Hou W. Methodical basis for landscape structure analysis and monitoring: inclusion of ecotones and small landscape elements (Dresden, 2014). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаHou W. Methodical basis for landscape structure analysis and monitoring: inclusion of ecotones and small landscape elements: Diss. … Dr. rer. nat. - Dresden: Technische Universitat Dresden, 2014. - xiv, 130 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.114-128.
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Table of contents ............................................... I
List of figures ................................................. V
List of tables ................................................ VII
List of abbreviations ........................................ VIII
Abstract ........................................................ X
Zusammenfassung ............................................... XII

1    Introduction ............................................... 1
1.1  Starting point of this work: biodiversity on landscape
     level ...................................................... 1
1.2  Modern landscape ecology and its shortcomings .............. 2
1.3  Research objectives and key questions ...................... 4
     1.3.1  Research objectives ................................. 4
     1.3.2  Key questions ....................................... 5

2    Theoretical basis and background ........................... 6
2.1  Small biotopes and ecotones as components of landscape
     pattern .................................................... 6
     2.1.1  Landscape fragmentation as a result of
            disappearing small biotopes ......................... 6
     2.1.2  A "soft" boundary: ecotones as transitional area
            between habitats .................................... 8
            2.1.2.1  The model of patch boundary ................ 9
            2.1.2.2  The ecotone concept ....................... 10
     2.1.3  Ecological functions of small biotopes and
            ecotones ........................................... 11
            2.1.3.1  Ecological functions of small biotopes .... 12
            2.1.3.2  Ecological functions of ecotones .......... 14
2.2  Landscape monitoring in Germany and China ................. 18
     2.2.1  Landscape monitoring in Germany .................... 18
            2.2.1.1  Current situation of biological
                     diversity in Germany ...................... 19
            2.2.1.2  Data used for landscape monitoring ........ 20
            2.2.1.3  Landscape indicators for biodiversity
                     conservation .............................. 21
     2.2.2  Landscape monitoring in China ...................... 25
            2.2.2.1  Current situation of biological
                     diversity in China ........................ 25
            2.2.2.2  Data used for landscape monitoring ........ 26
            2.2.2.3  Landscape indicators for biodiversity
                     conservation .............................. 27
2.3  Summary ................................................... 29

3    An enhanced approach for landscape structure analysis ..... 30
3.1  Data basis ................................................ 30
     3.1.1  RapidEye images .................................... 31
     3.1.2  High resolution elevation data ..................... 32
     3.1.3  Other data ......................................... 34
3.2  Mapping landscape pattern by integration of an object-
     and pixel-based classification approach ................... 35
     3.2.1  Object-based image analysis (OBIA): land-use
            classification based on multi-temporal RapidEye
            images ............................................. 36
            3.2.1.1  Spectral feature of Rapid Eye image ....... 36
                3.2.1.1.1  Atmospheric correction for Rapid
                           Eye data ............................ 36
                3.2.1.1.2  The use of Red Edge band in
                           vegetation classification ........... 37
            3.2.1.2  Class hierarchy ........................... 41
            3.2.1.3  The concept of image segmentation ......... 42
            3.2.1.4  Segmentation and classification strategy .. 43
     3.2.2  Pixel-based image analysis: detection of ecotones
            and small biotopes using high resolution NDSM
            data ............................................... 45
            3.2.2.1  Ecotone model and definition of small
                     biotopes .................................. 45
            3.2.2.2  Applied features and algorithms ........... 47
            3.2.2.3  Detailed landscape structure detection
                     based on NDSM ............................. 49
                3.2.2.3.1  Ecotone detection ................... 49
                3.2.2.3.2  Small biotopes detection ............ 50
3.3  Landscape structures analysis ............................. 51
     3.3.1  Metrics for describing landscape structure ......... 52
            3.3.1.1  Landscape diversity ....................... 52
            3.3.1.2  Landscape fragmentation ................... 53
            3.3.1.3  Landscape contrast ........................ 55
     3.3.2  Habitat connectivity analysis considering small
            biotopes as stepping stones ........................ 58
            3.3.2.1  Mapping ecological network ................ 58
            3.3.2.2  Indicators for assessing ecological
                     networks .................................. 60
3.4  Summary ................................................... 62

4    Examples of use and results: application of the
     proposed methodology in test sites of Germany and China ... 63
4.1  Study areas and data basis ................................ 63
4.2  Object-based image classification ......................... 65
     4.2.1  Classification of main classes ..................... 65
            4.2.1.1  Settlement and traffic extraction ......... 65
            4.2.1.2  Assessing scale parameter for
                     segmentation .............................. 66
            4.2.1.3  Classification process .................... 68
     4.2.2  Further classification of detailed land-cover
            classes ............................................ 70
            4.2.2.1  Detailed classification within
                     settlements ............................... 70
            4.2.2.2  Farmland plots delineation ................ 71
            4.2.2.3  Detailed classification within forests .... 72
     4.2.3  Accuracy assessment ................................ 74
            4.2.3.1  Classification accuracy in test site
                     Rathen .................................... 74
            4.2.3.2  Classification accuracy in test site
                     Jiawang ................................... 75
4.3  Fine-scale landscape structure detection .................. 76
     4.3.1  Detection resu Its ................................. 76
     4.3.2  Accuracy assessment ................................ 79
4.4  Landscape structure analysis .............................. 80
     4.4.1  Comparing "2D" and "3D" metrics in practice ........ 81
            4.4.1.1  Basic patch geometry ...................... 81
            4.4.1.2  Diversity metrics ......................... 82
            4.4.1.3  Effective mesh size (MESH) ................ 83
     4.4.2  Landscape contrast analysis ........................ 84
     4.4.3  Ecological network analysis using small biotopes
            as stepping stones ................................. 87
            4.4.3.1  Selection of buffer ranges ................ 87
            4.4.3.2  Mapping ecological networks ............... 87
            4.4.3.3  Analysis of connectivity for the test
                     sites ..................................... 90
4.5  Summary ................................................... 91

5    Discussion and evaluation ................................. 92
5.1  Evaluation of the proposed methods for image processing ... 92
     5.1.1  Applying Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) on
            RapidEye data ...................................... 92
     5.1.2  Applying pixel-based object detection on high
            resolution NDSM .................................... 92
5.2  Evaluation of the metrics for landscape structure
     analysis .................................................. 99
     5.2.1  The application of landscape diversity metrics ..... 99
     5.2.2  The application of the metrics for describing
            landscape fragmentation/connectivity .............. 100
            5.2.2.1  Unification of landscape fragmentation
                     and connectivity ......................... 100
            5.2.2.2  Functional roles of ecotones and small
                     biotopes in econets ...................... 101
            5.2.2.3  General applicability in econets
                     analysis ................................. 102
     5.2.3  The application of the metrics for describing
            landscape contrast ................................ 104
5.3  Possible fields of application ........................... 105

6    Conclusion and outlook ................................... 108

7    References ............................................... 114


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