<B>Chanda M. Plastics technology handbook (Boca Raton [et al.], 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаChanda M. Plastics technology handbook / M.Chanda, S.K.Roy. - 4th ed. - Boca Raton [et al.]: CRC Press: Taylor & Francis, 2007. - 1 vol. (var. pag.): ill. - (Plastics engineering; 72). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind. at the end of the book
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1    Characteristics of Polymers .............................. 1-1
1.1  What Is a Polymer? ....................................... 1-1
1.2  Molecular Weight of Polymers ............................. 1-3
     1.2.1  Number-Average Molecular Weight (Mn) .............. 1-3
     1.2.2  Weight-Average Molecular Weight (Mw) .............. 1-3
     1.2.3  Viscosity-Average Molecular Weight (Mv) ........... 1-4
     1.2.4  Polydispersity Index .............................. 1-4
1.3  Polymerization Processes ................................. 1-6
     1.3.1  Addition or Chain Polymerization .................. 1-6
     1.3.2  Coordination Addition Polymerization ............. 1-11
     1.3.3  Step Polymerization .............................. 1-14
     1.3.4  Supramolecular Polymerization .................... 1-18
     1.3.5  Copolymerization ................................. 1-22
1.4  Configurations of Polymer Molecules ..................... 1-24
1.5  Conformations of a Polymer Molecule ..................... 1-25
1.6  Polymer Crystallinity ................................... 1-26
     1.6.1  Determinants of Polymer Crystallinity ............ 1-27
1.7  The Amorphous State ..................................... 1-28
1.8  Structural Shape of Polymer Molecules ................... 1-29
1.9  Thermal Transitions in Polymers ......................... 1-31
     1.9.1  Tg and Tm ........................................ 1-31
     1.9.2  Regions of Viscoelastic Behavior ................. 1-34
     1.9.3  Factors Affecting Tg ............................. 1-36
            1.9.3.1  Chain Flexibility ....................... 1-36
            1.9.3.2  Steric Effects .......................... 1-37
            1.9.3.3  Configurational Effects ................. 1-37
            1.9.3.4  Effect of Cross-Linking ................. 1-38
     1.9.4  Factors Affecting Tm ............................. 1-38
            1.9.4.1  Symmetry ................................ 1-38
            1.9.4.2  Intermolecular Bonding .................. 1-39
            1.9.4.3  Tacticity ............................... 1-40
            1.9.4.4  Branching, Chain Flexibility, and
                     Molecular Weight ........................ 1-40
     1.9.5  Relation between Tm and Tg ....................... 1-40
1.10 Designing a Polymer Structure for Improved Properties ... 1-40
1.11 Cross-Linking of Polymer Chains ......................... 1-42
     1.11.1 Reactions of Functional Groups ................... 1-42
     1.11.2 Vulcanization .................................... 1-45
     1.11.3 Radiation Cross-Linking .......................... 1-49
     1.11.4 Photochemical Cross-Linking ...................... 1-51
     1.11.5 Ionic Cross-Linking .............................. 1-52
     1.11.1 Solubility Behavior of Polymers .................. 1-53
     1.12.1 Solubility Parameter ............................. 1-53
1.13 Effects of Corrosives on Polymers ....................... 1-60
1.14 Thermal Stability and Flame Retardation ................. 1-63
     1.14.1 Thermal Degradation .............................. 1-67
     1.14.2 Ablation ......................................... 1-69
     1.14.3 Flame Retardation ................................ 1-70
1.15 Deterioration of Polymers ............................... 1-70
     1.15.1 Chemical Deterioration ........................... 1-71
     1.15.2 Degradation by Radiation ......................... 1-74
     1.15.3 Microbiological Deterioration .................... 1-74
1.16 Stabilization of Polymers ............................... 1-75
     1.16.1 Antioxidants and Related Compounds ............... 1-76
     1.16.2 Chemical Structures of Antioxidants .............. 1-78
     1.16.3 Stabilization of Selected Polymers ............... 1-80
            1.16.3.1 Polypropylene ........................... 1-82
            1.16.3.2 Polyethylene ............................ 1-82
            1.16.3.3 Polystyrene ............................. 1-83
            1.16.3.4 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
                     Copolymers .............................. 1-83
            1.16.3.5 Polycarbonate ........................... 1-83
            1.16.3.6 Nylons .................................. 1-83
            1.16.3.7 Thermoplastic Elastomers ................ 1-84
            1.16.3.8 Polyacetal .............................. 1-85
            1.16.3.9 Polyvinyl Chloride) ..................... 1-85
            1.16.3.10 Rubber ................................. 1-86
1.17 Metal Deactivators ...................................... 1-86
1.18 Light Stabilizers ....................................... 1-88
     1.18.1  Light Stabilizer Classes ........................ 1-89
            1.18.1.1 UV Absorbers ............................ 1-90
            1.18.1.2 Quenchers ............................... 1-91
            1.18.1.3 Hydroperoxide Decomposers ............... 1-92
            1.18.1.4 Free-Radical Scavengers ................. 1-93
1.19 Light Stabilizers for Selected Plastics ................. 1-96
     1.19.1 Polypropylene .................................... 1-96
     1.19.2 Polyethylene ..................................... 1-96
     1.19.3 Styrenic Polymers ................................ 1-97
     1.19.4 Polyvinyl Chloride) .............................. 1-97
     1.19.5 Polycarbonate .................................... 1-98
     1.19.6 Polyacrylates .................................... 1-98
     1.19.7 Polyacetal ....................................... 1-98
     1.19.8 Polyurethanes .................................... 1-98
     1.19.7 Polyacetal ....................................... 1-98
     1.19.8 Polyurethanes .................................... 1-98
     1.19.9 Polyamides ....................................... 1-99
1.20 Diffusion and Permeability .............................. 1-99
     1.20.1 Diffusion ....................................... 1-100
     1.20.2 Permeability .................................... 1-100
