Compact semiconductor lasers (Weinheim, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаCompact semiconductor lasers / ed. by R. De La Rue, Siyuan Yu, J.-M.Lourtioz. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2014. - xl, 301 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.297-301. - ISBN 978-3-527-41093-4
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface and Introduction ..................................... XIII
List of Contributors .......................................... XXI
Color Plates .................................................. XXV
1    Nanoscale Metallo-Dielectric Coherent Light Sources ........ 1
     Maziar P. Nezhad, Aleksandar Simic, Amit Mizrahi,
     Jin-Hyoung Lee, Michael Kats, Olesya Bondarenko,
     Qing Gu, Vitaliy Lomakin, Boris Slutsky, and
     Yeshaiahu Fainman
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.2  Composite Metallo-Dielectric-Gain Resonators ............... 4
     1.2.1  Composite Gain-Dielectric-Metal Waveguides .......... 5
     1.2.2  Composite Gain-Dielectric-Metal 3D Resonators ....... 7
1.3  Experimental Validations of Subwavelength Metallo-
     Dielectric Lasers for Operation at Room-Temperature ........ 9
     1.3.1  Fabrication Processes for Subwavelength Metallo-
            Dielectric Lasers .................................. 10
     1.3.2  Characterization and Testing of Subwavelength
            Metallo-Dielectric Lasers .......................... 11
1.4  Electrically Pumped Subwavelength Metallo-Dielectric
     Lasers .................................................... 13
     1.4.1  Cavity Design and Modeling of Electrically Pumped
            Subwavelength Metallo-Dielectric Lasers ............ 13
     1.4.2  Fabrication of Electrically Pumped Subwavelength
            Metallo-Dielectric Lasers .......................... 17
     1.4.3  Measurements and Discussion of Electrically
            Pumped Subwavelength Metallo-Dielectric Lasers ..... 18
1.5  Thresholdless Nanoscale Coaxial Lasers .................... 20
     1.5.1  Design and Fabrication of Thresholdless Nanoscale
            Coaxial v Lasers ................................... 22
     1.5.2  Characterization and Discussion of Thresholdless
            Nanoscale Coaxial Lasers ........................... 23
1.6  Summary, Discussions and Conclusions ...................... 27
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 29
     References ................................................ 29

2    Optically Pumped Semiconductor Photonic Crystal Lasers .... 33
     Fabrice Raineri, Alexandre Bazin, and Rama Raj
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 33
2.2  Photonic Crystal Lasers: Design and Fabrication ........... 35
     2.2.1  Micro/Nano Cavity Based PhC Lasers ................. 36
       2.2.1.1  Lasers Based on 2D PhC Cavities ................ 36
       2.2.1.2  Lasers Based on 3D PhC Cavities ................ 44
     2.2.2  Slow-Light Based PhC Lasers: DFB-Like Lasers ....... 46
       2.2.2.1  2D PhC DFB-Like Lasers for In-Plane Emission ... 47
       2.2.2.2  2D PhC DFB- Like Lasers for Surface Emission ... 50
2.3  Photonic Crystal Laser Characteristics .................... 52
     2.3.1  Rate Equation Model and PhC Laser Parameters ....... 52
       2.3.1.1  Linear Rate Equation Model ..................... 52
       2.3.1.2  PhC Laser Parameters ........................... 53
     2.3.2  The Stationary Regime in PhC Lasers ................ 55
     2.3.3  Dynamics of PhC Lasers ............................. 60
2.4  The Final Assault: Issues That Have Been Partially
     Solved and Others That Remain to Be Solved Before
     Photonic Crystal Lasers Become Ready for Application ...... 65
     2.4.1  Room Temperature Continuous Wave Room Temperature
            Operation of Photonic Crystal Nano-Lasers .......... 66
       2.4.1.1  CW Operation via Nonradiative Recombination
                Reduction ...................................... 66
       2.4.1.2  CW Operation via Increased Heat Sinking ........ 69
     2.4.2  Interfacing and Power Issues ....................... 74
       2.4.2.1  Interfacing an Isolated PhC Cavity-Based
                Device with the External World ................. 74
       2.4.2.2  Interfacing Active-PhC Cavity-Based Devices
                within an Optical Circuit ...................... 77
2.5  Conclusions ............................................... 82
     References ................................................ 83

