models, and Logical Consequence ............. 33
     2.1.2  The Significance of Tarski for the Philosophy
            of Language ........................................ 38
2.2  Rudolf Carnap's Embrace of Truth-Theoretic Semantics ...... 41
2.3  The Semantic Approach of Donald Davidson .................. 45
     Selected Further Reading .................................. 49

CHAPTER THREE. Meaning, Modality, and Possible Worlds 
Semantics ...................................................... 50
3.1  Kripke-Style Possible Worlds Semantics .................... 50
3.2  Robert Stalnaker and David Lewis on Counterfactuals ....... 56
3.3  The Montagovian Vision .................................... 63
     Selected Further Reading .................................. 75

CHAPTER FOUR. Rigid Designation, Direct Reference, and 
Indexicality ................................................... 77
4.1  Background ................................................ 77
4.2  Kripke on Names, Natural Kind Terms, and Necessity ........ 78
     4.2.1  Rigid Designation, Essentialism, and
            Nonlinguistic Necessity ............................ 78
     4.2.2  The Nondescriptive Semantics of Names .............. 80
     4.2.3  Natural Kind Terms ................................. 88
     4.2.4  Kripke's Essentialist Route to the Necessary
            Aposteriori ........................................ 91
4.3  Kaplan on Direct Reference and Indexicality ............... 93
     4.3.1  Significance: The Tension between Logic and
            Semantics .......................................... 93
     4.3.2  The Basic Structure of the Logic of
            Demonstratives ..................................... 94
     4.3.3  Direct Reference and Rigid Designation ............. 97
     4.3.4  'Dthat' and Actually' .............................. 99
     4.3.5  English Demonstratives vs. 'Dthat' -Rigidihed
            Descriptions ...................................... 100
     4.3.6  Final Assessment .................................. 104
     Selected Further Reading ................................. 105

PART TWO: New Directions CHAPTER FIVE
The Metaphysics of Meaning: Propositions and Possible Worlds .. 109
5.1  Loci of Controversy ...................................... 109
5.2  Propositions ............................................. 111
     5.2.1  Why We Need Them and Why Theories of Truth
            Conditions Can't Provide Them ..................... 111
     5.2.2  Why Traditional Propositions Won't Do ............. 113
     5.2.3  Toward a Naturalistic Theory of Propositions ...... 116
            5.2.3.1  The Deflationary Approach ................ 117
            5.2.3.2  The Cognitive-Realist Approach ........... 121
     5.3  Possible World-States ............................... 123
            5.3.1  How to Understand Possible World-States .... 123
            5.3.2  The Relationship between Modal and
                   Nonmodal Truths ............................ 126
            5.3.3  Our Knowledge of World-States .............. 126
            5.3.4  Existent and Nonexistent World-States ...... 128
            5.3.5  The Function of World-States in Our
                   Theories ................................... 129
     Selected Further Reading ................................. 130

CHAPTER SIX. Apriority, Aposteriority, and Actuality .......... 131
6.1  Language, Philosophy, and the Modalities ................. 131
6.2  Apriority and Actuality .................................. 132
     6.2.1  Apriori Knowledge of the Truth of Aposteriori
            Propositions at the Actual World-State ............ 132
     6.2.2  The Contingent Apriori and the Apriori
            Equivalence of P and the Proposition That P Is
            True at @ ......................................... 134
     6.2.3  Why Apriority Isn't Closed under Apriori
            Consequence: Two Ways of Knowing @ ................ 135
     6.2.4  Apriori Truths That Are Known Only Aposteriori .... 136
     6.2.5  Apriority and Epistemic Possibility ............... 137
     6.2.6  Are Singular Thoughts Instances of the Contingent
            Apriori? .......................................... 140
6.3  'Actually' ............................................... 142
     Selected Further Reading ................................. 143

CHAPTER SEVEN. The Limits of Meaning .......................... 145
7.1  The Traditional Conception of Meaning, Thought,
     Assertion, and Implicature ............................... 145
7.2  Challenges to the Traditional Conception ................. 147
     7.2.1  Demonstratives: A Revision of Kaplan .............. 147
     7.2.2  Incomplete Descriptions, Quantifiers,
            and Context ....................................... 151
     7.2.3  Pragmatic Enrichment and Incomplete Semantic
            Contents .......................................... 155
       7.2.3.1  Implicature, Impliciture, and Assertion ....... 155
       7.2.3.2  Pervasive Incompleteness? Possessives,
                Compound Nominals, and Temporal Modification .. 158
7.3  A New Conception of the Relationship between Meaning,
     Thought, Assertion, and Implicature ...................... 163
     7.3.1  The Guiding Principle ............................. 163
     7.3.2  Demonstratives and Incomplete Descriptions
            Revisited ......................................... 164
     7.3.3  Names and Propositional Attitudes ................. 168
7.4  What Is Meaning? The Distinction between Semantics and
     Pragmatics ............................................... 171
     Selected Further Reading ................................. 173
     References ............................................... 175

Index ......................................................... 187


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