Handbook of luminescence, display materials, and devices. Vol. 3: Display devices (Stevenson Ranch, 2003). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаHandbook of luminescence, display materials, and devices. Vol. 3: Display devices / ed. H.S.Nalwa, L.Sh.Rohwer. - Stevenson Ranch: American scientific publishers, 2003. - xxi, 400 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.399-400. - ISBN 1-58883-032-2
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
List of Contributors ........................................... xv
Volume Listing ............................................... xvii
About the Editors ............................................. xix

Chapter 1. CARBON NANOTUBE-BASED FIELD EMISSION DISPLAYS
Whikun Yi, SeGi Yu, J.E. Jung, N.S. Lee, Ji-Beom Yoo,
C.G. Lee, S.K. Kang, J.M. Kim
1  Overview ..................................................... 2
2  General Scope of Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters .............. 2
3  Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters ............................... 3
   3.1  Single Nanotube Field Emitters .......................... 3
   3.2  Nanotube Film Field Emitters ............................ 4
   3.3  Patterned Nanotube Field Emitters ....................... 6
4  Experimental Methods to Measure Field Emission ............... 7
5  Lifetime Stability ........................................... 7
6  Environmental Stability and an Adsorbate Effect During
   Field Emission from CNTs ..................................... 8
7  Effects of Coating Material on the Field Emission from
   Carbon Nanotubes ............................................ 10
8  Field Emission Energy Distribution of Carbon Nanotubes ...... 11
9  Field Emission Mechanism .................................... 13
10 Fabrication and Device Characteristics of CNT-FEDs .......... 15
   10.1 Introduction ........................................... 15
   10.2 Preparation of Paste ................................... 16
   10.4 Triode-Type CNT-FEDs ................................... 22
   10.5 Summary ................................................ 30
11 Potential Applications and Outlook .......................... 31
References ..................................................... 31

Chapter 2. INORGANIC ELECTROLUMINESCENT DISPLAYS
Philip D. Rack, Jason C. Heikenfeld, Andrew J. Steckl
1  Introduction ................................................ 36
2  History of Electroluminescence .............................. 36
3  Device Structure ............................................ 37
   3.1  Thin Film Electroluminescence .......................... 37
   3.2  Inverted-Thick Film Dielectric Electroluminescence ..... 39
4  Electrical and Optical Properties of ACTFEL Devices ......... 41
5  Device Physics .............................................. 45
   5.1  Tunnel Emission ........................................ 45
   5.2  Electron Acceleration .................................. 49
   5.3  Impact Excitation/Ionization ........................... 50
   5.4  De-excitation .......................................... 51
6  Material Properties ......................................... 52
   6.1  Electrodes ............................................. 52
   6.2  Insulators ............................................. 53
   6.3  Phosphors .............................................. 55
7  Fundamentals of Atomic Transitions .......................... 57
   7.1  Host Material and Luminescent Center Interactions ...... 59

Chapter 3. PHOSPHORS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES
Alok M. Srivastava
1  Introduction ................................................ 79
2  Phosphors for Plasma Display Panels ......................... 80
3  Phosphors for Electroluminescence Displays .................. 87
4  Phosphors for Field Emission Displays ....................... 91
5  Cathodoluminescent Phosphors and Color Television ........... 95
6  Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diodes ................... 97
References ..................................................... 99

