Bourne N. Materials in mechanical extremes: fundamentals and applications (Cambridge, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаBourne N. Materials in mechanical extremes: fundamentals and applications. - Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2013. - xi, 528 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.515-523. - Ind.: p.524-528. - ISBN 978-1-107-02375-8
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ ix

1  Natural extremes ............................................. l
   1.1  Akrology ................................................ 1
   1.2  Natural extremes ........................................ 7
   1.3  Key concepts in dynamic loading ........................ 22
   1.4  Final remarks .......................................... 29
   1.5  A note on units ........................................ 31
   1.6  Selected reading ....................................... 31
2  A basic analytical framework ................................ 32
   2.1  Loading states ......................................... 33
   2.2  Elastic waves in solids and on bars .................... 40
   2.3  Shock loading .......................................... 42
   2.4  The response of materials with strength ................ 52
   2.5  Impact states .......................................... 54
   2.6  Distance-time diagrams ................................. 55
   2.7  The release of dynamic compression ..................... 61
   2.8  The compaction of porous materials ..................... 64
   2.9  The shape of Hugoniots and the wave structures that
        result ................................................. 69
   2.10 Phase transformations .................................. 73
   2.11 Spallation ............................................. 79
   2.12 Burning and detonation ................................. 86
   2.13 Numerical modelling techniques ......................... 91
   2.14 Final comments ......................................... 99
   2.15 Selected reading ...................................... 100
3  Platforms to excite a response ............................. 101
   3.1  The scientific method ................................. 101
   3.2  Derivation and validation experiments and
        verification and validation of material models ........ 103
   3.3  Compressive stress .................................... 104
   3.4  Experimental platforms ................................ 106
   3.5  Tools for discovery science ........................... 109
   3.6  Static high-pressure devices .......................... 116
   3.7  Platforms for loading at intermediate strain rates .... 126
   3.8  Platforms for shock and quasi-isentropic loading ...... 133
   3.9  Final comments ........................................ 164
   3.10 Selected reading ...................................... 165
4  Tools to monitor response .................................. 166
   4.1  What do you need to measure? .......................... 166
   4.2  Derivation and validation experiments ................. 167
   4.3  Imaging and sensing ................................... 171
   4.4  Sensors ............................................... 174
   4.5  Recovery .............................................. 194
   4.6  Imaging ............................................... 196
   4.7  X-ray microtomography ................................. 207
   4.8  Particle accelerated imaging .......................... 208
   4.9  Future imaging platforms .............................. 209
   4.10 Future experimental techniques ........................ 211
   4.11 Selected reading ...................................... 213
5  Metals ..................................................... 214
   5.1  Introduction .......................................... 214
   5.2  Shock compression of FCC, BCC and HCP metals .......... 218
   5.3  Energy balance in shock and the fourth power law ...... 237
   5.4  Amorphous metals ...................................... 239
   5.5  Phase transformations ................................. 240
   5.6  Plasticity in compression ............................. 255
   5.7  Ramp loading .......................................... 258
   5.8  Release, spallation and failure ....................... 260
   5.9  Adiabatic shear banding in metals ..................... 289
   5.10 Metallic response under dynamic compression ........... 302
   5.11 The response of metals to dynamic tension ............. 309
   5.12 Final comments ........................................ 311
   5.13 Selected reading ...................................... 312
6  Brittle materials .......................................... 314
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 314
   6.2  Brittle failure ....................................... 316
   6.3  Crack speeds and fracture propagation ................. 318
   6.4  Material classes and their structures ................. 319
   6.5  Shock loading of glasses and polycrystalline ceramics . 327
   6.6  Dynamic compression of glasses ........................ 329
   6.7  Dynamic compression of polycrystalline ceramics ....... 342
   6.8  Ballistics ............................................ 361
   6.9  The response of brittle solids to dynamic compression . 365
   6.10 Final comments ........................................ 369
   6.11 Selected reading ...................................... 369
7  Polymers ................................................... 371
   7.1  Introduction .......................................... 371
   7.2  Classification and key behaviours ..................... 372
   7.3  High strain rate properties ........................... 381
   7.4  Dynamic compression of polymers ....................... 383
   7.5  Shock polarisation of polymers ........................ 402
   7.6  PTFE, PEEK and PMMA Taylor cylinder impact ............ 403
   7.7  The response of plastics to dynamic compression ....... 407
   7.8  Final comments ........................................ 411
   7.9  Selected reading ...................................... 411
8  Energetic materials ........................................ 413
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 413
   8.2  Classification of energetics .......................... 420
   8.3  Reaction pathways ..................................... 425
   8.4   Ignition and initiation .............................. 427
   8.5  Approaches in describing growth of reaction ........... 442
   8.6  The response of energetic materials to dynamic
        compression ........................................... 442
   8.7  Explosives engineering ................................ 445
   8.8  Final comments ........................................ 449
   8.9  Selected reading ...................................... 450
9  Asteroid impact ............................................ 451
   9.1  Introduction .......................................... 451
   9.2  Structural scales in condensed matter ................. 451
   9.3  Regimes of compression ................................ 453
   9.4  Phases of loading ..................................... 457
   9.5  Weak shock behaviour in metals, brittle solids,
        plastics and explosives ............................... 461
   9.6  Response of materials to extreme dynamic loading ...... 464
   9.7  Response of components and structures to extreme
        dynamic loading ....................................... 468
   9.8  Impact at Chicxulub ................................... 475
   9.9  Final comments ........................................ 488
   9.10 Selected reading ...................................... 489

Appendix A  Relevant topics from materials science ............ 491
   A.l  Structures ............................................ 491
   A.2  Strength of a crystalline material .................... 494
   A.3  Crystalline defects ................................... 495
   A.4  Plasticity ............................................ 498
   A.5  Brittle behaviour: crack generation and propagation ... 503
   A.6  Summary ............................................... 504
Appendix В  Glossary .......................................... 505
Appendix С  Elastic moduli in solid mechanics ................. 509
Appendix D  Shock relations and constants ..................... 511

Bibliography .................................................. 515
Index ......................................................... 524


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