Mercury control for coal-derived gas streams (Weinheim, 2015). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаMercury control for coal-derived gas streams / ed. by E.J.Granite, H.W.Pennline, C.Senior. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2015. - xxviii, 445 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.437-445. - ISBN 978-3-527-32949-6
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
List of Contributors ......................................... XVII
Mercury R&D Book Foreword ..................................... XXI
Preface ..................................................... XXIII
List of Abbreviations ....................................... XXVII

Part I: Mercury in the Environment: Origin, Fate, and
Regulation ...................................................... 1
1    Mercury in the Environment ................................. 3
Leonard Levin
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 3
1.2  Mercury as a Chemical Element .............................. 4
     1.2.1  Physical and Chemical Properties of the Forms of
            Mercury ............................................. 6
     1.2.2  Associations with Minerals and Fuels ................ 6
1.3  Direct Uses of Mercury ..................................... 6
1.4  Atmospheric Transport and Deposition ....................... 7
1.5  Atmospheric Reactions and Lifetime ......................... 8
1.6  Mercury Biogeochemical Cycling ............................. 8
     References ................................................ 10

2    Mercury and Halogens in Coal .............................. 13
     Allan Kolker and Jeffrey C. Quick
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 13
     2.1.1  Mode of Occurrence of Mercury (Hg) in Coal ......... 13
     2.1.2  Effectiveness of Pre-Combustion Mercury Removal .... 14
     2.1.3  Methods for Mercury Determination .................. 15
2.2  Mercury in U.S. Coals ..................................... 16
     2.2.1  U.S. Coal Databases ................................ 16
       2.2.1.1  USGS COALQUAL Database ......................... 16
       2.2.1.2  1999 EPA ICR ................................... 19
       2.2.1.3  2010 EPA ICR ................................... 19
     2.2.2  Comparison of U.S. Coal Databases .................. 20
2.3  Mercury in International Coals ............................ 22
     2.3.1  Review of Mercury in Coal in the Largest Coal
       Producers ............................................... 22
       2.3.1.1  China .......................................... 23
       2.3.1.2  India .......................................... 24
       2.3.1.3  Australia ...................................... 26
       2.3.1.4  South Africa ................................... 26
       2.3.1.5  Russian Federation ............................. 27
       2.3.1.6  Indonesia ...................................... 29
2.4  Halogens in Coal .......................................... 29
     2.4.1  Introduction ....................................... 29
       2.4.1.1  Chlorine (CI) .................................. 30
       2.4.1.2  Bromine (Br) ................................... 32
       2.4.1.3  Iodine (I) ..................................... 35
       2.4.1.4  Fluorine (F) ................................... 35
2.5  Summary ................................................... 36
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 37
     References ................................................ 37

3    Regulations ............................................... 45
     Nick Hutson
3.1  U.S. Regulations .......................................... 45
     3.1.1  Background ......................................... 45
     3.1.2  Electric Generating Units (EGUs) ................... 46
     3.1.3  Mercury and Air Toxics Standards ("MATS") -
            Existing Sources ................................... 47
     3.1.4  Mercury and Air Toxics Standards ("MATS") - New
            Sources ............................................ 49
     References ................................................ 50

4    International Legislation and Trends ...................... 51
     Lesley L. Sloss
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 51
4.2  International Legislation ................................. 52
     4.2.1  UNEP International Legally Binding Instrument on
            Mercury ("Minamata Convention") .................... 53
     4.2.2  European Union (EU) ................................ 53
4.3  Regional and National Legislation ......................... 59
     4.3.1  Europe ............................................. 59
       4.3.1.1  Germany......................................... 59
       4.3.1.2  Netherlands .................................... 59
     4.3.2  Asia ............................................... 60
       4.3.2.1  China .......................................... 60
       4.3.2.2  Japan .......................................... 62
       4.3.2.3  Other Asian Countries .......................... 63
     4.3.3  Other Countries .................................... 64
       4.3.3.1  Australia ...................................... 64
       4.3.3.2  Canada ......................................... 65
       4.3.3.3  Russia ......................................... 65
       4.3.3.4  South Africa ................................... 65
4.4  Summary ................................................... 65
     References ................................................ 66