Chapter 4. LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SILICON INTEGRATED
CIRCUITS
Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi
1  Introduction ............................................... 102
2  Technological Framework .................................... 102
   2.1  Why Are Silicon LEDs Needed? .......................... 102
   2.2  Measuring Light Sources ............................... 104
3  Electroluminescence in Bulk Crystalline Si ................. 106
   3.1  Bulk-Si pn Junction LEDs .............................. 106
   3.2  Enhanced-Efficiency Bulk-Si pn Junction LEDs .......... 108
   3.3  Band-to-Band EL in MOS LEDs ........................... 110
4  Porous Si LEDs ............................................. 111
   4.1  Porous Si Fabrication and Properties .................. 111
   4.2  Development of Porous Si LEDs ......................... 112
   4.3  Porous Si Resonant Cavity LEDs ........................ 115
5  Low Dimensional Si Based LEDs .............................. 116
   5.1  Si Nanocrystals ....................................... 116
   5.2  Si/SiO2 Superlattices ................................. 117
6  SiGeLEDs ................................................... 118
   6.1  Strained Epitaxial SiGe LEDs .......................... 118
   6.2  Ge-Implanted SiO2 LEDs ................................ 119
   6.3  SiGe Self-Assembled Quantum Dot LEDs .................. 119
   6.4  Quantum Cascade in Heterostructure SiGe LEDs .......... 120
7  Surface Plasmon LEDs ....................................... 120
8  Erbium Doped Si LEDs ....................................... 121
   8.1  Er Doped Crystalline Si ............................... 121
   8.2  Erbium Doped Si Nanocrystals .......................... 121
9  Si Hybrid Technology ....................................... 122
   9.1  Flip-Chip Solder Bonding .............................. 122
   9.2  Wafer Fusion .......................................... 122
   9.3  Epitaxial Lift-Off .................................... 123
   9.4  Laser Lift-Off ........................................ 123
   9.5  Heteroepitaxy of Compound Semiconductors on Si ........ 123
10 Conclusion ................................................. 124
   Acknowledgments ............................................ 124
   References ................................................. 124

Chapter 5. ELECTROLUMINESCENCE OF NANOCRYSTALLINE POROUS
SILICON DEVICES
Bernard Gelloz, Nobuyoshi Koshida
1  Introduction ............................................... 128
2  Overview ................................................... 128
   2.1  Porous Si Formation and Main Characteristics .......... 129
   2.2  First PS-Based EL: Liquid and Solid Contacts .......... 130
   2.3  Differences Between Wet and Solid-State PS-Based EL ... 133
   2.4  Overview of Solid-State PS-Based EL ................... 135
3  Enhancing the Efficiency ................................... 138
   3.1  Basic Aspects ......................................... 138
   3.2  Devices in Which a pn Junction is Porosified .......... 140
   3.3  Impregnation of Materials into PS Pores ............... 141
   3.4  Anodic Oxidation of PS ................................ 141
   3.5  Reduction of the Operating Voltage .................... 143
4  Enhancing the Stability .................................... 144
   4.1  PS Oxidation .......................................... 145
   4.2  Changing the Chemical Nature of PS Surface ............ 146
   4.3  PS Capping ............................................ 147
   4.4  Mechanical and Electrical Stability ................... 147
5  Tuning the Emission Band ................................... 148
   5.1  Effects of Anodization Conditions and Top Contact
        Structure ............................................. 149
   5.2  Blueshift of Porous Si Emission Induced by Anodic
        Oxidation ............................................. 150
   5.3  Oxide-Free Blue Emission .............................. 150
   5.4  Devices in Which PS is in a Microcavity ............... 151
6  Summary .................................................... 153
   References ................................................. 154

Chapter 6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHORS FOR
FLAT-PANEL DISPLAYS
Lauren E. Shea Rohwer, Robert J. Walko
1  Introduction ............................................... 158
2  Background on Luminescence ................................. 159
   2.1  Phenomenon of Luminescence ............................ 159
   2.2  Mechanism of Luminescence ............................. 159
   2.3  Interaction of Electrons with a Solid ................. 161
3  Solid State Reaction Mechanisms ............................ 164
   3.1  Types of Solid State Reactions ........................ 164
   3.2  Diffusion Mechanisms .................................. 165
   3.3  Phase Transformations in Solids ....................... 167
   3.4  Thermal Analysis of Solid State Reactions ............. 170
4  Design and Analysis of Luminescent Solids .................. 171
   4.1  Factors Influencing Phosphor Quality .................. 171
   4.2  Analysis of Phosphor Powders .......................... 173
5  Phosphor Synthesis Techniques .............................. 175
   5.1  Solid State and Coprecipitation Reactions of Oxide-
        Based Phosphors ....................................... 175
   5.2  Solid State and Coprecipitation Reactions of
        Sulfide-Based Phosphors ............................... 177
   5.3  Hydrothermal Synthesis ................................ 181
   5.4  Combustion Synthesis .................................. 187
6  Field Emission Displays .................................... 195
   6.1  Phenomenon of Field Electron Emission ................. 195
   6.2  Field Emitter Arrays .................................. 198
   6.3  The Field Emitter Display  ............................ 199
   6.4  Field Emitter/Phosphor Interactions ................... 200
7  Powder Phosphor Characterization  .......................... 201
   7.1  Performing Accurate Cathodoluminescence Efficiency
        Measurements .......................................... 201
   7.2  Cathodoluminescence Measurement Standard .............. 206
   Acknowledgments  ........................................... 207
   References ................................................. 207