1.21 Polymer Compounding .................................... 1-101
     1.21.1 Fillers ......................................... 1-103
1.22 Plasticizers ........................................... 1-104
     1.22.1 Phthalic Acid Esters ............................ 1-108
     1.22.2 Phosphoric Acid Esters .......................... 1-108
     1.22.3 Fatty Acid Esters ............................... 1-108
     1.22.4 Polymeric Plasticizers .......................... 1-109
     1.22.5 Miscellaneous Plasticizers ...................... 1-110
1.23 Antistatic Agents ...................................... 1-111
     1.23.1 External Antistatic Agents ...................... 1-111
     1.23.2 Internal Antistatic Agents ...................... 1-112
     1.23.3 Chemical Composition of Antistatic Agents ....... 1-112
            1.23.3.1 Antistatic Agents Containing
                     Nitrogen ............................... 1-113
            1.23.3.2 Antistatic Agents Containing
                     Phosphorus ............................. 1-114
            1.23.3.3 Antistatic Agents Containing Sulfur .... 1-115
            1.23.3.4 Betaine-Type Antistatic Agents ......... 1-115
            1.23.3.5 Nonionic Antistatic Agents ............. 1-115
1.24 Flame Retardants ....................................... 1-115
     1.24.1 Halogen Compounds ............................... 1-116
     1.24.2 Phosphorus Compounds ............................ 1-117
     1.24.3 Halogen-Antimony Synergetic Mixtures ............ 1-118
     1.24.4 Intumescent Flame Retardants .................... 1-119
1.25 Smoke Suppressants ..................................... 1-119
1.26 Colorants .............................................. 1-119
1.27 Antimicrobials ......................................... 1-120
1.28 Toxicity of Plastics ................................... 1-121
     1.28.1 Plastic Devices in Pharmacy and Medicine ........ 1-121
            1.28.1.1 Packing ................................ 1-122
            1.28.1.2 Tubings and Blood Bag Assemblies ....... 1-122
            1.28.1.3 Implants ............................... 1-122
            1.28.1.4 Adhesives .............................. 1-122
            1.28.1.5 Dental Materials ....................... 1-122
            1.28.1.6 Nanomedicines and Drug Delivery ........ 1-123
     1.28.2 Biodegradable Plastics .......................... 1-124
     1.28.3 Oxo-Biodegradable Plastics ...................... 1-124
     1.28.4 Toxicity of Plastic Combustion Products ......... 1-125
     1.28.5 Toxicity Testing ................................ 1-125
     References ............................................. 1-125

2    Fabrication Processes .................................... 2-1
2.1  Types of Processes ....................................... 2-1
2.2  Tooling for Plastics Processing .......................... 2-1
     2.2.1  Types of Mold ..................................... 2-2
     2.2.2  Types of Dies ..................................... 2-2
     2.2.3  Tool Design ....................................... 2-3
2.3  Compression Molding ...................................... 2-4
     2.3.1  Open Flash ........................................ 2-5
     2.3.2  Fully Positive .................................... 2-5
     2.3.3  Semipositive ...................................... 2-5
     2.3.4  Process Applicability ............................. 2-5
2.4  Transfer Molding ......................................... 2-6
     2.4.1  Ejection of Molding ............................... 2-8
     2.4.2  Heating System .................................... 2-8
     2.4.3  Types of Presses .................................. 2-9
     2.4.4  Preheating ........................................ 2-9
     2.4.5  Preforming ....................................... 2-10
     2.4.6  Flash Removal .................................... 2-10
2.5  Injection Molding of Thermoplastics ..................... 2-10
     2.5.1  Types of Injection Units ......................... 2-11
     2.5.2  Clamping Units ................................... 2-13
     2.5.3  Molds ............................................ 2-13
            2.5.3.1  Mold Designs ............................ 2-13
            2.5.3.2  Number of Mold Cavities ................. 2-14
            2.5.3.3  Runners ................................. 2-15
            2.5.3.4  Gating .................................. 2-15
            2.5.3.5  Venting ................................. 2-17
            2.5.3.6  Parting Line ............................ 2-17
            2.5.3.7  Cooling ................................. 2-17
            2.5.3.8  Ejection ................................ 2-17
            2.5.3.9  Standard Mold Bases ..................... 2-18
     2.5.4  Structural Foam Injection Molding ................ 2-18
     2.5.5  Co-Injection (Sandwich) Molding .................. 2-18
     2.5.6  Gas-Assisted Injection Molding ................... 2-20
2.6  Injection Molding of Thermosetting Resins ............... 2-21
     2.6.1  Screw-Injection Molding of Thermosetting Resins .. 2-21
2.7  Extrusion ............................................... 2-22
     2.7.1  Extruder Capacity ................................ 2-23
     2.7.2  Extruder Design and Operation .................... 2-24
            2.7.2.1  Typical Screw Construction .............. 2-24
            2.7.2.2  Screw Zones ............................. 2-24
            2.7.2.3  Motor Drive ............................. 2-25
            2.7.2.4  Heating ................................. 2-25
            2.7.2.5  Screw Design ............................ 2-25
     2.7.3  Multiple-Screw Extruders ......................... 2-28
     2.7.4  Blown-Film Extrusion ............................. 2-28
     2.7.5  Flat Film or Sheet Extrusion ..................... 2-29
     2.7.6  Pipe or Tube Extrusion ........................... 2-32
     2.7.7  Wire and Cable Coverings ......................... 2-33
     2.7.8  Extrusion Coating ................................ 2-33
     2.7.9  Profile Extrusion ................................ 2-34
2.8  Blow Molding ............................................ 2-34
     2.8.1  Extrusion Blow Molding ........................... 2-35
     2.8.2  Injection Blow Molding ........................... 2-35
     2.8.3  Blow Molds ....................................... 2-37
2.9  Calendering ............................................. 2-37
