Nanocarbon-inorganic hybrids: next generation composited for sustainable energy applications (Berlin; Boston, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаNanocarbon-inorganic hybrids: next generation composited for sustainable energy applications / ed. by D.Eder, R.Schlogl. - Berlin; Boston: de Gruyter, 2014. - xix, 535 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.527-535. - ISBN 978-3-11-026971-0
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... v
Contributing authors ......................................... xvii

Part I:	Nanocarbon building blocks

Paul Gebhardt and Dominik Eder
1    A short introduction on carbon nanotubes ................... 3
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 3
1.2  Structural aspects ......................................... 4
     1.2.1  Chirality ........................................... 4
     1.2.2  Defects ............................................. 5
     1.2.3  Doping .............................................. 6
1.3  Properties of CNTs ......................................... 7
     1.3.1  Mechanical properties ............................... 7
     1.3.2  Electronic properties ............................... 8
     1.3.3  Thermal properties .................................. 9
1.4  Characterization .......................................... 10
1.5  Synthesis ................................................. 11
     1.5.1  Laser ablation ..................................... 12
     1.5.2  Arc discharge ...................................... 12
     1.5.3  Molten salt route / electrolytic process ........... 13
     1.5.4  Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................... 13
1.6  Post-synthesis treatments ................................. 14
     1.6.1  Purification ....................................... 14
     1.6.2  Separation of metallic and semiconducting CNTs
     1.6.3  Functionalization .................................. 16
     1.6.4  Assembly ........................................... 18
1.7  Summary ................................................... 18

Keith Paton
2    Synthesis, characterisation and properties of graphene .... 25
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 25
2.2  Properties ................................................ 25
2.3  Synthesis ................................................. 26
     2.3.1  Micromechanical cleavage ........................... 26
     2.3.2  Liquid phase exfoliation ........................... 27
     2.3.3  Precipitation from metals/CVD ...................... 30
     2.3.4  Epitaxial growth from SiC .......................... 31
2.4  Characterization .......................................... 32

Michele Melchionna and Maurizio Prato
3    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes ..................... 43
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 43
3.2  Functionalization. Why? ................................... 44
3.3  Types of functionalization ................................ 46
     3.3.1  Covalent functionalization ......................... 46
     3.3.2  Noncovalent functionalization ...................... 54
3.4  Functionalization with metals ............................. 61
3.5  Summary ................................................... 65

S.M. Vega-Diaz, F. Tristán López, A. Morelos-Gómez,
R. Cruz-Silva, and M. Terrones
4    The importance of defects and dopants within carbon
     nanomaterials during the fabrication of polymer
     composites ................................................ 71
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 71
     4.1.1  Carbon nanostructures and their properties ......... 72
     4.1.2  Doped carbon nanostructures ........................ 74
     4.1.3  Defects in carbon nanostructures ................... 76
     4.1.4  Functionalization of carbon nanostructures for
            nanocomposites ..................................... 79
4.2  Incorporation of nanocarbons into polymer composites
     and hybrids ............................................... 83
     4.2.1  Types of polymer composites ........................ 83
     4.2.2  Synthesis approaches ............................... 86
4.3  Properties ................................................ 89
     4.3.1  Mechanical properties .............................. 89
     4.3.2  Thermal properties ................................. 93
     4.3.3  Electrical properties .............................. 95
     4.3.4  Optical properties ................................. 97
     4.3.5  Biocompatibility ................................... 98
     4.3.6  Biodegradation ..................................... 99
     4.3.7  Permeability ...................................... 102
4.4  Summary .................................................. 104

Part II:   Synthesis and characterisation of hybrids

Cameron J. Shearer and Dominik Eder
5    Synthesis strategies of nanocarbon hybrids ............... 125
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 125
5.2  Exsitu approaches ........................................ 127
     5.2.1  Covalent interactions ............................. 127
     5.2.2  Noncovalent interactions .......................... 129
5.3  In situ approaches ....................................... 134
     5.3.1  In situ polymerization ............................ 135
     5.3.2  Inorganic hybridization from metal salts .......... 137
     5.3.3  Electrochemical processes ......................... 142
     5.3.4  Sol-gel processes ................................. 146
     5.3.5  Gas phase deposition .............................. 148
5.4  Other nanocarbons ........................................ 152
5.5  Comparison of synthesis techniques ....................... 153
5.6  Summary .................................................. 154

C.N.R. Rao, H.S.S. Ramakrishna Matte, and Urmimala Maitra
6    Graphene and its hybrids with inorganic nanoparticles,
     polymers and other materials ............................. 171
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 171
6.2  Synthesis ................................................ 172
6.3  Nanocarbon (graphene/C60/SWNT) hybrids ................... 175
6.4  Graphene-polymer composites .............................. 178
6.5  Functionalization of graphene and related aspects ........ 182
6.6  Graphene-inorganic nanoparticle hybrids .................. 185
6.7  Graphene hybrids with Sn02, MoS2 and WS2 as anodes in
     batteries ................................................ 189
6.8  Graphene-MOF hybrids ..................................... 192
6.9  Summary .................................................. 195

