Christensen E.R. Physical and chemical processes in the aquatic environment / E.R.Christensen, An Li (Hoboken, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

Навигация

Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
ОбложкаChristensen E.R. Physical and chemical processes in the aquatic environment / E.R.Christensen, An Li. - Hoboken: Wiley, 2014. - xiii, 424 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.415-424. - ISBN 978-1-118-11176-5
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xi

1  TRANSPORT OF POLLUTANTS
   1.1  Introduction ............................................ I
   1.2  Advection-Diffusion Equation with Reaction .............. 2
   1.3  Steady-State Mixing in Estuaries ........................ 4
        1.3.1  Determination of Diffusivity D from Salinity
               Measurements ..................................... 5
        1.3.2  Pollutant Prediction for an Estuary with
               Uniform Discharge ................................ 5
        1.3.3  Salinity in an Infinite Estuary with a Large
               Freshwater Discharge ............................. 8
        1.3.4  Conservative Pollutant Prediction for an
               Infinite Estuary with a Large Freshwater
               Discharge ........................................ 9
   1.4  Time-Dependent Mixing in Rivers and Soil Systems ....... 10
   1.5  Vertical Mixing ........................................ 14
        1.5.1  The Radon Method ................................ 16
        1.5.2  The Tritium-helium-3 Method ..................... 17
        1.5.3  Evaluation of Mixing Based on Density
               Gradients ....................................... 19
   1.6  Hydrodynamic Models .................................... 20
   1.7  Groundwater Plumes ..................................... 22
   1.8  Sediment Mixing ........................................ 23
   References .................................................. 25
2  SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 28
   2.2  210Pb Dating of Sediments .............................. 29
        2.2.1  Measurement of 210Pb Activity ................... 30
        2.2.2  210Pb Activity Profiles ......................... 33
   2.3  137Cs and 239+240Pu Dating of Sediments ................ 38
   2.4  Dated Records of Metals and Organic Pollutants ......... 42
   2.5  Deconvolution of Sedimentary Records ................... 49
   2.6  Chemical and Biological Degradation .................... 55
   2.7  Sediments as a Source of Pollutants .................... 56
        2.7.1  Phosphorus ...................................... 57
        2.7.2  Metals .......................................... 57
        2.7.3  Acid-volatile Sulfides .......................... 58
        2.7.4  Organics ........................................ 59
   References .................................................. 60
3  ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTIONS
   3.1  Introduction ........................................... 65
   3.2  Atmospheric Deposition Processes ....................... 66
        3.2.1  Gaseous vs. Particulate Chemicals in the
               Atmosphere ...................................... 66
        3.2.2  Dry Deposition with Aerosols .................... 68
        3.2.3  Wet Deposition .................................. 75
        3.2.4  Gas Exchange .................................... 78
   3.3  Deposition and Gas Exchange of Organic Contaminants .... 84
   3.4  Marine and Freshwater Microlayers ...................... 87
   3.5  Case Study: Emission of VOCs from Wastewater
        Treatment Plants ....................................... 89
   3.6  The Fugacity Model ..................................... 93
        3.6.1  Fugacity Definitions and Basic Equations ........ 94
        3.6.2  Levels of Complexity ........................... 101
        3.6.3  Example Calculations - Chlorobenzene ........... 103
   References ................................................. 108
4  WATER CHEMISTRY 
   4.1  Introduction .......................................... 113
   4.2  Carbonate and Alkalinity .............................. 115
        4.2.1  Dissolved CO2 and Carbonate Speciation in
               Water .......................................... 115
        4.2.2  Solving Equilibrium pH ......................... 117
        4.2.3  Alkalinity ..................................... 120
        4.2.4  Buffer Index ................................... 124
   4.3  Sulfur Chemistry ...................................... 127
        4.3.1  Sulfur Redox Reactions in Water ................ 128
        4.3.2  Sulfur in Sediment ............................. 132
        4.3.3  Acid Rain ...................................... 133
   4.4  Impact of Global Warming on Natural Waters ............ 135
   References ................................................. 136
5  NUTRIENTS
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 138
   5.2  Input of Nutrients and Acidity ........................ 140
   5.3  Eutrophication ........................................ 143
        5.3.1  Eutrophication Control ......................... 148