2.10 Spinning of Fibers ...................................... 2-38
     2.10.1 Melt Spinning .................................... 2-39
     2.10.2 Dry Spinning ..................................... 2-40
     2.10.3 Wet Spinning ..................................... 2-40
     2.10.4 Cold Drawing of Fibers ........................... 2-42
2.11 Thermoforming ........................................... 2-42
     2.11.1 Vacuum Forming ................................... 2-42
     2.11.2 Pressure Forming ................................. 2-42
     2.11.3 Mechanical Forming ............................... 2-43
2.12 Casting Processes ....................................... 2-44
     2.12.1 Simple Casting ................................... 2-44
     2.12.2 Plastisol Casting ................................ 2-45
            2.12.2.1 Dip Casting ............................. 2-46
            2.12.2.2 Slush Casting ........................... 2-46
            2.12.2.3 Rotational Casting ...................... 2-47
2.13 Reinforcing Processes ................................... 2-47
     2.13.1  Molding Methods ................................. 2-47
            2.13.1.1 Hand Lay-Up or Contact Molding .......... 2-48
            2.13.1.2 Spray-Up ................................ 2-49
            2.13.1.3 Matched Metal Molding ................... 2-49
            2.13.1.4 Vacuum-Bag Molding ...................... 2-50
            2.13.1.5 Pressure-Bag Molding .................... 2-50
            2.13.1.6 Continuous Pultrusion ................... 2-50
            2.13.1.7 Filament Winding ........................ 2-50
            2.13.1.8 Prepreg Molding ......................... 2-52
     2.13.2  Fibrous Reinforcements .......................... 2-55
            2.13.2.1 Glass Fibers ............................ 2-55
            2.13.2.2 Graphite Carbon Fibers .................. 2-56
            2.13.2.3 Fiber Manufacture ....................... 2-57
            2.13.2.4 Properties and Applications ............. 2-59
            2.13.2.5 Aramid Fibers ........................... 2-59
            2.13.2.6 Applications ............................ 2-60
            2.13.2.7 Extended-Chain Polyethylene Fibers ...... 2-60
2.14 Reaction Injection Molding .............................. 2-62
     2.14.1 Machinery ........................................ 2-64
     2.14.2 Polyurethanes .................................... 2-64
     2.14.3 Nylons ........................................... 2-65
2.15 Structural Reaction Injection Molding ................... 2-65
     2.15.1 Applications ..................................... 2-66
2.16 Resin Transfer Molding .................................. 2-66
2.17 Foaming Processes ....................................... 2-67
     2.17.1 Rigid Foam Blowing Agents ........................ 2-69
     2.17.2 Polystyrene Foams ................................ 2-69
            2.17.2.1 Extruded Polystyrene Foam ............... 2-70
            2.17.2.2 Expandable Polystyrene .................. 2-70
            2.17.2.3 Structural Foams ........................ 2-71
     2.17.3 Polyolefin Foams ................................. 2-72
     2.17.4 Polyurethane Foams ............................... 2-76
            2.17.4.1 Flexible Polyurethane Foams ............. 2-76
            2.17.4.2 Rigid and Semirigid Foams ............... 2-79
     2.17.5 Foamed Rubber .................................... 2-80
     2.17.6 Epoxy Resins ..................................... 2-80
     2.17.7 Urea-Formaldehyde Foams .......................... 2-81
     2.17.8 Silicone Foams ................................... 2-82
     2.17.9 Phenolic Foams ................................... 2-83
     2.17.10 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Foams ...................... 2-83
     2.17.11 Special Foams ................................... 2-86
2.18 Rubber Compounding and Processing Technology ............ 2-88
     2.18.1 Compounding Ingredients .......................... 2-88
            2.18.1.1 Processing Aids ......................... 2-94
            2.18.1.2 Fillers ................................. 2-95
     2.18.2 Mastication and Mixing ........................... 2-96
            2.18.2.1 Open Mill ............................... 2-96
            2.18.2.2 Internal Batch Mixers ................... 2-97
     2.18.3 Reclaimed Rubber ................................. 2-99
     2.18.4 Some Major Rubber Products ...................... 2-100
            2.18.4.1 Tires .................................. 2-100
            2.18.4.2 Belting and Hoses ...................... 2-102
            2.18.4.3 Cellular Rubber Products ............... 2-104
2.19 Miscellaneous Processing Techniques .................... 2-104
     2.19.1 Coating Processes ............................... 2-104
            2.19.1.1 Fluidized Bed Coating .................. 2-106
            2.19.1.2 Spray Coating .......................... 2-106
            2.19.1.3 Electrostatic Spraying ................. 2-106
     2.19.2 Powder Molding of Thermoplastics ................ 2-107
            2.19.2.1 Static (Sinter) Molding ................ 2-107
            2.19.2.2 Rotational Molding ..................... 2-107
            2.19.2.3 Centrifugal Casting .................... 2-108
     2.19.3 Adhesive Bonding of Plastics .................... 2-108
            2.19.3.1 Solvent Cementing ...................... 2-109
            2.19.3.2 Adhesive Bonding ....................... 2-110
            2.19.3.3 Joining of Specific Plastics ........... 2-110
     2.19.4 Welding ......................................... 2-114
            2.19.4.1 Hot-Gas Welding ........................ 2-114
            2.19.4.2 Fusion Welding ......................... 2-114
            2.19.4.3 Friction Welding ....................... 2-115
            2.19.4.4 High-Frequency Welding ................. 2-115
            2.19.4.5 Ultrasonic Welding ..................... 2-115
2.20 Decoration of Plastics ................................. 2-115
     2.20.1 Painting ........................................ 2-116
     2.20.2 Printing ........................................ 2-116
            2.20.2.1 Gravure Printing ....................... 2-116
            2.20.2.2 Flexography ............................ 2-117
            2.20.2.3 Screen Process Printing ................ 2-117
            2.20.2.4 Pad Printing ........................... 2-117
     2.20.3 Hot Stamping .................................... 2-117