Part II: Mercury Measurement in Coal Gas ....................... 69

5  Continuous Mercury Monitors for Fossil Fuel-Fired
     Utilities ................................................. 71
     Dennis L. Laudal
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 71
5.2  Components of a CMM ....................................... 73
     5.2.1  Mercury Analyzer ................................... 73
       5.2.1.1  Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ...... 73
       5.2.1.2  Cold-Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry .... 74
       5.2.1.3  Other Analytical Methods ....................... 75
     5.2.2  Pretreatment/Conversion Systems and Probe .......... 75
       5.2.2.1  Sampling Probe ................................. 76
       5.2.2.2  Pretreatment and Mercury Conversion ............ 77
     5.2.3  CMM Calibration System ............................. 79
5.3  Installation and Verification Requirements ................ 82
     5.3.1  Installation ....................................... 82
     5.3.2  CMM Verification ................................... 82
       5.3.2.1  Measurement Error .............................. 83
       5.3.2.2  Seven-Day Calibration Drift .................... 83
       5.3.2.3  Relative Accuracy Test Audit ................... 83
5.4  Major CMM Tests ........................................... 84
5.5  CMM Vendors ............................................... 87
     References ................................................ 88

6    Batch Methods for Mercury Monitoring ...................... 91
     Constance Senior
6.1  Introduction .............................................. 91
6.2  Wet Chemistry Batch Methods ............................... 91
     6.2.1  Early EPA Total Hg Methods ......................... 91
     6.2.2  Development of Wet Chemistry Methods to Speciate
            Hg ................................................. 93
     6.2.3  Method Application and Data Quality
            Considerations ..................................... 94
6.3  Dry Batch Methods ......................................... 95
     6.3.1  Sorbent Trap Method History ........................ 95
     6.3.2  Method Overview .................................... 97
     6.3.3  Total Hg Measurements .............................. 97
       6.3.3.1  PS-12B ......................................... 97
       6.3.3.2  Method ЗОВ ..................................... 98
     6.3.4  Speciation Measurements ............................ 98
     6.3.5  Sampling Protocol .................................. 99
       6.3.5.1  Procedure and Apparatus ........................ 99
     6.3.6  Trap Analysis ..................................... 100
     6.3.7  Relative Accuracy and Quality Assurance/Quality
            Control ........................................... 100
6.4  Recommendations .......................................... 105
     6.4.1  Particulate Matter ................................ 105
     6.4.2  Total Versus Speciated Mercury .................... 105
     6.4.3  Expected Mercury Concentration in the Flue Gas .... 105
     6.4.4  Need for Real-Time Data ........................... 106
     6.4.5  Complexity of Installation and Operation .......... 106
     References ............................................... 106

Part III: Mercury Chemistry in Coal Utilization Systems and
Air Pollution Control Devices ................................. 109
7    Mercury Behavior in Coal Combustion Systems
     Constance Senior ......................................... 111
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 111
7.2  Coal Combustion Boilers .................................. 112
7.3  Mercury Chemistry in Combustion Systems .................. 113
7.4  Air Pollution Control Devices on Utility and Industrial
     Boilers .................................................. 117
     7.4.1  PM Control ........................................ 118
     7.4.2  NO, Control ....................................... 119
     7.4.3  SO2 Control ....................................... 119
     7.4.4  Boiler Populations in the United States ........... 120
7.5  Mercury Behavior in Coal-Fired Boilers ................... 121
     7.5.1  Data Sources ...................................... 121
     7.5.2  Mercury Behavior in APCDs ......................... 123
7.6  Summary .................................................. 129
     References ............................................... 130

8    Gasification Systems ..................................... 133
     Nicholas Lentz
8.1  Principles of Coal Gasification .......................... 133
8.2  Gasification Technologies Overview and Gasifier
     Descriptions ............................................. 134
8.3  Gasification Applications and Downstream Gas Cleanup
     and Processing ........................................... 135
8.4  Mercury Transformations and Fate ......................... 135
8.5  Hg Measurement in a Reducing Environment ................. 137
8.6  Hg Control Technologies for Gasification ................. 138
8.7  Hg and the MATS Rule for Gasifiers ....................... 139
     References ............................................... 140

