Springer handbook of nanomaterials (Berlin; Heidelberg, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS

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ОбложкаSpringer handbook of nanomaterials / ed.: R.Vajtai. - Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. - xxxvi, 1221 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Subject ind.: p.1181-1221. - ISBN 978-3-642-20594-1
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword by Claes-Gцran Granqvist ............................... V
Foreword by Neal Lane ......................................... VII
List of Abbreviations ........................................ XXIX

1  Science and Engineering of Nanomaterials
   Robert Vajtai ................................................ 1
   1.1  History and Definition of Nanomaterials ................. 2
   1.2  Formation of Nanomaterials .............................. 6
   1.3  Properties of Nanomaterials ............................ 10
   1.4  Typical Applications of Nanomaterials .................. 22
   1.5  Concluding Remarks ..................................... 31
   1.6  About the Contents of the Handbook ..................... 31
   References .................................................. 31

Part A  NanoCarbons
2  Graphene - Properties and Characterization
   Aravind Vijayaraghavan ...................................... 39
   2.1  Methods of Production .................................. 42
   2.2  Properties ............................................. 50
   2.3  Characterization ....................................... 58
   2.4  Applications ........................................... 69
   2.5  Conclusions and Outlook
   References .................................................. 74
3  Fullerenes and Beyond: Complexity, Morphology, and
   Functionality in Closed Carbon Nanostructures
   Humberto Terrones ........................................... 83
   3.1  Geometry and Structural Features of Fullerenes ......... 85
   3.2  Methods of Synthesis of Fullerenes and Proposed
        Growth Models .......................................... 88
   3.3  Physicochemical Properties of Fullerenes ............... 90
   3.4  Applications of Fullerenes and Beyond .................. 92
   3.5  Conclusions ............................................ 99
   References .................................................. 99
4  Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
   Sebastien Nanot, Nicholas A. Thompson, Ji-Hee Kim, Xuan
   Wang, William D. Rice, Erik H. Hároz, Yogeeswaran Ganesan,
   Cary L. Pint, Junichiro Kono ............................... 105
   4.l  History ............................................... 106
   4.2  Crystallographic and Electronic Structure ............. 106
   4.3  Synthesis ............................................. 111
   4.4  Optical Properties .................................... 115
   4.5  Transport Properties .................................. 123
   4.6  Thermal and Mechanical Properties ..................... 128
   4.7  Concluding Remarks .................................... 135
   References ................................................. 135
5  Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
   Ácos Kukovecz, Gabor Kozma, loltán Kónya ................... 147
   5.1  Synthesis ............................................. 148
   5.2  Chemistry of MWCNTs ................................... 153
   5.3  Properties ............................................ 157
   5.4  Selected Applications ................................. 163
   References ................................................. 169
6  Modified Carbon Nanotubes
   Aarón Morelos-Gómez, Ferdinando Tristán López, Rodolfo
   Cruz-Silva, Sofia M. Vega Díaz, Mauricio Terrones .......... 189
   6.1  Doped Carbon Nanotubes ................................ 191
   6.2  Defects in Carbon Nanotubes ........................... 193
   6.3  Nanotube Chemical Functionalization ................... 197
   6.4  Properties of Modified Carbon Nanotubes ............... 203
   6.5  Characterization of Modified Carbon Nanotubes ......... 208
   6.6  Applications of Modified Carbon Nanotubes ............. 215
   6.7  Toxicity and Biocompatibility ......................... 218
   6.8  Conclusions ........................................... 220
   6.9  Outlook and Perspectives .............................. 221
   References ................................................. 221
7  Carbon Nanofibers
   Yoong A. Kim, Takuya Hayashi, Morinobu Endo, Mildred
   S. Dresselhaus ............................................. 233
   7.1  Similarity and Difference Between Carbon Fibers
   and Carbon Nanofibers ...................................... 234
   7.2  Growth and Structural Modifications of Carbon
        Nanofibers ............................................ 238
   7.3  Applications of Carbon Nanofibers ..................... 251
   7.4  Conclusions ........................................... 257
   References ................................................. 258
8  Nanodiamonds
   Olga A. Shenderova, Suzanne A. Ciftan Hens ................. 263
   8.1  Stability of Diamond at the Nanoscale ................. 264
   8.2  Types of Nanodiamonds and Methods of Nanodiamond
        Synthesis ............................................. 267
   8.3  Detonation Nanodiamond Processing and Modification .... 278
   8.4  Fluorescent Nanodiamonds .............................. 284
   8.5  Applications of Nanodiamond Particles ................. 285
   8.6  Future Directions of Production and Applications ...... 292
   References ................................................. 293