     2.20.4 In-Mold Decorating .............................. 2-118
     2.20.5 Embossing ....................................... 2-118
     2.20.6 Electroplating .................................. 2-119
     2.20.7 Vacuum Metallizing .............................. 2-119
     References ............................................. 2-120

3    Plastics Properties and Testing .......................... 3-1
3.1  Introduction ............................................. 3-1
3.2  Mechanical Properties .................................... 3-1
     3.2.1  Stress and Strain ................................. 3-2
     3.2.2  Stress-Strain Behavior ............................ 3-4
     3.2.3  Viscoelastic Behavior of Plastics ................. 3-7
            3.2.3.1  Modulus and Compliance ................... 3-8
     3.2.4  Stress-Strain-Time Behavior ....................... 3-8
            3.2.4.1  The WLF Equations ........................ 3-9
     3.2.5  Creep Behavior ................................... 3-11
     3.2.6  Maxwell Model .................................... 3-12
            3.2.6.1  Stress-Strain Relation .................. 3-13
            3.2.6.2  Generalized Maxwell Model ............... 3-15
     3.2.7  Kelvin or Voigt Model ............................ 3-17
            3.2.7.1  Stress-Strain Relation .................. 3-18
     3.2.8  Four-Element Model ............................... 3-19
     3.2.9  Zener Model ...................................... 3-20
     3.2.10 Superposition Principle .......................... 3-21
     3.2.11 Isometric and Isochronous Curves ................. 3-22
     3.2.12 Pseudoelastic Design Method ...................... 3-23
     3.2.13 Effect of Temperature ............................ 3-26
     3.2.14 Time-Temperature Superposition ................... 3-26
     3.2.15 Dynamic Mechanical Properties .................... 3-28
            3.2.15.1 Maxwell Element ......................... 3-29
            3.2.15.2 Terminology of Dynamic Mechanical
                     Experiments ............................. 3-32
            3.2.15.3 Dynamic Mechanical Behavior at Thermal
                     Transitions ............................. 3-34
     3.2.16 Rheological Behavior ............................. 3-35
            3.2.16.1 Classification of Fluid Behavior ........ 3-36
            3.2.16.2 Effect of Shear Rate on Viscosity ....... 3-39
            3.2.16.3 Effect of Molecular Weight on
                     Viscosity ............................... 3-39
            3.2.16.4 Effect of Temperature on Polymer
                     Viscosity ............................... 3-40
            3.2.16.5 Effect of Pressure on Viscosity ......... 3-41
            3.2.16.6 Wrissenberg Effects ..................... 3-41
            3.2.16.7 Irregular Flow or Melt Fracture ......... 3-42
     3.2.17 Measurement of Viscosity ......................... 3-42
            3.2.17.1 Rotational Viscometers .................. 3-43
            3.2.17.2 Capillary Rheometers .................... 3-44
     3.2.18 Plastics Fractures ............................... 3-46
     3.2.19 Impact Behavior of Plastics ...................... 3-46
     3.2.20 Fatigue of Plastics .............................. 3-50
     3.2.21 Hardness ......................................... 3-52
     3.2.22 Indentation Hardness ............................. 3-52
            3.2.22.1 Brinell Hardness Number ................. 3-52
            3.2.22.2 Vickers Hardness Number ................. 3-53
            3.2.22.3 Knoop Hardness Number ................... 3-53
            3.2.22.4 Rockwell Hardness Number ................ 3-53
            3.2.22.5 Barcol Hardness ......................... 3-53
            3.2.22.6 Durometer Hardness ...................... 3-54
     3.2.23 Rebound Hardness ................................. 3-54
     3.2.24 Scratch Hardness ................................. 3-55
     3.2.25 Stress Corrosion Cracking of Polymers ............ 3-55
3.3  Reinforced Plastics ..................................... 3-57
     3.3.1  Types of Reinforcement ........................... 3-58
     3.3.2  Types of Matrix .................................. 3-58
     3.3.3  Analysis of Reinforced Plastics .................. 3-58
            3.3.3.1  Continuous Fibers ....................... 3-59
            3.3.3.2  Discontinuous Fibers .................... 3-62
            3.3.3.3  Fiber Length Less than Ic ............... 3-64
            3.3.3.4  Fiber Length Equal to Ic ................ 3-65
            3.3.3.5  Fiber Length Greater than Ic ............ 3-65
     3.3.4  Deformation Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced
            Plastic .......................................... 3-66
     3.3.5  Fracture of Fiber-Reinforced Plastics ............ 3-66
            3.3.5.1  Tension ................................. 3-67
            3.3.5.2  Compression ............................. 3-67
            3.3.5.3  Flexure or Shear ........................ 3-67
     3.3.6  Fatigue Behavior of Reinforced Plastics .......... 3-68
     3.3.7  Impact Behavior of Reinforced Plastics ........... 3-68
3.4 Electrical Properties .................................... 3-68
     3.4.1  Dielectric Strength .............................. 3-69
     3.4.2  Insulation Resistance ............................ 3-70
     3.4.3  Arc Resistance ................................... 3-71
     3.4.4  Dielectric Constant .............................. 3-72
            3.4.4.1  Polarization and Dipole Moment .......... 3-74
            3.4.4.2  Dielectric Constant versus Frequency .... 3-76
            3.4.4.3  Dielectric Constant versus
                     Temperature ............................. 3-76
            3.4.4.4  Dielectric Losses ....................... 3-77
            3.4.4.5  Dielectric Losses of Polar Polymers ..... 3-78
3.5  Optical Properties ...................................... 3-78
     3.5.1  Optical Clarity .................................. 3-79
     3.5.2  Index of Refraction .............................. 3-80
     3.5.3  Piped Lighting Effect ............................ 3-81
     3.5.4  Stress-Optical Characteristics ................... 3-83
3.6  Thermal Properties ...................................... 3-83
     3.6.1  Specific Heat .................................... 3-83
     3.6.2  Thermal Expansion ................................ 3-84