9    Mercury Emissions Control for the Cement Manufacturing
     Industry ................................................. 141
     Robert Schreiber Jr., Shameem Hasan, Carrie Yonley,
     and Charles D. Kellett
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 141
9.2  Cement Manufacturing Process Description ................. 141
     9.2.1  Wet Process Kiln .................................. 144
     9.2.2  Dry Process Kiln .................................. 145
9.3  State of Knowledge on the Source and Behavior of
     Mercury in the Cement Kiln System ........................ 147
9.4  Mercury Emissions Control Solutions in the Cement
     Industry ................................................. 153
     9.4.1  Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) .................. 156
     9.4.2  Wet Scrubbing ..................................... 157
     9.4.3  Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Wet
            Scrubbing ......................................... 158
9.5  Conclusions .............................................. 159
     References ............................................... 160

Part IV: Mercury Research Programs in the United States ....... 163
10   DOE's Mercury Control Technology Research, Development,
     and Demonstration Program ................................ 165
     Thomas J. Feeley III, Andrew P. Jones, James T. Murphy,
     Ronald K. Munson, and Jared P. Ciferno
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 165
10.2 Background ............................................... 165
     10.2.1 NETL's Hg Control Technology R&D .................. 166
     10.2.2 Mercury Speciation ................................ 167
     10.2.3 Mercury Control Technologies ...................... 168
     10.2.4 Results from Field Testing Program ................ 169
     10.2.5 Oxidation Enhancements ............................ 169
     10.2.6 Chemical Additives ................................ 170
     10.2.7 Catalysts ......................................... 170
     10.2.8 Activated Carbon Injection ........................ 171
       10.2.8.1 Untreated РАС ................................. 171
       10.2.8.2 Chemically Treated РАС ........................ 173
       10.2.8.3 Conventional РАС with Chemical Additives ...... 175
       10.2.8.4 ACI Upstream of a Hot-Side ESP ................ 176
     10.2.9 Remaining Technical Issues ........................ 176
       10.2.9.1 Impacts on Fly Ash ............................ 176
       10.2.9.2 Sulfur Trioxide Interference .................. 178
     10.2.10 NETL In-House Development of Novel Control
       Technologies ........................................... 179
     10.2.11 Hg Control Technology Commercial Demonstrations .. 180
     10.2.12 Mercury Control Cost Estimates ................... 180
       10.2.12.1 Economic Analyses for ACI .................... 181
       10.2.12.2 Economic Analyses for Wet FGD Enhancement .... 181
     10.2.13 Coal Utilization Byproducts (CUB) R&D Program .... 182
     10.2.14 Determining the Fate of Hg in FGD Byproducts ..... 183
     10.2.15 Determining the Fate of Hg in Fly Ash ............ 184
10.3 Summary .................................................. 185
     Disclaimer ............................................... 186
     References ............................................... 186

11   U.S. EPA Research Program ................................ 191
     Nick Hutson
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 191
11.2 Congressionally Mandated Studies ......................... 191
11.3 Control Technology from Work on Municipal Waste
     Combustors (MWCs) ........................................ 193
11.4 Mercury Chemistry, Adsorption, and Sorbent Development ... 194
     11.4.1 Halogenated Activated Carbon Sorbents ............. 196
     11.4.2 Non-Carbonaceous Sorbents ......................... 197
     11.4.3 Mercury Control in a Wet-FGD Scrubber ............. 198
     11.4.4 Effect of SCR on Mercury Oxidation/Capture ........ 200
11.5 Coal Combustion Residues and By-Products ................. 201
11.6 EPA SBIR Program ......................................... 202
     References ............................................... 202