3    Electrically Pumped Photonic Crystal Lasers: Laser
     Diodes and Quantum Cascade Lasers ..................... 91
     Xavier Checoury, Raffaele Colombelli, and Jean-Michel
     Lourtioz
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 91
3.2  Near-Infrared and Visible Laser Diodes .................... 93
     3.2.1  Photonic Crystal Microcavity Lasers ................ 93
       3.2.1.1  Photonic Crystals in Suspended (or Sustained)
                Membrane ....................................... 93
       3.2.1.2  Other Promising Designs ........................ 96
     3.2.2  Waveguide Lasers in the Substrate Approach: Weak
            Vertical Confinement ............................... 98
       3.2.2.1  DFB-Like Photonic Crystal Waveguide Lasers .... 100
       3.2.2.2  α DFB Lasers .................................. 102
       3.2.2.3  Ridge Waveguide Lasers with Photonic Crystal
                Mirrors ....................................... 103
     3.2.3  Photonic Crystal Surface-Emitting Lasers
            (PCSELs) .......................................... 106
     3.2.4  Nonradiative Carrier Recombination in Photonic
            Crystal Laser Diodes .............................. 209
3.3  Mid-Infrared and Terahertz (THz) Quantum Cascade
     Lasers ................................................... 112
     3.3.1  Microdisk QCLs .................................... 114
       3.3.1.1  Microdisk QC Lasers at Mid-Infrared
                Wavelengths ................................... 114
       3.3.1.2  THz Waves: Several Closely Spaced
                Demonstrations of Small Volume Micro-Lasers
                Exploiting Double-Sided Metallic Cavities ..... 215
     3.3.2  Photonic Crystal QCLs: Surface Emission and
            Small Modal Volumes ............................... 116
       3.3.2.1  Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers with
                Deeply Etched Photonic Crystal Structures ..... 116
       3.3.2.2  Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers with
                Thin Metallic Photonic Crystal Layer .......... 121
       3.3.2.3  Terahertz (THz) 2D Photonic Crystal Quantum-
                Cascade (QC) Lasers ........................... 123
     3.3.3  Toward THz QC Lasers with Truly Subwavelength
            Dimensions ........................................ 131
3.4  Concluding Remarks and Prospects ......................... 135
     References ............................................... 138

4    Photonic-Crystal VCSELs .................................. 149
     Krassimir Panajotov, Maciej Dems, and Tomasz Czyszanowski
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 149
4.2  Numerical Methods for Modeling Photonic-Crystal VCSELs ... 156
4.3  Plane-Wave Admittance Method ............................. 158
4.4  Impact of Photonic-Crystal depth on VCSEL Threshold
     Characteristics .......................................... 166
4.5  Top and Bottom-Emitting Photonic-Crystal VCSELs .......... 170
4.6  Enhanced Fundamental Mode Operation in Photonic-Crystal
     VCSELs ................................................... 173
4.7  Highly Birefringent and Dichroic Photonic-Crystal
     VCSELs ................................................... 177
4.8  Photonic-Crystal VCSELs with True Photonic Bandgap ....... 181
4.9  Summary and Prospects .................................... 285
     References ............................................... 288