Markus Antonietti, Li Zhao, and Maria-Magdalena Titirici
7    Sustainable carbon hybrid materials made by
     hydrothermal carbonization and their use in energy
     applications ............................................. 201
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 201
7.2  Hydrothermal synthesis of carbonaceous materials ......... 202
     7.2.1  From pure carbohydrates ........................... 202
     7.2.2  From complex biomass .............................. 209
     7.2.3  Energy applications of hydrothermal carbons and
            their hybrids ..................................... 210
7.3  Summary .................................................. 221

Juan J. Vilatela
8    Nanocarbon-based composites .............................. 227
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 227
8.2  Integration routes: From filler to other more complex
     structures ............................................... 228
     8.2.1  Filler route ...................................... 229
     8.2.2  Evaluation of reinforcement ....................... 230
     8.2.3  Other properties .................................. 232
8.3  Hierarchical route ....................................... 235
     8.3.1  Structure and improvement in properties ........... 236
     8.3.2  Other properties .................................. 238
8.4  Fiber route .............................................. 240
     8.4.1  Different assembly routes ......................... 241
     8.4.2  Assembly properties and structure ................. 243
     8.4.3  Assembly composites ............................... 245
     8.4.4  Other properties of nanocarbon assemblies ......... 248
8.5  Summary .................................................. 248

Robert Schlögl
9    Carbon-Carbon Composites ................................. 255
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 255
9.2  Typology of C3 materials ................................. 256
9.3  Synthesis ................................................ 259
9.4  Identification of the structural features of C3
     material ................................................. 264
9.5  Surface chemistry ........................................ 266
9.6  Summary .................................................. 268

Teresa J. Bandosz
10   Graphite oxide-MOF hybrid materials ...................... 273
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 273
10.2 Building blocks .......................................... 274
     10.2.1 Graphite oxide .................................... 274
     10.2.2 Metal Organic Frameworks: MOF-5, HKUST-1 and
            MIL-lOO(Fe) ....................................... 275
10.3 Building the hybrid materials: Surface texture and
     chemistry ................................................ 276
10.4 MOF-Graphite oxides composites as adsorbents of toxic
     gases .................................................... 281
     10.4.1 Ammonia ........................................... 282
     10.4.2 Nitrogen dioxide .................................. 284
     10.4.3 Hydrogen sulfide .................................. 286
10.5 Beyond the MOF-Graphite oxides composites ................ 288
10.6 Summary .................................................. 289

Part III:  Applications of nanocarbon hybrids

Dang Sheng Su
11   Batteries/Supercapacitors: Hybrids with CNTs ............. 297
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 297
11.2 Application of hybrids with CNTs for batteries ........... 298
     11.2.1 Lithium ion battery ............................... 298
     11.2.2 Lithium sulfur battery ............................ 307
     11.2.3 Lithium air battery ............................... 308
11.3 Application of hybrids with CNTs in supercapacitor ....... 310
     11.3.1 CNT-based carbon hybrid for supercapacitors ....... 311
     11.3.2 CNT-based inorganic hybrid for supercapacitors .... 313
11.4 Summary .................................................. 314

Zhong-Shuai Wu, Xinliang Feng, and Klaus Müllen
12   Graphene-metal oxide hybrids for lithium ion batteries 
     and electrochemical capacitors ........................... 319
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 319
12.2 Graphene for LIBs and ECs ................................ 320
12.3 Graphene-metal oxide hybrids in LIBs and ECs ............. 321
     12.3.1 Typical structural models of graphene-metal
            oxide hybrids ..................................... 321
     12.3.2 Anchored model .................................... 323
     12.3.3 Encapsulated model ................................ 327
     12.3.4 Sandwich-like model ............................... 330
     12.3.5 Layered model ..................................... 332
     12.3.6 Mixed models ...................................... 335
12.4 Summary .................................................. 336

John Robertson
13   Nanocarbons for field emission devices ................... 341
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 341
13.2 Carbon nanotubes- general considerations ................. 343
     13.2.1 Field emission from nanocarbons ................... 346
     13.2.2 Emission from nanowallsand CNTs walls ............. 346
13.3 Applications ............................................. 347
     13.3.1 Field emission electron guns for electron
            microscopes ....................................... 347
     13.3.2 Displays .......................................... 348
     13.3.3 Microtriodes and E-beam lithography ............... 349
     13.3.4 Microwave power amplifiers ........................ 351
     13.3.5 Ionization gauges ................................. 352
     13.3.6 Pulsed X-ray sources and tomography ............... 352
13.4 Summary .................................................. 353