     3.6.3  Thermal Conductivity ............................. 3-86
     3.6.4  Transition Temperatures and Temperature
            Limitations ...................................... 3-88
     3.6.5  Standard Properties of Plastics .................. 3-90
3.7  Identification of Common Plastics ....................... 3-91
     3.7.1  Behaviors on Heating and Ignition ................ 3-91
     3.7.2  Tests for Characteristic Elements ................ 3-92
     3.7.3  Specific Tests ................................... 3-95
     References ............................................. 3-102

4    Industrial Polymers ...................................... 4-1
4.1  Introduction ............................................. 4-1
4.2  Part I: Addition Polymers ................................ 4-2
     4.2.1  Polyolefins ....................................... 4-3
            4.2.1.1  Polyethylene ............................. 4-3
            4.2.1.2  Polypropylene ............................ 4-9
            4.2.1.3  Polyallomer ............................. 4-15
            4.2.1.4  Polyvinyl Chloride) ..................... 4-16
            4.2.1.5  Poly(Vinylidene Chloride) ............... 4-24
            4.2.1.6  Polytetrafluoroethylene and Other
                     Fluoropolymers .......................... 4-25
            4.2.1.7  Polyisobutylene ......................... 4-29
            4.2.1.8  Polystyrene ............................. 4-30
            4.2.1.9  Polybutadiene (Butadiene Rubber) ........ 4-31
            4.2.1.10 Polyisoprene ............................ 4-31
            4.2.1.11 Polychloroprene ......................... 4-32
     4.2.2  Olefin Copolymers ................................ 4-32
            4.2.2.1  Styrene-Butadiene Rubber ................ 4-32
            4.2.2.2  Nitrile Rubber .......................... 4-33
            4.2.2.3  Ethylene-Propylene-Elastomer ............ 4-33
            4.2.2.4  Butyl Rubber ............................ 4-35
            4.2.2.5  Thermoplastic Elastomers ................ 4-35
            4.2.2.6  Fluoroelastomers ........................ 4-38
            4.2.2.7  Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer ......... 4-39
            4.2.2.8  Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
                     Terpolymer .............................. 4-39
            4.2.2.9  Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Copolymers
                     (Ionomers) .............................. 4-42
     4.2.3  Acrylics ......................................... 4-43
            4.2.3.1  Polyacrylonitrile ....................... 4-43
            4.2.3.2  Polyacrylates ........................... 4-44
            4.2.3.3  Polymethacrylates ....................... 4-45
            4.2.3.4  Polyacrylamide .......................... 4-47
            4.2.3.5  Poly(Acrylic Acid) and
                     Poly(Methacrylic Acid) .................. 4-48
            4.2.3.6  Acrylic Adhesives ....................... 4-49
     4.2.4  Vinyl Polymers ................................... 4-50
            4.2.4.1  Poly(Vinyl Acetate) ..................... 4-50
            4.2.4.2  Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) ..................... 4-52
            4.2.4.3  Poly(Vinyl Acetals) ..................... 4-53
            4.2.4.4  Poly(Vinyl Cinnamate) ................... 4-53
            4.2.4.5  Poly(Vinyl Ethers) ...................... 4-54
            4.2.4.6  Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone) ................. 4-54
            4.2.4.7  Poly(Vinyl Carbazole) ................... 4-54
     4.3  Part II: Condensation Polymers ..................... 4-55
     4.3.1   Polyesters ...................................... 4-55
            4.3.1.1  Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) ............ 4-55
            4.3.1.2  Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) ............ 4-57
            4.3.1.3  Poly(Dihydroxymethylcyclohexyl
                     Terephthalate) .......................... 4-58
            4.3.1.4  Unsaturated Polyesters .................. 4-59
            4.3.1.5  Aromatic Polyesters ..................... 4-66
            4.3.1.6  Wholly Aromatic Copolyester ............. 4-68
            4.3.1.7  Polycarbonates .......................... 4-69
     4.3.2  Polyamides ....................................... 4-71
            4.3.2.1  Aliphatic Polyamides .................... 4-72
            4.3.2.2  Aromatic Polyamides ..................... 4-80
            4.3.2.3  Polyimides .............................. 4-82
     4.3.3  Formaldehyde Resins .............................. 4-87
            4.3.3.1  Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins .............. 4-88
            4.3.3.2  Urea-Formaldehyde Resins ................ 4-92
            4.3.3.3  Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins ............ 4-96
     4.3.4  Polyurethanes .................................... 4-97
            4.3.4.1  Polyurethane Rubbers and Spandex
                     Fibers .................................. 4-99
            4.3.4.2  Flexible Polyurethane Foam ............. 4-103
            4.3.4.3  Rigid and Semirigid Polyurethane Foams . 4-104
            4.3.4.4  Polyurethane Coatings .................. 4-105
     4.3.5  Ether Polymers .................................. 4-106
            4.3.5.1  Polyacetal ............................. 4-107
            4.3.5.2  Poly(Ethylene Oxide) ................... 4-109
            4.3.5.3  Applications ........................... 4-110
            4.3.5.4  Polypropylene Oxide) ................... 4-112
            4.3.5.5  Epoxy Resins ........................... 4-114
            4.3.5.6  Poly(Phenylene Oxide) .................. 4-126
     4.3.6  Cellulosic Polymers ............................. 4-128
            4.3.6.1  Regenerated Cellulose .................. 4-128
            4.3.6.2  Cellulose Nitrate ...................... 4-129
            4.3.6.3  Cellulose Acetate ...................... 4-130
            4.3.6.4  Other Cellulose Esters ................. 4-131
            4.3.6.5  Cellulose Ethers ....................... 4-131
     4.3.7  Sulphide Polymers ............................... 4-132
            4.3.7.1  Polysulfides ........................... 4-132
            4.3.7.2  Poly(Phenylene Sulfide) ................ 4-133
     4.3.8  Polysulfone ..................................... 4-134