Chapter 7. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS
T.N. Ruckmongathan, N.V. Madhusudana
1  Introduction ............................................... 212
2  Nematic Liquid Crystals  ................................... 212
   2.1  Surface Alignment of Nematic Liquid Crystals  ......... 214
   2.2  Electrooptic Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals ....... 215
   2.3  Twisted Nematic LCD ................................... 217
   2.4  Super Twisted Nematic LCD ............................. 221
   2.5  In Plane Switching Mode ............................... 222
   2.6  Multidomain Vertically Aligned Mode ................... 222
   2.7  Pi-Cell and Optically Compensated Birefringence LCDs .. 222
   2.8  Bistable LCDs ......................................... 224
3  Ferroelectric LCDs ......................................... 227
   3.1  Surface Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal
        Displays .............................................. 227
   3.2  Antiferroelectric LCDs ................................ 229
   3.3  V-Shaped Switching .................................... 230
   3.4  Helix Deformation Mode ................................ 230
4  Reflective LCDs  ........................................... 230
   4.1  Display Modes Using Mirrors ........................... 231
   4.2  Intrinsically Reflective LC Modes ..................... 233
5  Background for Driving LCDs ................................ 234
   5.1  Display Fonts and Formats ............................. 234
   5.2  Matrix LCDs ........................................... 235
   5.3  Electrooptic Response of LCDs ......................... 236
   5.4  Important Display Parameters .......................... 236
   5.5  Static Drive .......................................... 237
6  Addressing of the Passive Matrix LCDs ...................... 237
   6.1  One Line at a Time Addressing Schemes ................. 238
   6.2  Improved Alt and Pleshko Technique .................... 239
   6.3  Brightness Uniformity of Pixels ....................... 241
   6.4  Frame Response ........................................ 242
   6.5  Analogy Between Multiplexing in Communication and
        Matrix Addressing of LCDs ............................. 242
   6.6  Multiline Addressing Techniques ....................... 245
   6.7  Display Drivers ....................................... 248
   6.8  Displaying Restricted Patterns ........................ 251
   6.9  Driving Ferroelectric LCDs ............................ 253
   6.10. Displaying Gray Shades ............................... 254
7  Active Matrix Addressing ................................... 255
   7.1  Amorphous Silicon TFT Based Active Matrix LCDs ........ 256
   7.2  Polysilicon Based AMLCDs  ............................. 256
   7.3  Liquid Crystal on Silicon ............................. 257
   7.4  Plasma Addressed LCDs  ................................ 257
   7.5  Drivers for Active Matrix LCDs ........................ 257
8  Conclusions ................................................ 257
   Acknowledgments ............................................ 258
   References ................................................. 258