Panagiotis Trogadas and Peter Strasser
14   Carbon, carbon hybrids and composites for polymer
     electrolyte fuel cells ................................... 357
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 357
14.2 Carbon as electrode and electrocatalyst .................. 357
     14.2.1 Structure and properties .......................... 357
     14.2.2 Electrochemical properties ........................ 360
     14.2.3 Applications ...................................... 362
14.3 Carbon, carbon hybrids and carbon composites in PEFCs .... 368
     14.3.1 Carbon as structural component in PEFCs ........... 368
     14.3.2 Carbon as PEFC catalyst support ................... 369
     14.3.3 Carbon hybrids and composites as ORR
            electrocatalysts .................................. 379
14.4 Summary .................................................. 385

Benjamin Frank
15   Nanocarbon materials for heterogeneous catalysis ......... 393
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 393
15.2 Relevant properties of nanocarbons ....................... 394
     15.2.1 Textural properties and macroscopic shaping ....... 394
     15.2.2 Surface chemistry and functionalization ........... 397
     15.2.3 Confinement effect ................................ 400
15.3 Nanocarbon-based catalysts ............................... 401
     15.3.1 Dehydrogenation of Hydrocarbons ................... 402
     15.3.2 Dehydrogenations of alcohols ...................... 407
     15.3.3 Other reactions ................................... 410
     15.4 Nanocarbon as catalyst support ...................... 412
     15.4.1 Catalyst preparation strategies ................... 412
     15.4.2 Applications in heterogeneous catalysis ........... 416
15.5 Summary .................................................. 422

Gabriele Centi and Siglinda Perathoner
16   Advanced photocatalytic materials by nanocarbon hybrid
     materials ................................................ 429
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 429
     16.1.1 Hybrid vs. composite nanomaterials ................ 430
     16.1.2 Use of nanocarbon hybrid materialsin
            photoreactions .................................... 432
16.2 Nanocarbon characteristics ............................... 433
     16.2.1 The role of defects ............................... 435
     16.2.2 Modification of nanocarbons ....................... 437
     16.2.3 New aspects ....................................... 437
     16.2.4 Nanocarbon quantum dots ........................... 438
16.3 Mechanisms of nanocarbon promotion in photoactivated
     processes ................................................ 440
     16.4 Advantages of nanocarbon-semiconductor hybrid
          materials ........................................... 443
     16.5 Nanocarbon-semiconductor hybrid materials for
          sustainable energy .................................. 447
16.6 Summary .................................................. 448

Jiangtao Di, Zhigang Zhao, and Qingwen Li
17   Electrochromic and photovoltaic applications of
     nanocarbon hybrids ....................................... 455
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 455
17.2 Nanocarbon Hybrids for electrochromic materials and
     devices .................................................. 456
     17.2.1 Intrinsic electrochromism of nanocarbons .......... 456
     17.2.2 Synthesis and electrochromic properties of
            nanocarbon-metal oxide hybrids .................... 457
     17.2.3 Electrochromic properties of nanocarbon-polymer
            hybrids ........................................... 459
17.3 Nanocarbon hybrids for photovoltaic applications ......... 461
     17.3.1 Working mechanisms of PECs and OPVs ............... 461
     17.3.2 Nanocarbon hybrids for PECs ....................... 462
     17.3.3 Nanocarbon hybrids for OPVs ....................... 468
17.4 Summary .................................................. 469

Rubén D. Costa and Dirk M. Guldi
18   Carbon nanomaterials as integrative components in
     dye-sensitized solar cells ............................... 475
18.1 Today's dye-sensitized solar cells. Definition and
     potential ................................................ 475
18.2 Major challenges in improving the performance of DSSCs ... 477
18.3 Carbon nanomaterials as integrative materials in
     semiconducting electrodes ................................ 479
     18.3.1 Interlayers made out of carbon nanomaterials ...... 479
     18.3.2 Implementation of carbon nanomaterials into
            electrode networks ................................ 480
18.4 Carbon nanomaterials for solid-state electrolytes ........ 484
     18.4.1 Fullerene-based solid-state electrolytes .......... 484
     18.4.2 CNTs-based solid-state electrolytes ............... 485
     18.4.3 Graphene-based solid-state electrolytes ........... 487
18.5 Versatility of carbon nanomaterials-based hybrids as
     novel type of dyes ....................................... 488
     18.5.1 Fullerene-based dyes .............................. 488
     18.5.2 Graphene-based dyes ............................... 490
18.6 Photoelectrodes prepared by nanographene hybrids ......... 492
     18.6.1 Preparation of photoelectrodes by using
            noncovalently functionalized graphene ............. 492
     18.6.2 Preparation of photoelectrodes by preparing
            nanographene-based building blocks via
            electrostatic interactions ........................ 494
18.7 Summary .................................................. 496

Ljubisa R. Radovic
19   Importance of edge atoms ................................. 503
19.1 Introduction ............................................. 503
19.2 External edges ........................................... 505
19.3 Internal edges ........................................... 515
19.4 Edge reconstruction ...................................... 519
19.5 Summary .................................................. 522

Index ......................................................... 527


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