Part В  NanoMetals
9  Noble Metal Nanoparticles
   Theruvakkattil S. Sreeprasad, Thalappil Pradeep ............ 303
   9.1  Historical Perspective of Gold and Silver NPs ......... 304
   9.2  Diverse Nanostructures ................................ 307
   9.3  Common Synthetic Routes for the Preparation of Noble
        Metal NPs ............................................. 311
   9.4  Properties of Noble Metal Nanoparticles ............... 322
   9.5  Postsynthetic Tuning of Properties .................... 324
   9.6  Functionalized Metal NPs .............................. 343
   9.7  Applications of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles ......... 347
   9.8  New Gold and Silver Materials - Quantum Clusters ...... 363
   9.9  Conclusions ........................................... 366
   References ................................................. 367
10 Nanostructures of Common Metals
   Melinda Mohl, Krisztián Kordás ............................. 389
   10.1 Post-Transition Metals ................................ 390
   10.2 Transition Metals ..................................... 392
   10.3 Concluding Remarks .................................... 398
   References ................................................. 399
11 Alloys on the Nanoscale
   Giovanni Barcaro, Alfredo Caro, Alessandro Fortunelli ...... 409
   11.1 Concepts and Principles ............................... 411
   11.2 Preparation and Synthesis ............................. 413
   11.3 Characterization of Nanoparticles and Nanoalloys ...... 417
   11.4 Properties ............................................ 424
   11.5 Nanostructured Bulk Alloys ............................ 450
   11.6 Applications .......................................... 457
   11.7 Concluding Remarks .................................... 458
   References ................................................. 459
12 Magnetic Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties, and
   Applications
   Shashwat Shukla, Pratap Kumar Deheri, Raju V. Ramanujan ... 473
   12.1 Background ............................................ 414
   12.2 Atomic Origin of Magnetism ............................ 475
   12.3 Magnetic Length Scales and Origin of Nanomagnetic
        Behavior .............................................. 478
   12.4 Magnetic Nanostructures ............................... 483
   12.5 Conclusions ........................................... 505
   References ................................................. 506

Part C Nano Ceramics
13 Nanocrystalline Functional Oxide Materials
   Rakesh Shukla, Dimple P. Dutta, Jayshree Ramkumar,
   Balaji P. Mandal, Avesh K. Tyagi ........................... 517
   13.1 Synthesis Methods ..................................... 518
   13.2 Optical Properties of Oxide Nanomaterials ............. 524
   13.3 Sorbent Properties of Oxide Nanomaterials ............. 532
   13.4 Catalytic Properties of Oxide Nanomaterials ........... 536
   13.5 Oxide Nanomaterials in Ionics ......................... 538
   13.6 Conclusions ........................................... 541
   References ................................................. 542
14 Piezoelectric Nanoceramics
   Xiaohui Wang, Shaopeng Zhang, Longtu Li .................... 553
   l4.1 Introduction to BSPT .................................. 554
   l4.2 Synthesis of BSPT Nanopowders via Sol-Gel Method ...... 555
   14.3 Sintering of BSPT Nanoceramics ........................ 556
   l4.4 Grain Size Effect on the Properties of BSPT Ceramics .. 563
   14.5  Summary .............................................. 567
   References ................................................. 568
15 Graphite Oxide
   Wei Gao .................................................... 571
   15.1 Synthesis of Graphite Oxide ........................... 572
   15.2 Characterization, Chemical Structure and Properties ... 576
   15.3 Applications .......................................... 589
   15.4 Concluding Remarks .................................... 592
   References ................................................. 592
16 Compound Crystals
   Roi Levi, Maya Bar-Sadan, Reshef Tenne ..................... 605
   16.1 Nanostructures ........................................ 605
   16.2 Synthetic Methods ..................................... 608
   16.3 Physical Properties ................................... 618
   16.4 Applications .......................................... 628
   16.5 Conclusions ........................................... 630
   References ................................................. 631
17 Growth of Nanomaterials by Screw Dislocation
   Fei Meng, Stephen A. Morin, Song Jin ....................... 639
   17.1 Classical Crystal Growth Theories ..................... 640
   17.2 Theories for Screw-Dislocation-Driven Growth of
        Nanomaterials ......................................... 642
   17.3 Structural Characterization of these Nanomaterials .... 645
   17.4 Generality of Dislocation-Driven Nanomaterial Growth .. 649
   17.5 Rational Growth of Dislocation-Driven Nanomaterials -
        General Strategies .................................... 658
   17.6 Applications .......................................... 659
   17.7 Summary and Perspectives .............................. 660
   References ................................................. 661
18 Glasses on the Nanoscale
   Hellmut Eckert, Sidney J.L. Ribeiro, Silvio H.
   Santagneli, Marcelo Nalin, Gael Poirier, Younès Messaddeq .. 665
   18.1 Studying Medium-Range Order in Glasses and
        Nanoceramics .......................................... 666
   18.2 Nanoceramics .......................................... 676
   18.3 Perspectives and Concluding Remarks ................... 684
   References ................................................. 685