Chapter 8. ELECTROCHROMISM FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY DEVICES
P.M.S. Monk
1  Introduction ............................................... 262
   1.1  Electrode Reactions and Color: Electrochromism ........ 262
   1.2  What Electrochromism Is Not ........................... 263
   1.3  The History of Electrochromism  ....................... 263
   1.4  The Causes, Properties, and Amounts of
        Electrochromic Color .................................. 265
   1.5  Criteria and Terminology for ECD Operation ............ 268
   1.6  This Work ............................................. 275
2  Kinetics of ECD Operation .................................. 275
   2.1  Mass Transport ........................................ 275
   2.2  Transport Through Liquid Solutions: Type-I and
        Type-II ............................................... 277
   2.3  Transport Through Solid Type-Ill Electrochromes:
        The Chemical Diffusion Coefficient D .................. 280
3  Applications of Electrochromic Materials ................... 281
   3.1  Electrochromic Car Mirrors ............................ 282
   3.2  Electrochromic Glass ("Smart Windows") ................ 283
   3.3  Electrochromic Data Displays .......................... 284
   3.4  Electrochromic Shutters ............................... 285
   3.5  Miscellaneous Electrochromic Applications ............. 285
4  Construction of ECDs ....................................... 285
   4.1  Fundamentals .......................................... 285
   4.2  Electrodes for ECDs ................................... 286
   4.3  Electrolyte ("Ion Storage") Layers for ECDs ........... 286
   4.4  Cells with Type-I and Type-II Electrochromes .......... 288
   4.5  Cells with Type-Ill Electrochromes .................... 291
   4.6  Photoelectrochromism and ECDs ......................... 292
5  All-Solution Electrochromes: Type 1 ........................ 293
   5.1  Introduction to Type I: The Viologens ................. 294
   5.2  Kinetics of Type-I Electrocoloration .................. 296
   5.3  Other Type-I Electrochromes  .......................... 297
6  Solution-to-Solid Electrochromes: Type II .................. 299
   6.1  Reviews of Type-II Electrochromes ..................... 299
   6.2  Kinetics of Coloration and Bleaching  ................. 299
   6.3  Other Organic Systems ................................. 301
   6.4  Inorganic Systems: Reversible Electrodeposition of
        Metals ................................................ 302
7  All-Solid Electrochromes: Type III ......................... 304
   7.1  Metal Oxides .......................................... 304
   7.2  Hexacyanometallates ................................... 328
   7.3  Conducting Polymers as Electrochromes ................. 333
   7.4  Phthalocyanine Complexes .............................. 347
   7.5  Tethered Electrochromes ............................... 351
8  Electrochromes Exhibiting Specular Reflectance ............. 356
   References ................................................. 357

Chapter 9. APPLICATION OF LASER DIODES AND ULTRABRIGHT LIGHT
EMITTING DIODES FOR STATIC AND TIME-RESOLVED OPTICAL METHODS
IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
S. Landgraf
1. Introduction ............................................... 372
   1.1  Basic Properties of Semiconductor Light Sources ....... 372
   1.2  Properties of Semiconductor Light Sources
   for Time-Resolved Techniques ............................... 376
   1.3  Frequency-Doubled Laser Diode Emission ................ 376
   1.4  Literature Overview ................................... 378
2  Simple Applications of Semiconductor Light Sources ......... 379
   2.1  Absorption Spectrometer ............................... 379
   2.2  Fluorescence Spectrometer ............................. 381
   2.3  Light Emitting Diode as Photodetector ................. 381
3  Time-Resolved Techniques Using Semiconductor Light Sources . 382
   3.1  Pulsed Light Sources/Single-Photon Counting ........... 382
   3.2  Modulation Technique with Commercial Fluorometer ...... 385
   3.3  Modulation Techniques with Lock-In Amplifier .......... 387
   3.4  Modulation Techniques with Digital Storage
        Oscilloscope .......................................... 387
   3.5  Modulation Techniques with Direct Phase Measurement ... 389
   3.6  Other Time-Resolved Techniques ........................ 389
4  Practical Applications of Semiconductor Light Sources ...... 389
   4.1  General Techniques .................................... 389
   4.2  Biochemical Applications .............................. 391
   4.3  Environmental Applications ............................ 392
5  Conclusion ................................................. 393
   Appendix ................................................... 394
   References ................................................. 394

Index ......................................................... 399


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