12   The Electric Power Research Institute's Program to
     Control Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants ... 205
     Ramsay Chang
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 205
12.2 Co-Benefits of Installed Controls ........................ 205
     12.2.1 Selective Catalytic Reduction/Flue Gas
            Desulfurization ................................... 205
     12.2.2 Unburned Carbon ................................... 206
12.3 Sorbent Injection ........................................ 207
     12.3.1 Units Equipped with Electrostatic Precipitators ... 208
       12.3.1.1 Western Coals ................................. 208
       12.3.1.2 Eastern Bituminous Coals and High-Sulfur
       Flue Gases ............................................. 208
     12.3.2 Units Equipped with Fabric Filters or TOXECON ..... 209
     12.3.3 Challenges and Responses .......................... 211
       12.3.3.1 Preserving Fly Ash Sales ...................... 211
       12.3.3.2 Optimizing Electrostatic Precipitator
         Performance .......................................... 211
       12.3.3.3 Optimizing Fabric Filter and TOXECON
         Performance .......................................... 212
12.4 Boiler Chemical Addition ................................. 213
     12.4.1 Combined Technologies ............................. 214
     12.4.2 Challenges and Responses .......................... 215
       12.4.2.1 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Chemistry and
         Mercury Partitioning ................................. 216
       12.4.2.2 Corrosion along Flue Gas Path and in the
         wFGD ................................................. 216
       12.4.2.3 Preserving Fly Ash Sales ...................... 217
       12.4.2.4 Selenium Partitioning in Wet Flue Gas
         Desulfurization Systems .............................. 217
       12.4.2.5 Bromide Leaching from Fly Ash ................. 217
12.5 Novel Concepts for Mercury Control ....................... 218
     12.5.1 TOXECON II® ....................................... 218
     12.5.2 Gore® Carbon Polymer Composite Modules ............ 218
     12.5.3 Sorbent Activation Process ........................ 220
12.6 Integration of Controls for Mercury with Controls for
     Other Air Pollutants ..................................... 221
12.7 Summary .................................................. 222
     References ............................................... 222

Part V: Mercury Control Processes ............................. 225
13   Mercury Control Using Combustion Modification ............ 227
     Thomas K. Gale
13.1 Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plants without
     Added Catalysts .......................................... 227
     13.1.1 Mercury is all Liberated and Isolated in the
            Furnace ........................................... 227
     13.1.2 Chlorine Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plants .... 227
     13.1.3 Mechanisms Governing Mercury Speciation ........... 228
13.2 Role of Unburned Carbon in Mercury Oxidation and
     Adsorption ............................................... 229
     13.2.1 UBC is the Only Catalyst with Enough Activity in
            Coal-Fired Power Plants ........................... 229
     13.2.2 UBC can Remove Hg or Oxidize Hg, Depending on
            the UBC Concentration ............................. 230
     13.2.3 Nature of Carbon Type Depends on Parent Coal and
            Combustion Efficiency ............................. 231
     13.2.4 Concentration of UBC Needed to Oxidize or Remove
            Mercury from Flue Gas ............................. 232
13.3 Synergistic Relationship between UBC and Calcium in
     Flyash ................................................... 233
     13.3.1 Calcium Enhances the Retention of Mercury on
            Carbon ............................................ 233
     13.3.2 Calcium/Carbon Synergism is Limited to a Range
            of Conditions ..................................... 234
13.4 Potential Combustion Modification Strategies to
     Mitigate Mercury Emissions ............................... 236
13.5 Effects of Combustion Modifications on Mercury
     Oxidation across SCR Catalysts ........................... 238
     13.5.1 Inhibition of Mercury Oxidation can Occur in
            Low-Chlorine Flue Gas ............................. 238
     References ............................................... 238

14   Fuel and Flue-Gas Additives .............................. 241
     John Meier, Bruce Keiser, and Brian S. Higgins
14.1 Background ............................................... 241
     14.1.1 Bromine-Salt Mercury Oxidation .................... 242
     14.1.2 Fuel Additive Injection Equipment ................. 242
     14.1.3 Case Study Results ................................ 243
       14.1.3.1 Case Studies where Halogen-containing Fuel
                Additives are Advantageous .................... 244
     14.1.4 Case Studies where Conditions are
       Disadvantageous to Fuel Additive ....................... 248
       14.1.4.1 Units Burning High Chlorine Fuel with an SCR .. 249
       14.1.4.2 Subbituminous Fired Units with Flue Gas
         Conditioning (S03 Injection) ......................... 249
       14.1.4.3 Units without Acid Gas Scrubbing and
         a Fabric Filter (FF) ................................. 250
14.2 Summary .................................................. 250
     References ............................................... 250

15   Catalysts for the Oxidation of Mercury ................... 253
     April Freeman Sibley
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 253
     15.1.1 Process Overview .................................. 253
15.2 Hg Oxidation and Affecting Parameters .................... 254
     15.2.1 Hg0 Oxidation Reaction Mechanism .................. 255
     15.2.2 Homogeneous Oxidation of Mercury .................. 255
     15.2.3 Heterogeneous Oxidation of Mercury over SCR
            Catalysts ......................................... 255
     15.2.4 SCR Operation-Hg0 Reaction Effects ................ 257
     15.2.5 Hg0 Oxidation and SO2/SO3 Conversion .............. 258
15.3 Conclusions and Future Research .......................... 259
     References ............................................... 260