            4.3.8.1  Properties ............................. 4-135
     4.3.9  Polether Ether Ketone ........................... 4-136
     4.3.10 Polybenzimidazole ............................... 4-138
     4.3.11 Silicones and Other Inorganic Polymers .......... 4-139
            4.3.11.1 Silicones .............................. 4-139
            4.3.11.2 Polyphosphazenes ....................... 4-145
            4.3.11.3 Polythiazyl ............................ 4-146
     4.3.12 Polyblends ...................................... 4-146
            4.3.12.1 Prediction of Polyblend Properties ..... 4-150
            4.3.12.2 Selection of Blend Components .......... 4-151
            4.3.12.3 Compatibilization of Polymers .......... 4-152
            4.3.12.4 Industrial Polyblends .................. 4-154
            4.3.12.5 Nanoblends ............................. 4-156
     4.3.13 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks ............... 4-157
            4.3.13.1 Industrial IPNs ........................ 4-159
     References ............................................. 4-159

5    Polymers in Special Uses ................................. 5-1
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 5-1
5.2  High-Temperature and Fire-Resistant Polymers ............. 5-1
     5.2.1  Temperature-Resistant Polymers .................... 5-2
     5.2.2  Fire-Resistant Polymers ........................... 5-4
5.3  Liquid Crystal Polymers .................................. 5-5
     5.3.1  Thermotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers .. 5-11
     5.3.2  Side-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers ............... 5-13
     5.3.3  Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers ........... 5-14
     5.3.4  Properties of Commercial LCPs .................... 5-17
     5.3.5  Applications ..................................... 5-19
5.4  Electroactive Polymers .................................. 5-19
     5.4.1  Filled Polymers .................................. 5-19
            5.4.1.1  EMI Shielding ........................... 5-22
            5.4.1.2  Conductive Coating ...................... 5-24
            5.4.1.3  Signature Materials ..................... 5-25
     5.4.2  Inherently Conductive Polymers ................... 5-26
            5.4.2.1  Doping .................................. 5-28
            5.4.2.2  Conducting Mechanisms ................... 5-33
            5.4.2.3  Applications ............................ 5-35
     5.4.3  Photoconductive Polymers ......................... 5-43
     5.4.4  Polymers in Fiber Optics ......................... 5-44
     5.4.5  Polymers in Nonlinear Optics ..................... 5-47
     5.4.6  Langmuir-Blodgett Films .......................... 5-48
     5.4.7  Piezo-and Pyroelectric Polymers .................. 5-49
            5.4.7.1  Applications ............................ 5-51
     5.4.8  Polymeric Electrolytes ........................... 5-53
5.5  Polymers in Photoresist Applications .................... 5-55
     5.5.1  Negative Photoresists ............................ 5-58
     5.5.2  Positive Photoresists ............................ 5-61
            5.5.2.1  Near-UV Application ..................... 5-61
            5.5.2.2  Mid-and Deep-UV Photoresists ............ 5-63
     5.5.3  Electron Beam Resists ............................ 5-66
     5.5.4  Plasma-Developable Photoresists .................. 5-67
5.6  Photoresist Applications for Printing ................... 5-68
     5.6.1  Printing Plates .................................. 5-68
            5.6.1.1  Relief or Raised-Image Plates ........... 5-68
            5.6.1.2  Photolithography/Planographic Plates .... 5-70
            5.6.1.3  Photogravure ............................ 5-70
     5.6.2  Photoengraving ................................... 5-70
     5.6.3  Printed Circuits ................................. 5-71
     5.6.4  Collotype and Proofing Systems ................... 5-71
5.7  Optical Information Storage ............................. 5-71
5.8  Polymers in Adhesives ................................... 5-72
     5.8.1  Solvent-Based Adhesives .......................... 5-73
     5.8.2  Water-Based Adhesives ............................ 5-75
     5.8.3  Hot Melt Adhesives ............................... 5-76
     5.8.4  Radiation-Curable Adhesives ...................... 5-76
5.9  Degradable Polymers ..................................... 5-77
     5.9.1  Packaging Application ............................ 5-79
     5.9.2  Medical and Related Applications ................. 5-80
            5.9.2.1  Synthetic Polymers ...................... 5-80
            5.9.2.2  Controlled Release Agents ............... 5-81
            5.9.2.3  Tissue Engineering ...................... 5-82
5.10 Ionic Polymers .......................................... 5-84
     5.10.1 Physical Properties and Applications ............. 5-86
            5.10.1.1 Ionic Cross-Linking ..................... 5-86
            5.10.1.2 Ion-Exchange ............................ 5-86
            5.10.1.3 Hydrophilicity .......................... 5-88
     5.10.2 Ionomers ......................................... 5-91
            5.10.2.1 Polyethylene Ionomers ................... 5-91
            5.10.2.2 Elastomeric Ionomers .................... 5-93
            5.10.2.3 Ionomers Based on
                     Polytetrafluoroethylene ................. 5-94
            5.10.2.4 Ionomers Based on Polysulfones .......... 5-96
            5.10.2.4 Ionomers Based on Polysulfones .......... 5-96
     5.10.3 Polyelectrolytes ................................. 5-97
            5.10.3.1  Ion-Exchangers ......................... 5-97
            5.10.3.2  Applications .......................... 5-102
            5.10.3.3 Polycarboxylates ....................... 5-105
            5.10.3.4 Integral Polyelectrolytes .............. 5-105
5.11 Scavenger Resins ....................................... 5-106
5.12 Synthetic Polymer Membranes ............................ 5-107
     5.12.1 Membrane Preparation ............................ 5-107
            5.12.1.1 Wet-Extrusion Process .................. 5-107
            5.12.1.2 Hollow-Fiber Membranes ................. 5-110
     5.12.2 Membrane Modules ................................ 5-111
     5.12.3 Applications .................................... 5-113
5.13 Hydrogels and Smart Polymers ........................... 5-115