Part D  NanoComposites
19 Carbon in Polymer
   Robert J. Young, Libo Deng, Lei Gong, Ian A. Kinloch ....... 695
   19.1 Materials Basics ...................................... 695
   19.2 Carbon Nanotube Composites ............................ 702
   19.3 Graphene Composites ................................... 716
   19.4 Conclusions ........................................... 722
   References ................................................. 722
20 Nanoparticle Dispersions
   Krisztián Kordás, Jarmo Kukkola, Géza Toth, Heli
   Jantunen, Maria Szabó, András Sápi, Ákos Kukovecz, Zoltán
   Kónya, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola .................................. 729
   20.1 Stabilization of Nanoparticle Dispersions ............. 730
   20.2 Nanoparticle Dispersion in Practice ................... 734
   20.3 Dispersions of Carbon Nanomaterials ................... 745
   20.4 Drying Dispersions on Surfaces ........................ 752
   20.5 Concluding Remarks .................................... 758
   References ................................................. 758

Part E  Nanoporous Materials
21 Nanoporous Metals
   Yi Ding, Zhonghua Zhang .................................... 779
   21.1 Preparation of Nanoporous Metals ...................... 779
   21.2 Properties of Nanoporous Metals ....................... 789
   21.3 Applications .......................................... 808
   21.4 Concluding Remarks and Prospects ...................... 810
   References ................................................. 811
22 Zeolites
   István Pálinkó, Zoltán Kónya, Ákos Kukovecz, Imre Kiricsi .. 819
   22.1  Common Zeolite Frameworks ............................ 822
   22.2 Zeolite and Zeolite-Related Molecular Sieves .......... 823
   22.3 Natural Zeolites: Occurrence and Formation ............ 825
   22.4 Methods of Identification and Characterization ........ 828
   22.5 Synthesis of Zeolitic Materials ....................... 830
   22.6 Ion Exchange, Sorption, and Diffusion in Microporous
        Materials ............................................. 836
   22.7 Acid-Base Properties of Zeolites ...................... 841
   22.8 Stability and Modification of Zeolite Structures ...... 843
   22.9 Zeolites as Catalysts ................................. 846
   22.10 Some Special Applications of Zeolites ................ 848
   22.11 Conclusions .......................................... 850
   References ................................................. 850
23 Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide
   Qiaoling Xu, Guowen Meng ................................... 859
   23.1 Background ............................................ 859
   23.2 Preparation of AAO Templates .......................... 860
   23.3 Nanostructures Constructed in AAO Templates ........... 862
   23.4 Conclusions and Outlook ............................... 879
   References ................................................. 879
24 Porous Silicon
   Paolo Bettotti ............................................. 883
   24.1 Basics of Porous Silicon Electrochemistry and
        Formation Models ...................................... 884
   24.2 Other Etching Methods ................................. 886
   24.3 Porous Silicon Structural Properties .................. 887
   24.4 Light Emission from Porous Silicon .................... 890
   24.5 Thermal and Electrical Properties ..................... 891
   24.6 The Role of the Surface ............................... 891
   24.7 Applications of Porous Silicon ........................ 892
   24.8 Conclusions ........................................... 897
   References ................................................. 898