        5.3.2  Harmful Algal Blooms ........................... 149
        5.3.3  Cladophora ..................................... 155
   5.4  Nitrogen .............................................. 156
        5.4.1  The Nitrogen Cycle ............................. 156
        5.4.2  Nitrification and Denitrification .............. 159
        5.4.3  N Removal ...................................... 166
   5.5  Phosphorus ............................................ 169
        5.5.1  The Phosphorus Cycle ........................... 169
        5.5.2  P Removal ...................................... 170
        5.5.3  Case Study: Phosphorus from Wastewater
               Treatment, Stormwater, and Rivers in
               Milwaukee, Wisconsin ........................... 172
   5.6  Vitamins and Trace Metals ............................. 173
   References ................................................. 180
6  METALS 
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 185
   6.2  Trends, Measurement, and Toxicity ..................... 186
   6.3  Major Sources and Reactions of Metals in Water ........ 193
        6.3.1  Atmospheric Deposition of Metals ............... 193
        6.3.2  Hydration, Hydrolysis, and Complex Formation ... 196
        6.3.3  Dissolution of Metals from Minerals ............ 201
   6.4  Behavior of Selected Metals in Water .................. 203
        6.4.1  Mercury ........................................ 203
        6.4.2  Zinc and Cadmium ............................... 204
        6.4.3  Arsenic ........................................ 207
   6.5  Zero-Valent Iron in Remediation of Contaminated
        Water ................................................. 209
        6.5.1  Dechlorination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ..... 209
        6.5.2  Reduction of Uranium Carbonate, Chromate, and
               Arsenate ....................................... 214
   References ................................................. 215
7  ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 220
   7.2  Important Organic Pollutant Groups .................... 221
        7.2.1  Petrochemicals and Industrial Solvents ......... 221
        7.2.2  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) ........ 223
        7.2.3  Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) ............... 223
        7.2.4  Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and
               Dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) ........................ 226
        7.2.5  Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and
               other Flame Retardants ......................... 226
        7.2.6  Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) ............... 232
        7.2.7  Other Pesticides ............................... 236
        7.2.8  Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) ................ 239
        7.2.9  Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
               (PPCPs) and other Endocrine Disrupting
               Compounds (EDCs) ............................... 240
   7.3  Descriptors of Organic Molecules ...................... 243
   7.4  Basic Physicochemical Properties ...................... 245
        7.4.1  Vapor Pressure ................................. 246
        7.4.2  Aqueous Solubility ............................. 247
        7.4.3  Henry's Law Constant ........................... 248
        7.4.4  Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient ............ 248
        7.4.5  Air-Octanol Partition Coefficient .............. 249
   7.5  Distribution of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic
        Environment ........................................... 249
        7.5.1  Air-Water ...................................... 250
        7.5.2  Water-Sediment ................................. 250
        7.5.3  Water-Biota and Sediment-Biota ................. 251
   7.6  Transformations in Water .............................. 252
        7.6.1  Hydrolysis ..................................... 253
        7.6.2  Photochemical Degradation ...................... 255
        7.6.3  Biological Degradation ......................... 257
        7.6.4  Case Study: Transformation of PBDEs in the
               Environment .................................... 259
   References ................................................. 261
8  PATHOGENS 
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 268
   8.2  Bacteria .............................................. 271
   8.3  Protozoa .............................................. 272
        8.3.1  Cryptosporidium ................................ 273
   8.4  Molecular Techniques for Detection of Pathogens ....... 276
        8.4.1  Water .......................................... 276
        8.4.2  Biosolids ...................................... 277
   8.5  Pathogen Indicator Organisms and Surrogates ........... 277
        8.5.1  Bacillus Subtilis .............................. 280
        8.5.2  E. Coli and Fecal Coliforms .................... 280
   8.6  Bacterial Contamination of Recreational Waters ........ 281