     5.13.1 Smart Polymers .................................. 5-117
5.14 Dendritic Polymers ..................................... 5-123
     5.14.1 Applications .................................... 5-124
5.15 Shape Memory Polymers .................................. 5-126
5.16 Microencapsulation ..................................... 5-128
     5.16.1 Processes for Microencapsulation ................ 5-129
            5.16.1.1 Complex Coacervation ................... 5-129
            5.16.1.2 Polymer-Polymer Incompatibility ........ 5-130
            5.16.1.3 Interfacial and in Situ
                     Polymerization ......................... 5-130
            5.16.1.4 Spray Drying ........................... 5-133
            5.16.1.5 Fluidized-Bed Coating .................. 5-134
            5.16.1.6 Co-Extrusion Capsule Formation ......... 5-135
            5.16.1.7 Other Processes ........................ 5-136
     5.16.2 Applications .................................... 5-137
5.17 Polymer Nanocomposites ................................. 5-138
     5.17.1 Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites ........... 5-139
     5.17.2 Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites .......... 5-144
5.18 Wood-Polymer Composites ................................ 5-146
     5.18.1 WPC Feedstocks .................................. 5-147
            5.18.1.1 Wood ................................... 5-147
            5.18.1.2 Plastics ............................... 5-148
            5.18.1.3 Compounded Pellets ..................... 5-148
            5.18.1.4 Additives .............................. 5-148
     5.18.2 Manufacture of WPC Products ..................... 5-148
            5.18.2.1 Compounding ............................ 5-149
            5.18.2.2 Extrusion .............................. 5-149
     5.18.3 Properties of WPC Products ...................... 5-151
     5.18.4 Applications of WPC Products .................... 5-152
5.19 Polymerization-Filled Composites ....................... 5-154
     References ............................................. 5-155

6    Recycling of Polymers .................................... 6-1
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 6-1
6.2  Outline of Recycling Methods ............................. 6-2
6.3  Recycling of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) ............... 6-8
     6.3.1  Direct Reuse ...................................... 6-8
     6.3.2  Reuse after Modification .......................... 6-9
            6.3.2.1  Glycolysis .............................. 6-10
            6.3.2.2  Methanolysis ............................ 6-12
            6.3.2.3  Ammonolysis ............................. 6-12
            6.3.2.4  Hydrolysis .............................. 6-12
            6.3.2.5  Depolymerization in Supercritical
                     Fluids .................................. 6-13
            6.3.2.6  Enzymatic Depolymerization .............. 6-13
     6.3.3  Incineration ..................................... 6-14
6.4  Recycling of Polyurethanes .............................. 6-15
     6.4.1  Thermopressing Process ........................... 6-15
     6.4.2  Kneader Process .................................. 6-16
     6.4.3  Hydrolysis ....................................... 6-17
            6.4.3.1  Glycolysis .............................. 6-17
            6.4.3.2  Ammonolysis ............................. 6-17
6.5  Recycling of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) ...................... 6-19
     6.5.1  Characterization of Used PVC ..................... 6-19
     6.5.2  In-Line PVC Scrap ................................ 6-20
     6.5.3  PVC Floor Coverings .............................. 6-22
     6.5.4  PVC Roofing Sheets ............................... 6-22
     6.5.5  Post-Consumer PVC ................................ 6-22
6.6  Recycling of Cured Epoxies .............................. 6-23
6.7  Recycling of Mixed Plastics Waste ....................... 6-23
     6.7.1  Direct Reuse ..................................... 6-24
     6.7.2  Homogeneous Fractions ............................ 6-27
     6.7.3  Liquefaction of Mixed Plastics ................... 6-27
6.8  Post-Consumer Polyethylene Films ........................ 6-28
6.9  Recycling of Ground Rubber Tires ........................ 6-29
6.10 Recycling of Car Batteries .............................. 6-31
6.11 Plastic Recycling Equipment and Machinery ............... 6-31
     6.11.1 Plastocompactor .................................. 6-32
     6.11.2 Debaling and Initial Size Reduction .............. 6-32
            6.11.2.1 Shredder ................................ 6-33
            6.11.2.2 Cutter or Guillotine .................... 6-33
            6.11.2.3 Screw Shredder .......................... 6-33
            6.11.2.4 Granulators ............................. 6-33
            6.11.2.5 Fine Grinding ........................... 6-34
     6.11.3  Cleaning and Selection .......................... 6-34
            6.11.3.1 Dry Separation .......................... 6-35
            6.11.3.2 Wet Separation .......................... 6-36
            6.11.3.3 Other Methods ........................... 6-37
     6.11.4 Resin Detectors: Type and Configuration .......... 6-37
     6.11.5 Automatic Sortation .............................. 6-39
            6.11.5.1 PVC/PETand Commingled Plastics
                     Sortation ............................... 6-39
     6.11.6 Recycle Installations ............................ 6-41
     References .............................................. 6-41

7    Trends in Polymer Applications ........................... 7-1
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 7-1
7.2  Polymers in Packaging .................................... 7-2
     7.2.1  Retorting ......................................... 7-4
     7.2.2  Asceptic Packaging ................................ 7-4
     7.2.3  Hot-Filling ....................................... 7-5
     7.2.4  Controlled-Atmosphere Packaging ................... 7-5
     7.2.5  High-Barrier Films ................................ 7-5
     7.2.6  Oxygen Scavenger-Based Packaging .................. 7-6
     7.2.7  Plastic Bottles ................................... 7-6
     7.2.8  Chemical Containers ............................... 7-7
     7.2.9  Dual Ovenables .................................... 7-7