Part F Organic and Bionanomaterials
25 Organic Nanomaterials
   Huanli Dong, Wenping Нu .................................... 905
   25.1 Preparation/Synthesis of Organic Nanomaterials ........ 905
   25.2 Properties of Organic Nanomaterials ................... 910
   25.3 Applications .......................................... 925
   25.4 Concluding Remarks .................................... 930
   References ................................................. 932
26 Nanocomposites as Bone Implant Material
   Vinod Kumar, Bipul Tripathi, Anchal Srivastava, Preeti
   S. Saxena .................................................. 941
   26.1 The Quest for a Suitable Bone Implant ................. 942
   26.2 Bone .................................................. 942
   26.3 Existing/Conventional Bone Implant Materials and
        Their Shortcomings .................................... 944
   26.4 Major Challenges with Existing/Conventional Implant
        Materials ............................................. 949
   26.5 Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering ................. 949
   26.6 Future Perspectives ................................... 965
   References ................................................. 965
27 Nanofiber Biomaterials
   Rachelle N. Palchesko, Yan Sun, Ling Zhang, John M.
   Szymanski, Quentin Jallerat, Adam W. Feinberg .............. 977
   27.1 Methods of Production ................................. 980
   27.2 Properties of Nanofiber Biomaterials .................. 986
   27.3 Characterization of Nanofiber Biomaterials ............ 993
   27.4 Applications .......................................... 999
   27.5 Conclusions and Outlook .............................. 1005
   References ................................................ 1006

Part G  Applications and Impact

28 Nanostructured Materials for Energy-Related Applications
   Arava L.M. Reddy, Sundara Ramaprabhu ...................... 1013
   28.1 Energy-Related Carbon Nanotubes ...................... 1013
   28.2 CNTs as Support Material for Electrocatalysts in
        PEMFC ................................................ 1016
   28.3 CNTs as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials ........... 1023
   References ................................................ 1032
29 Nanomaterials in Civil Engineering
   Jaesang Lee, Seunghak Lee, Eunhyea Chung, Vincent
   C. Reyes, Shaily Mahendra ................................. 1039
   29.1 Applications of MNMs in Construction ................. 1041
   29.2 Environmental Release of MNMs Used in Construction ... 1047
   29.3 Potential Adverse Biological Impacts and Toxicity
        Mechanisms ........................................... 1049
   29.4 Mitigation of Environmental and Health Impacts ....... 1052
   29.5 Conclusions .......................................... 1054
   References ................................................ 1055
30 Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Nanomedicine
   Renat R. Letfullin, Thomas F. George ...................... 1063
   30.1 Introduction ......................................... 1063
   30.2 Nanooptics - Lorenz-Mie Formalism .................... 1064
   30.3 Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles in
        Biological Media ..................................... 1065
   30.4 Kinetics of Heating and Cooling of Nanoparticles ..... 1067
   30.5 Spatial Distribution of Temperature Fields Around
        the Nanoparticle ..................................... 1076
   30.6 New Dynamic Modes in Selective Plasmonic
        Nanotherapy .......................................... 1083
   References ................................................ 1095
31 Carbon Nanotube Membrane Filters
   Anchal Srivastavo, Saurabh Srivastova, Kaushik Kalaga ..... 1099
   31.1 Types of Filtration .................................. 1100
   31.2 Mechanisms of Filtration ............................. 1101
   31.3 Carbon Nanotube Membrane Filters ..................... 1102
   31.4 Future Research Perspectives ......................... 1112
   References ................................................ 1112
32 Nanomaterial Toxicity, Hazards, and Safety
   Zuzanna A. Lewicka, Vicki L. Colvin ....................... 1117
   32.1 Engineered Nanomaterials - General Overview .......... 1118
   32.2 Occurrence of Engineered Nanoparticles in the
        Environment .......................................... 1119
   32.3 Effects of Nanoparticles on Organisms ................ 1120
   32.4 Nanoparticle Physicochemical Characteristics of
        Relevance for Toxicology ............................. 1124
   32.5 Special Case - Sunscreens ............................ 1130
   32.6 Conclusions .......................................... 1132
   References ................................................ 1133

Acknowledgements ............................................. 1143
About the Authors ............................................ 1145
Detailed Contents ............................................ 1163
Subject Index ................................................ 1181


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