5    III-V Compact Lasers Integrated onto Silicon (SOI) ....... 295
     Geert Morthier, Gunther Roelkens, and Dries Van
     Thourhout
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 295
5.2  Bonding of III-V Membranes on SOI ........................ 297
     5.2.1  Adhesive Bonding .................................. 299
     5.2.2  Direct Bonding .................................... 202
     5.2.3  Substrate Removal ................................. 203
5.3  Heterogeneously Integrated Edge-Emitting Laser Diodes .... 204
     5.3.1  Fabry-Perot Lasers ................................ 205
     5.3.2  Mode-Locked Lasers ................................ 207
     5.3.3  Racetrack Resonator Lasers ........................ 207
     5.3.4  DFB and Tunable Lasers ............................ 209
       5.3.4.1  Distributed Feedback Lasers ................... 209
       5.3.4.2  Distributed Bragg Reflector Lasers ............ 209
       5.3.4.3  Sampled Grating DBR Lasers .................... 209
       5.3.4.4  Ring-Resonator Based Tunable Laser ............ 210
       5.3.4.5  Heterogeneously Integrated Multiwavelength
                Laser ......................................... 210
     5.3.5  Proposed Novel Laser Architectures ................ 211
       5.3.5.1  Exchange Bragg Coupling Laser Structure ....... 211
       5.3.5.2  Resonant Mirrors .............................. 211
     5.3.6  Heat Sinking Strategies for Heterogeneously
            Integrated Lasers ................................. 212
5.4  Microdisk and Microring Lasers ........................... 213
     5.4.1  Design of Microdisk Lasers ........................ 215
     5.4.2  Static Operation .................................. 217
     5.4.3  Dynamic Operation and Switching ................... 219
       5.4.3.1  Direct Modulation ............................. 219
       5.4.3.2  All-Optical Set-Reset Flip-Flop ............... 219
       5.4.3.3  Gating and Wavelength Conversion .............. 221
       5.4.3.4  Narrowband Optical Isolation and Reflection
                Sensitivity of Microdisk Lasers ............... 222
       5.4.3.5  Phase Modulation .............................. 224
       5.4.3.6  Microwave Photonic Filter ..................... 224
     5.5  Summary and Conclusions ............................. 226
     References ............................................... 226

6    Semiconductor Micro-Ring Lasers .......................... 231
     Gabor Mezosi and Marc Sorel
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 231
6.2  Historical Review of Major Contributions to Research on
     SRL Devices .............................................. 232
6.3  Waveguide Design of Semiconductor Ring Lasers ............ 235
6.4  Bending Loss in Semiconductor Ring Lasers ................ 238
6.5  Nonradiative Carrier Losses .............................. 240
6.6  Semiconductor Microring and Microdisk Lasers with Point
     Couplers ................................................. 242
6.7  Junction Heating in Small SRL Devices .................... 246
6.8  RIE-Lag Effects in Small SRL Devices ..................... 248
6.9  Racetrack Geometry Microring Lasers ...................... 249
6.10 Chapter Summary .......................................... 252
     References ............................................... 253

7    Nonlinearity in Semiconductor Micro-Ring Lasers .......... 257
     Xinlun Cai, Siyuan Yu, Yujie Chen, and Yanfeng Zhang
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 257
7.2  General Formalism ........................................ 260
     7.2.1  Fundamental Equations for Semiconductor Ring
            Lasers ............................................ 260
     7.2.2  Third Order Susceptibility and Polarization ....... 265
     7.2.3  Generalized Equations in Matrix Form .............. 270
7.3  Numerical Results for Micro-Ring Lasers .................. 272
     7.3.1  L–I Characteristics ............................... 274
     7.3.2  Temporal Dynamics and Lasing Spectra .............. 275
     7.3.3  Lasing Direction Hysteresis ....................... 277
     7.3.4  Experimental Results for Racetrack Shaped SRLs .... 281
7.4  Numerical Results for Unidirectional Micro-Ring Lasers ... 283
     7.4.1  Unidirectional SRL ................................ 284
     7.4.2  Impact of the Feedback Strength on the Operation
            of Unidirectional SRL ............................. 287
7.5 Summary and Conclusions ................................... 293
    References ................................................ 294

Index ......................................................... 297


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