Figliola R.S. Theory and design for mechanical measurements (Hoboken, 2015). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаFigliola R.S. Theory and design for mechanical measurements / R.S.Figliola, D.E.Beasley. - 6th ed. - Hoboken: Wiley, 2015. - viii, 614 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. in the text. - Ind.: p.603-614. - ISBN 978-1-118-88127-9
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
1  Basic Concepts of Measurement Methods ........................ 1
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ 1
   1.2  General Measurement System .............................. 2
   1.3  Experimental Test Plan .................................. 5
   1.4  Calibration ............................................ 15
   1.5  Standards .............................................. 23
   1.6  Presenting Data ........................................ 31
   1.7  Summary ................................................ 35
   References .................................................. 35
   Nomenclature ................................................ 36
   Problems .................................................... 36

2  Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Signals ............... 43
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 43
   2.2  Input/output Signal Concepts ........................... 43
   2.3  Signal Analysis ........................................ 48
   2.4  Signal Amplitude and Frequency ......................... 51
   2.5  Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum ........... 65
   2.6  Summary ................................................ 73
   References .................................................. 73
   Suggested Reading ........................................... 74
   Nomenclature ................................................ 74
   Problems .................................................... 74

3  Measurement System Behavior ................................. 81
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 81
   3.2  General Model for a Measurement System ................. 81
   3.3  Special Cases of the General System Model .............. 85
   3.4  Transfer Functions .................................... 108
   3.5  Phase Linearity ....................................... 110
   3.6  Multiple-Function Inputs .............................. 112
   3.7  Coupled Systems ....................................... 114
   3.8  Summary ............................................... 116
   References ................................................. 116
   Nomenclature ............................................... 116
   Problems ................................................... 117

4  Probability and Statistics ................................. 123
   4.1  Introduction .......................................... 123
   4.2  Statistical Measurement Theory ........................ 124
   4.3  Describing the Behavior of a Population ............... 131
   4.4  Statistics of Finite-Sized Data Sets .................. 135
   4.5  Hypothesis Testing .................................... 141
   4.6  Chi-squared Distribution .............................. 144
   4.7  Regression Analysis ................................... 148
   4.8  Data Outlier Detection ................................ 155
   4.9  Number of Measurements Required ....................... 156
   4.10 Monte Carlo Simulations ............................... 158
   4.11 Summary ............................................... 160
   References ................................................. 161
   Nomenclature ............................................... 162
   Problems ................................................... 162

5  Uncertainty Analysis ....................................... 168
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 168
   5.2  Measurement Errors .................................... 169
   5.3  Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis ..................... 171
   5.4  Identifying Error Sources ............................. 176
   5.5  Systematic and Random Errors and Standard
        Uncertainties ......................................... 177
   5.6  Uncertainty Analysis: Multi-Variable Error
        Propagation ........................................... 180
   5.7  Advanced-Stage Uncertainty Analysis ................... 187
   5.8  Multiple-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis ............. 193
   5.9  Correction for Correlated Errors ...................... 205
   5.10 Nonsymmetrical Systematic Uncertainty Interval ........ 208
   5.11 Summary ............................................... 209
   References ................................................. 210
   Nomenclature ............................................... 210
   Problems ................................................... 211

6  Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements ................. 219
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 219
   6.2  Analog Devices: Current Measurements .................. 220
   6.3  Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements .................. 224
   6.4  Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements ............... 228
   6.5  Loading Errors and Impedance Matching ................. 235
   6.6  Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers ................ 240
   6.7  Analog Signal Conditioning: Special-Purpose Circuits .. 245
   6.8  Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters ................... 250
   6.9  Grounds, Shielding, and Connecting Wires .............. 261
   6.10 Summary ............................................... 264
   References ................................................. 264
   Nomenclature ............................................... 264
   Problems ................................................... 265

7  Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition ............ 271
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 271
   7.2  Sampling Concepts ..................................... 272
   7.3  Digital Devices: Bits and Words ....................... 280
   7.4  Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals .... 282
   7.5  Voltage Measurements .................................. 284
   7.6  Data Acquisition Systems .............................. 295
   7.7  Data Acquisition System Components .................... 296
   7.8  Analog Input-Output Communication ..................... 301
   7.9  Digital Input-Output Communication .................... 306
   7.10 Digital Image Acquisition and Processing .............. 311
   7.11 Summary ............................................... 316
   References ................................................. 316
   Nomenclature ............................................... 317
   Problems ................................................... 317

8  Temperature Measurements ................................... 322
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 322
   8.2  Temperature Standards and Definition .................. 323
   8.3  Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion ................ 326
   8.4  Electrical Resistance Thermometry ..................... 328
   8.5  Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement ................ 342
   8.6  Radiative Temperature Measurements .................... 365
   8.7  Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement ............ 373
   8.8  Summary ............................................... 382
   References ................................................. 383
   Suggested Reading .......................................... 384
   Nomenclature ............................................... 384
   Problems ................................................... 385

9  Pressure and Velocity Measurements ......................... 392
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 392
   9.2  Pressure Concepts ..................................... 392
   9.3  Pressure Reference Instruments ........................ 395
   9.4  Pressure Transducers .................................. 403
   9.5  Pressure Transducer Calibration ....................... 410
   9.6  Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids ................ 412
   9.7  Modeling Pressure - Fluid Systems ..................... 416
   9.8  Design and Installation: Transmission Effects ......... 416
   9.9  Acoustical Measurements ............................... 421
   9.10 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems ...................... 425
   9.11 Summary ............................................... 435
   References ................................................. 436
   Nomenclature ............................................... 437
   Problems ................................................... 438

10 Flow Measurements .......................................... 442
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 442
   10.2 Historical Background ................................. 442
   10.3 Flow Rate Concepts .................................... 443
   10.4 Volume Flow Rate Through Velocity Determination ....... 444
   10.5 Pressure Differential Meters .......................... 446
   10.6 Insertion Volume Flow Meters .......................... 464
   10.7 Mass Flow Meters ...................................... 474
   10.8 Flow Meter Calibration and Standards .................. 480
   10.9 Estimating Standard Flow Rate ......................... 481
   10.10 Summary .............................................. 481
   References ................................................. 481
   Nomenclature ............................................... 482
   Problems ................................................... 483

11 Strain Measurement ......................................... 487
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 487
   11.2 Stress and Strain ..................................... 487
   11.3 Resistance Strain Gauges .............................. 490
   11.4 Strain Gauge Electrical - Circuits .................... 497
   11.5 Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement ....... 500
   11.6 Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation .......... 504
   11.7 Optical Strain Measuring Techniques ................... 514
   11.8 Summary ............................................... 521
   References ................................................. 521
   Nomenclature ............................................... 522
   Problems ................................................... 523

12 Mechatronics: Sensors, Actuators, and Controls ............. 527
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 527
   12.2 Sensors ............................................... 527
   12.3 Actuators ............................................. 555
   12.4 Controls .............................................. 561
   12.5 Summary ............................................... 580
   References ................................................. 580
   Nomenclature ............................................... 580
   Problems ................................................... 581

Appendix A  Property Data and Conversion Factors .............. 585
Appendix В  Laplace Transform Basics .......................... 592
   B.l  Final Value Theorem ................................... 593
   B.2  Laplace Transform Pairs ............................... 593
Reference ..................................................... 593

Appendix (Online Only)
A Guide For Technical Writing
A Guide for Technical Writing References

Glossary ...................................................... 594

Index ......................................................... 603


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