16   Mercury Capture in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems .. 261
     Gary Blythe
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 261
16.2 Fate of Net Mercury Removed by Wet FGD Systems ........... 263
     16.2.1 Phase Partitioning ................................ 263
     16.2.2 Mercury in FGD By-product Streams ................. 264
16.3 Mercury Reemissions ...................................... 267
     16.3.1 Definition and Reporting Conventions .............. 267
     16.3.2 Reemission Chemistry .............................. 269
     16.3.3 Reemission Additives .............................. 271
16.4 Effects of Flue Gas Mercury Oxidation Technologies on
     FGD Capture of Mercury ................................... 272
     References ............................................... 274

17   Introduction to Carbon Sorbents for Pollution Control .... 277
     Joe Wong
17.1 Carbon Materials ......................................... 277
17.2 Carbon Activation ........................................ 277
17.3 Carbon Particle Shapes and Forms ......................... 280
     17.3.1 Powdered Activated Carbon (РАС) ................... 280
     17.3.2 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) ................... 281
     17.3.3 Shaped Activated Carbon ........................... 282
     17.3.4 Other Activated Carbon Forms ...................... 282
17.4 Activated Carbon Applications ............................ 282
17.5 Activated Carbon Properties in Emission Systems .......... 283
     17.5.1 Activated Carbon Surface .......................... 285
     17.5.2 Activated Carbon Pores ............................ 286
     17.5.3 Activated Carbon Particles ........................ 289
17.6 Summary .................................................. 291
     References ............................................... 291

18   Activated Carbon Injection ............................... 293
     Sharon M. Sjostrom
18.1 Introduction ............................................. 293
18.2 The Activated Carbon Injection System .................... 294
     18.2.1 Powdered Activated Carbon Storage ................. 294
     18.2.2 Process Equipment ................................. 295
       18.2.2.1 Metering ...................................... 295
       18.2.2.2 Conveying ..................................... 295
     18.2.3 РАС Distribution .................................. 296
18.3 Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Activated
     Carbon ................................................... 296
     18.3.1 Site-Specific Factors ............................. 296
       18.3.1.1 Flue Gas Characteristics: Halogens and SOs .... 297
       18.3.1.2 TOXECONTM ..................................... 303
     18.3.2 PAC-Specific Factors .............................. 303
     18.3.3 ACI System Design-Specific Factors ................ 304
       18.3.3.1 Injection Location ............................ 304
       18.3.3.2 Distribution .................................. 304
18.4 Balance-of-Plant Impacts ................................. 305
     18.4.1 Coal Combustion By-Products ....................... 305
       18.4.1.1 Autoignition of РАС in Ash Hoppers ............ 306
       18.4.1.2 Impacts on Particulate Emissions .............. 306
       18.4.1.3 Corrosion Issues .............................. 307
18.5 Future Considerations .................................... 307
     References ............................................... 307

19   Halogenated Carbon Sorbents .............................. 311
     Robert Nebergall
19.1 Introduction ............................................. 311
19.2 Application of Activated Carbon for Mercury Control ...... 311
19.3 Development of Halogenated Activated Carbon .............. 313
     19.3.1 Motivation ........................................ 313
     19.3.2 Manufacture ....................................... 315
     19.3.3 Performance ....................................... 316
     19.3.4 Balance-of-Plant Impacts .......................... 319
     References ............................................... 320

20   Concrete-Compatible Activated Carbon ..................... 323
     S. Behrooz Ghorishi
20.1 Introduction ............................................. 323
20.2 Concrete-Compatibility Metrics ........................... 324
     20.2.1 The New and Innovative Concrete-FriendlyTM
            Metrics; the Acid Blue Index ...................... 326
20.3 Production of Concrete-Compatible Products Including
     C-PACTM .................................................. 329
20.4 C-PACTM Specification .................................... 331
     20.4.1 Commercial Application of С-РАСTM ................. 331
     20.4.2 Full-Scale C-PACTM Trials at Midwest Generation's
            Crawford Station .................................. 332
     20.4.3 Full-Scale C-PAC™ Trials the PPL Montana Corette
            Station ........................................... 333
     20.4.4 Cement Kiln Mercury Emission Control Using
            C-PACTM ........................................... 334
20.5 Concrete Compatibility Test - Field Fly Ash/C-PACTM
     Mixture .................................................. 335
     20.5.1 Air Content of Fresh Concrete ..................... 336
     20.5.2 Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) ............. 336
     20.5.3 Stability of Mercury in Fly Ash and Concrete ...... 337
     References ............................................... 337