        8.6.1  Modeling ....................................... 283
        8.6.2  Beaches ........................................ 286
        8.6.3  Recreational Pools ............................. 287
   8.7  Pathogen Removal in Water and Wastewater Treatment .... 288
        8.7.1  Water .......................................... 288
        8.7.2  Wastewater and Solid Waste ..................... 289
        8.7.3  Inactivation Kinetics .......................... 290
   References ................................................. 295
9  TRACERS 
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 298
   9.2  Natural vs. Artificial Tracers ........................ 299
   9.3  Radioisotopes ......................................... 300
   9.4  Stable Isotopes ....................................... 301
   9.5  Applications of Tracer Technology ..................... 305
        9.5.1  Stable Isotope Tracers ......................... 305
        9.5.2  N and О Stable Isotopic Compositions of
               Nitrate Sources ................................ 309
        9.5.3  Other Physical and Chemical Tracers ............ 310
        9.5.4  Molecular-Based Biological Tracers ............. 314
   9.6  Chemical Mass Balance Modeling ........................ 315
        9.6.1  CMB Model for PAHs in Kinnickinnic River,
               Wisconsin ...................................... 316
   9.7  Factor Analysis ....................................... 320
        9.7.1  Non-negative Constraints Matrix Factorization .. 322
        9.7.2  Positive Matrix Factorization .................. 331
        9.7.3  Unmix .......................................... 335
   References ................................................. 341
10 ECOTOXICOLOGY 
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 347
   10.2 Bioassays ............................................. 349
        10.2.1 Fish ........................................... 350
        10.2.2 Algae .......................................... 350
        10.2.3 Daphnia ........................................ 351
   10.3 Molecular Biology Tools ............................... 353
        10.3.1 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ................ 353
        10.3.2 Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) ....... 354
        10.3.3 Gene Expression ................................ 354
        10.3.4 Biomarkers ..................................... 355
   10.4 Human Health .......................................... 357
        10.4.1 Fisheries Advisories ........................... 357
        10.4.2 Mercury ........................................ 358
        10.4.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) ............... 358
   10.5 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals ........................ 359
   10.6 Types of Toxicity ..................................... 360
        10.6.1 Disinfection Byproducts ........................ 361
        10.6.2 Detoxification and Degradation ................. 361
        10.6.3 Antibiotics .................................... 362
        10.6.4 Nanomaterials .................................. 363
   10.7 Models and Toxicity Tests ............................. 364
        10.7.1 Dose-Response Models for Single Toxicants ...... 364
        10.7.2 Dose-Response Models for Multiple Toxicants .... 369
        10.7.3 Pulsed Toxicity Tests .......................... 374
        10.7.4 Chronic Toxicity Tests ......................... 375
   10.8 Quality Criteria ...................................... 376
        10.8.1 Sediment Quality Criteria ...................... 376
        10.8.2 Water Quality Criteria ......................... 381
        10.8.3 Total Maximum Daily Loads ...................... 381
   References ................................................. 383
11 AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 389
   11.2 A Primer on Ambient Water Quality Regulations ......... 390
   11.3 Current US Water Quality Criteria ..................... 391
        11.3.1 Aquatic Life Criteria .......................... 402
        11.3.2  Human Health Criteria ......................... 403
        11.3.3  Organoleptic Effects .......................... 404
   11.4  Water Quality Databases .............................. 404

APPENDIX 11.A  Footnote for Table 11.1 ........................ 405
APPENDIX 11.B  Footnote for Table 11.2 ........................ 408
APPENDIX 11.С  Additional Notes ............................... 410
References .................................................... 412

Index ......................................................... 415


Архив выставки новых поступлений | Отечественные поступления | Иностранные поступления | Сиглы
 


[О библиотеке | Академгородок | Новости | Выставки | Ресурсы | Библиография | Партнеры | ИнфоЛоция | Поиск | English]
  Пожелания и письма: www@prometeus.nsc.ru
© 1997-2019 Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН (Новосибирск)
Статистика доступов: архив | текущая статистика
 

Документ изменен: Wed Feb 27 14:28:00 2019. Размер: 18,464 bytes.
Посещение N 719 c 06.10.2015