     7.2.10 Closures .......................................... 7-8
     7.2.11 Biodegradable Packaging ........................... 7-8
     7.2.12 Pharmaceutics Packaging and Nanomedicines ......... 7-9
     7.2.13 Wood-Plastic Composites .......................... 7-10
7.3  Polymers in Building and Construction
     7.3.1  Roofing .......................................... 7-11
     7.3.2  Flooring ......................................... 7-11
     7.3.3  Windows .......................................... 7-12
     7.3.4  Pipes ............................................ 7-13
     7.3.5  Insulation ....................................... 7-13
     7.3.6  Polymer-Concrete Composites ...................... 7-14
     7.3.7  Wood-Plastic Composites .......................... 7-16
7.4  Polymers in Corrosion Prevention and Control ............ 7-16
     7.4.1  Flue Gas Desulfurization ......................... 7-17
     7.4.2  Chemical Resistant Masonry ....................... 7-17
     7.4.3  Piping Systems ................................... 7-18
     7.4.4  Boiler and Cooling Water Treatment ............... 7-18
     7.4.5  Biodegradable Scale Inhibitor .................... 7-18
     7.4.6  Reinforcing Steel in Concrete .................... 7-19
7.5  Plastics in Automotive Applications ..................... 7-20
     7.5.1  Exterior Body Parts .............................. 7-20
     7.5.2  Interior Components .............................. 7-21
     7.5.3  Load-Bearing Parts ............................... 7-22
     7.5.4  Under-the-Bonnet (Hood) .......................... 7-22
     7.5.5  Future Trends .................................... 7-23
     7.5.6  Polymer Nanocomposites ........................... 7-23
     7.5.7  "Green" Composites ............................... 7-24
7.6  Polymers in Aerospace Applications ...................... 7-25
     7.6.1  Carbon Fibers .................................... 7-25
     7.6.2  Resins ........................................... 7-26
7.7  Polymers in Electrical and Electronic Applications ...... 7-27
     7.7.1  Wire and Cable Insulation ........................ 7-28
     7.7.2  Polymer Insulators ............................... 7-29
     7.7.3  Printed Circuit Boards ........................... 7-29
     7.7.4  Connectors ....................................... 7-29
     7.7.5  Enclosures ....................................... 7-30
     7.7.6  Optical Fibers ................................... 7-30
     7.7.7  Information Storage Discs ........................ 7-31
     7.7.8  Polymeric FET and LED ............................ 7-32
7.8  Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture ................ 7-33
     7.8.1  Plastic Film ..................................... 7-33
     7.8.2  Plastic Crates ................................... 7-34
     7.8.3  Building ......................................... 7-34
     7.8.4  Pipes and Hoses .................................. 7-34
     7.8.5  Greenhouses ...................................... 7-35
7.9  Polymers in Domestic Appliances and Business Machines ... 7-35
     7.9.1  Large Appliances ................................. 7-36
     7.9.2  Small Appliances ................................. 7-37
     7.9.3  Business Equipment ............................... 7-37
     7.9.4  Air Filters ...................................... 7-38
     7.9.5  Solar Systems .................................... 7-38
7.10 Polymers in Medical and Biomedical Applications ......... 7-39
     7.10.1 Medical Packaging ................................ 7-39
     7.10.2 Nontoxic Sterilizable Items ...................... 7-40
     7.10.3 Biodegradable Polymers ........................... 7-41
     7.10.4 Conducting Polymer Nanotubes ..................... 7-41
     7.10.5 Biomimetic Actuators ............................. 7-42
     7.10.6 Dental Resin Composites .......................... 7-43
     7.10.7 Appliances ....................................... 7-43
     7.10.8 Disposables ...................................... 7-43
7.11 Polymers in Marine and Offshore Applications ............ 7-44
     7.11.1 Cables ........................................... 7-44
     7.11.2 Coatings ......................................... 7-44
     7.11.3 Other Applications ............................... 7-45
7.12 Polymers in Sport ....................................... 7-45
     7.12.1 Synthetic Surfaces ............................... 7-45
     7.12.2 Footwear ......................................... 7-46
     7.12.3 Equipment ........................................ 7-46
     References .............................................. 7-47

Appendices
     Al  Trade Names for Some Industrial Polymers ............ Al-1
     A2  Commonly Used Abbreviations for Industrial Polymers . A2-1
     A3  Index of Trade Names, Manufacturers, and Suppliers
         of Antioxidants ..................................... A3-1
     A4  Index of Trade Names, Manufacturers, and Suppliers
         of Metal Deactivators ............................... A4-1
     A5  Index of Trade Names, Manufacturers, and Suppliers
         of Light Stabilizers ................................ A5-1
     A6  Index of Trade Names and Suppliers of Frame
         Retardants .......................................... A6-1
     A7  Index of Trade Names and Suppliers of Foaming
         Agents .............................................. A7-1
     A8  Harmonic Motion of a Maxwell Model .................. A8-1
     A9  Formulations of Flame-Retarded Selection
         Thermoplastics ...................................... A9-1
     A10 Formulations of Selected Rubber Compounds .......... A10-1
     A11 Formulations of Selected PVC Compounds ............. Al1-1
     A12 Formulations of Polyurethane Foams ................. A12-1
     A13 Commercial Polymer Blends and Alloys ............... A13-1
     A14 Conversion of Units ................................ A14-1
     A15 Typical Properties of Polymers Used for Molding
         and Extrusion ...................................... A15-1
     A16 Typical Properties of Cross-Linked Rubber
         Compounds .......................................... A16-1
     A17 Typical Properties of Representative Textile
         Fibers ............................................. A17-1

Index ......................................................... 1-1


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Посещение N 869 c 08.09.2015