21   Novel Capture Technologies: Non-carbon Sorbents and
     Photochemical Oxidations ................................. 339
     Karen J. Uffalussy and Evan J. Granite
21.1 Introduction ............................................. 339
21.2 Non-carbon Sorbents ...................................... 340
     21.2.1 Amended Silicates, Novinda ........................ 340
       21.2.1.1 Background and Motivations .................... 340
       21.2.1.2 How Does the Amended Silicates Sorbent Work? .. 341
       21.2.1.3 Demonstrations ................................ 342
       21.2.1.4 Conclusions ................................... 344
     21.2.2 MinPlus CDEM Group BV ............................. 345
       21.2.2.1 Background and Motivations .................... 345
       21.2.2.2 How Does the MinPlus Sorbent Work? ............ 345
       21.2.2.3 Demonstrations of Sorbent ..................... 347
       21.2.2.4 Conclusions ................................... 348
     21.2.3 Pahlman Process - Enviroscrub ..................... 348
       21.2.3.1 Background and Motivations .................... 348
       21.2.3.2 How Does the Process and Sorbent Work? ........ 349
       21.2.3.3 Demonstrations ................................ 349
       21.2.3.4 Conclusions ................................... 350
21.3 Photochemical Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas ........... 350
     21.3.1 Sensitized Oxidation of Mercury: GP-254 Process ... 350
     21.3.2 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Mercury ............... 552
     Disclaimer ............................................... 352
     References ............................................... 353

22   Sorbents for Gasification Processes ...................... 357
     Henry W. Pennline and Evan J. Granite
22.1 Introduction ............................................. 357
22.2 Background ............................................... 358
22.3 Warm/Humid Gas Temperature Mercury Sorbent Capture
     Techniques ............................................... 360
22.4 Cold Gas Cleanup of Mercury .............................. 366
     22.4.1 Carbon-Based Materials ............................ 367
     22.4.2 Other Materials ................................... 368
     22.4.3 Wet Scrubbing Technique ........................... 369
22.5 Summary .................................................. 370
     Disclaimer ............................................... 370
     References ............................................... 371

Part VI: Modeling of Mercury Chemistry in Air Pollution
Control Devices ............................................... 375
23   Mercury-Carbon Surface Chemistry ......................... 377
     Edwin S. Olson
23.1 Nature of the Bonding of Mercury to the Carbon Surface ... 377
23.2 Effects of Acid Gases on Mercury Capacities on Carbon .... 378
23.3 Kinetic HCl Effect ....................................... 382
23.4 Summary .................................................. 385
     References ............................................... 386

24   Atomistic-Level Models ................................... 389
     Jennifer Wilcox
24.1 Introduction ............................................. 389
24.2 Homogeneous Mercury Oxidation Kinetics ................... 390
     24.2.1 Mercury - Chlorine Chemistry ...................... 390
     24.2.2 Mercury - Bromine Chemistry ....................... 397
24.3 Heterogeneous Chemistry .................................. 400
     24.3.1 Mercury Adsorption on Activated Carbon ............ 400
     24.3.2 Mercury Adsorption on Precious Metals ............. 404
24.4 Conclusions and Future Work .............................. 407
     References ............................................... 407

25   Predicting Hg Emissions Rates with Device-Level Models
     and Reaction Mechanisms .................................. 413
     Stephen Niksa and Balaji Krishnakumar
25.1 Introduction and Scope ................................... 413
25.2 The Reaction System ...................................... 414
25.3 Hg Transformations ....................................... 416
     25.3.1 In-Furnace Transformations ........................ 416
     25.3.2 In-Flight Transformations ......................... 419
     25.3.3 Hg0 Oxidation across SCR Catalysts ................ 427
     25.3.4 Hg Transformations within WFGDs ................... 430
25.4 Summary .................................................. 433
References .................................................... 435

Index ......................................................... 437


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